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A R Y 



AE 52 



Highlight for 
ANUARY 1956 


G. J. Sharpe 


(C.P.R. PhotograPh) 





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Daily specification of meat in the infant diet is 
important for the complete proteins necessary for 
growth, and the development of all body structures. 
Gerber Strained 
Jeats make it possible for the 
mother to follow your specifications without burden- 
ing her budget, since they cost far less than home- 
prepared meats for infants. Less than half in some 


Gerber Meats offer other advantages. :Made of 
selected cuts, they're specially processed for high 
retention of vitamin and mineral nutrients often lost 
in home cooking. Low in fat value . . . and free of 
the sinew and coarse fiber almost impossible to 
eliminate in meats scraped and sieved at home. 
6 savory varieties to stimulate appetite interest . . . 
simplify mealtime planning. BEEF . VEAL . PORK · 


Babies are our business . . . our onl y business! 

 I :. 







(J 11 N 11 D I A N 
N U R S E 



Volume 52 



' A





Index to '''olume 52 

January - December 1956 

The material in this Index is arranged under subjects, authors, and titles. Titles are 
given in full with the author's name. 
The following abbreviations appear in this Index: 

(rev. ) 

- Canadian Nurses' Association 
- editorial 
- International Council of Nur
- portrait 
- book review 

The page numbers for Volume 52 are shown below: 

J anuary .................................................................. pp. 1- 80 
February ............................................................ pp. 81-160 
). [a rc h . ......................................................_............. pp. 161- 24Q 
.\ p ril ........................................................................ pp. 241-320 
),[ ay . .......................................................................... pp. 321-408 
J une ........................................................................... pp. 409-504 

J uly ......................................-................................. pp. 505 - 584 
.\ugust .................................................................. pp. 585 - 6ï2 
September ...................................................... pp. 6i3 - ï68 
October ............................................................... pp. 769 - 856 
Xovember _........................................................ pp. 85ï - 936 
Decem ber ......................................................... pp. 93i -1024 


.\CCIDEXT pre\-ention: 
Role of the industrial nurse in (GreviIle), 
.\CCREDITATlOX and evaluation, 280, 695 
Let's look at, 368 
OÙ en sommes-nous (
fcQuarrie), 444 
Pilot study, ï36 
Resolutions regarding, 697 
\Yhat's on the record (1[cQuarrie), ++3 
.\CCREDITATION où en sommes-nous 
[cQuarrie), 4-14 
.\CCREDITATIOX - what's on the record 
IcQuarrie ), 443 
.\D\T:'HL"RES in science teaching (Alderson), 
AIDs to surgical nursing (Armstrong), 
(rev.), 990 
.\ LBERT A : 
),[edicine Hat General Hospital, 980 
)Jews notes, 62, 144, 224, 299, 389, 4ï2, 
557, 649, i52, 992 
Provincial association activities, 441 
Student nurses' association of, 212 
.\LDERSON, Henrietta J. 

-\dventures in science teaching, 2il 
\LÐRICH, C. Anderson (Aldrich) 
nobies are hU/1/on beings (rev.), 216 
.\LDRIC H. )'Iary 
L (Aldrich) 
Ba/Jies are hU/1/an beings (rev.), 216 
.\1.1 E:". 
Yenture in field e"perience for graduate 
nurses, 2i6 
AXil the world too (
fc\rthur), i03 

\ X DERSON. Bernice E. (Lesnik) 
Xursinq I'll/dice and the low (rev.), 556 
.\ X DERSON, Florence 
1. (rev.), 56 

AKKUAL meetings: 

 ew Brunswick (Archibald), 130 
Prince Edv,.ard Island (Bolger), 50, 984, 
Saskatchewan (\Yilson), 898 
.\PPLETOX, Joan & por., 839 
.-\nnual meeting in X ew Brunswick, 130' 
ARE we equal to Our future (Sanders)', 
( ed.), 781 
AR:\lsTRONG, Katherine F. 

-Jids to surgical nursing (rev.), 990 
fargaret G. & por., 214, 693 
Impro\'ing nursing service, 869 
ARRAXGE"IENTS committee, report of, 288 
.\RTHRITlS and rheumatism: 
Rheumatoid arthritis (Ziehran), 448 
ATTITUDES in pSj'chiotric nursing core 
( \ Veiss), ( rev. ), 385 
A,L'XILIARY nursing: 
Orderly training program (Richmond),. 
:\ \ ERY, )'Iavis L., 368, 458 


BABIES arc hU/1/on beings (Aldrich, Aldrich),. 
(rev. ), 216 
B 'ULEY, Hamilton 
De/1/onstrotions of operative surgery 
(rev.), 218 
BAKER, Jean (rev.), 216 
BAxDL's ring (Foster. .McLeod, Palframan, 
Shouldice). 266 
B.\ XGHA::\I, :\[arv Dickerson 
\ thought fur spring (poem), 256 
B.\RKFR, Gladys 
Dish-\\'ashing center, 380 


] X D EXT () Y 0 L C :\1 E 3 2 

BELL, Daphne 
""hen a nurse has diabete
, 627 
BELL, Louise Price 
Counterpane land. 107 
K.P. for double-duty homemakers. 
BEXTLEY, T. J.. 689 
Saskatchewan's expanding health services, 
OIKS de l'écolier en matière de santé 
( Ranger), 52 
BIEX""IAL convention. 1956: 
.-\re we equal to our future (Sanders), 
( ed. ), 781 
Fun On trains (Steed), 185 

Irs. Toohev at the booth (pOL), 691 
Official notice (Stiver), 356 
Registration reaches new high, 734 
Report of the arrangements committee, 288 
Sommes-nous en mesure de faire face à 
I'avenir (Sanders), (ed.). 785 
Tentative program for. 284 
\ Yhat about vacation plans (Collins), 109 
""hv attend the C
 ,-\, (Carmel), (ed.), 
BIETSCH, Elizabeth 
Graduation pictures, 980 
BIFOCAL approach (Sinclair), 880 
BIRTH of il/dustrial nursing (Charley), 
(rev.), 218 
BIXLER, Genevieve K, 550 
BLACK, J. (Skerry, 
IacLean, Kennedy, 

lacDonald ) 
Radioactive isotopes. 800 
L (rèv.), 290 
BLAKE, Florence G. (Jeans. \Vright) 
Esscntials 0/ pediatrics (rev.). 218 
BLOOD conditions: 
Chromosome deletion in the Rh genotype 
(Graves), 18 
Leukemia ( Schweisheimer ), 724 
Quelques considérations sur l'anémie et les 
états anémiques (Tessier), 728 
BLOOD pressure: 
Hypotension (Schweisheimer), 53 
Bou;ER, Helen L. 
Annual meeting in Prince Ed\\ ard Island, 
50, 984 
BOYD, Annie Black & por., 543 
BRAGDON, Jane Sherburn (Emerson) 
Essentials of medicil/c (rev.), 56 
BRAGDOX, Jane Sherburn (Sholtis) 
Teaching mcdical al/d surgical Ilursil/g 
(rev.>. 56 
BRAXDOX. Katherine, 46, 62 
BRAxIOK, 0., 563 
BREATH of pain (Bromage). 45 
BREGG, Elizaheth 
Psychiatric nursing. 183 
BRIDGES, Daisy, 548 
to Roval Commission on the economic 
future of Canada, 366, 548, 690 
BRITISH Columbia: 
Xews notes, 63, 149, 225, 299, 389, 473, 
559, 650, 753, 
38, 920, 994 
Provincial association activities, 441 
Public health nursing sen"ice: appoint- 
ments. transfers, resignations, 296, 915 
Breath of pain, 45 
BROOKS. E. L. (re\".). ï47 

BRow". Esther Lucille 
Social sciences and imprcl\"ement of patient 
care, 175 
BRO\\':'''-, Esther Lucille ( Greenblatt, York) 
From t'ustodial to therapeutic þatiell! care 
iI/ mcntal 1 lOspitais (reL), 912 
BRO\\'XE, O'Donel 
Rotll//(hl tcxtbaok of 'll'idü'ifcry for nurses 
( rev. ), 54 
BRYC'E, Margaret 
PI,,'sit'al thcraÞ\' after amputatiol/.. the 
treatment of'the IInill1tcral 1000
ocr ex- 
trcmit,. omputcc, (reL), 385 
BCLLOCK. )oyce ("'right) 

Ieconium ileus. 193 
Salles pour enfants brÙlés (Tanner), 383 
Bt.-TLER. Ethelvn 
From little -acorns, 31 


C\'nccolo(1\' for senior studcnts of nursmg 
- (re\ .): .216 
CAU"E, Carmen 
L'infirmière en obstétrique. 742 
CUIEROX, Charles S. 
Trllth about cancer (rev.), 990 
CA:\I PBELL, D. L., 687 
CUIPIOX, F. Lillian, 822 
Orientation, 447 
Toward better nursing, 693 
CA:\IPKIK, Joyce B. (rev.), 56 
urse award. 648, &)0 
C'\KADIAX Xurses' :\,ssociation: 
Brief to the Roval Commission, 366. 548, 
690 - 
Committee manual. 981 
X ational committee chairmen. 822 
1\ urses: their education and their role 111 
health programs, 347, 696, 791 
Ticket of nominations, 376 
Yearhook of modern nursing, contribution 
to, 548 
C.-\XADIAX Red Cross Sùcietv: 
Appointments, transfers. resignations, 60 
Epidermoid carcinoma (,,- atanabe), 534 
Leukemia (Schweisheimer). 724 
Service social et Ie cancer l Chamard), 268 
CAPLAX. Hyman (Dimock) 
Student nurse in a pediatric setting, 959 
CAR:\IFL. Sister Theresa (por.). 255 
\\"hy attend the CX.-\ convention, (ed.), 
C -\RPEXTER, Helen 
I. &. pOL. 804 
Legislation and byJa \\"s, 691 
C.\RTER. G. B. 
Some considerations on the basic nur
curriculum, 357 
C-\\"ELL, Cynthia. 3R 
c.-\\ ERXOCS sinus thrombosis (Lawton, 
Hobin), 120 
CECELIA, Sister 
Iary .-\nn 
Child \\ ith laryngotracheo bronchitis. 351 
CHA:\IARIJ, Ghislaine 
Service sucial et Ie cancer. 268 
CHAXGE of address information. 676 
CHAXGI"G attitude
 (Phillips). ï08 
C H.-\ I'TER l11eeti ngs, ideas for, 898 


THE C _ -\ 
 _-\ D I . \ X X C R S E 

CH.\RLH, Irene H. 
Birfh of illd/lstrial Ilursillg (rey.), 218 
CHILD in hospital (Faughnan), 956 
CHILl) with laryngotracheo bronchitis 
( Cecelia ), 35] 
CHITTICK. Rae, 695 
CJIRmlOso:\IE deletion in the Rh genot) pe 
(Gran's), 18 
CHRISDIAS in Korea (.\fc.\rthur), (eel.), 
CIRCl'LA TORY svstem: 
For the man" of the future, 836 
CI\ìL defence: 
In time of need DfacGregor), 51ï 
Integration of, nursing into the basic 
curriculum, 4ï 
Xurses' role in, 186 
Panel discussion at biennial. 696 
Preparation for natural disasters, 454 
CURK. Jeanie S. (rev.), ]40 
CI ARKE, Fred 
Life, profession and school, 530, ó40. ï]5 
COCKA YXE, Elizabeth, ï90 
COHEX, Fay (rev.), 384 
COLLIXS, Ethe] .\nnstrong 
\Yhat about yacation plans. 109 
COLDIKILI E. Sister. 4ï4 
CO:\l:\w,\;" sense safety precautions, ïl4 
CO\l:\lCXICABLE diseases: 
Scarlatine plus endomyocardite (Payer), 
Staphylococcal pneumonia <- Demko). 9ï] 
COXFCSIXG notions of mental health 
(Stokes), 519 
COXSEILS à une étudiante devant faire un 
stage à la salle d'opération (Lupien), 832 
COK\'EXTJOX f)ersonalities: 
.\rnstein, .\fargaret G., 214 
Sanders, Byrne Hope. 350 

lildred E., 438 
Sinclair, .\elelaide, 214 
COTE, Lucille & por., 38 
COl"XTERPAXF land (Bell), 107 
Cox, Dorothy & por.. 199 
CR '\ \\"FORD, .\nnie Laurie (Kilander) 
Xltrsill!! IIl/IIlltal for psJ'clliatric aides 
( reY. ), 4ó8 
CRFATIn: nursing (Schwier), 8ï5 
farie C. 
.\ women's aUèl.iliary in action, 25 
CROCSE, Vivian 
I nfirmières des salles d'opération, 198 
Operating room nurses, 198 
CRO\V, A. (Crow, Skinner) 
PSJ'cllOlo!!)' ill Illtrsill!! practice (rev.), 466 
CROW, L. (Crow, Skinner) 
Ps)'chuloy)' in nursing practice (rev.), 466 
.\Iental health for nurses, 95 
CCl\ßIIXS, Jean .\. (rev.), 2]8 
Direction in regard to, 126 
Some considerations on the basic nursing, 
( Carter), 357 
ClJRRICLIX:\I stud" ill basic nursing educa- 
tioJ/ (Sand), (rev.), 219 


DALTOX, .\nn 
.\{y complaints. ] 97 

D -\ \"ID. Paul 
L'évolution de la cardiologie et ses pro- 
blème:-., 2], 101 
DE 1..\ SAGESSE, Soeur Yalerie & par., 9ï8 
DE LOYOLA, Sister .\Iary & por., 543 
DE '\10XTFORT. Soeur Xoémi & por., 977 
ALES, Sister 
fary Frances, 805 
lJDI KO, Clara 
Staphylococcal pneumonia, 971 
DE\IOXSTRATIO'\;"S of operathoe surgery 
(Bailey). (rev.), 218 
DEXTAL hygiene: 
Fluorida tion, 1 ï9 
DEI{SCO, Marv 
Diahetes niellitus, 6] 7 
DF.sJ ARIIIXS, P., 4i5 
Diabetes mellitus (Dersco), ()lï 
""hen a nurse has diabetes (Bell), 62ï 
DIABETES mellitus (Dersco), 617 
DICK, Dorothy (rev.) 0 288 
DnJOcK. Hedley G. 
'Process notes on the \\'C)rk conference, 951 
n nIOC K, H edlt'y G. ( Caplan) 
Student nurse in a pediatric setting, 959 
DJOx, Sneur .\nnette 
Expéril11entation dans Ie domaine de l'édu- 
cotion de l'infinnière. 445 
DISC lesions: 
.\1 anagement of lumbar inten"ertehral 
(Rosen). 423 
X ursing care of patients with lumbar in- 
tervetebral, (.\lacTavish, 11acQuarrie), 
H-\Y\SHIKG ct'nter (Barker), 380 
DISTRICT nurse knows bptter (l
irk), 180 
DIXOX, Nancy. 550 
DODKIX, R. (Richards) 
ing nephritis, 53ï 
ter .\larv 
Glomerulonephritis, i 12 
\chrocidin tablets, 943: .\ctylasec, -l]4; 
.\lhamycin capsules, i7-l: .\ll11a C, 6; 
.\mbar. 6; .\l11yotensin, 512; Analep- 
tone. elixir. 328: .\natensin forte. 680; 
Antrenvl, 5]2: .\zo-gantrisin, 680 
Bactisl1bÜI. Q43: Barbidex. 942; Bionet 
drops, 166; Bonadoxin, 774; Bonamine 
tablets. 680; Bontril. 6; Bronchyl D, 
414: Bl1tiserpine, 328; ButisoJ. 166 
CaIcidrine syrup with codeine, 942; Can- 
dette:-., 328 : Centrine inj ection, 590 ; 
Cerevon tahlets, elixir, 510; Colace. 590; 
Colforos, 246; Colisal-H, 328: Colisone, 
166:, Colisvl plain, 942: COl11bistrep 
ïï4; ConsÍiban, 6RO; Convenil, 5]0; 
Cordex tablets, ï74: Coricidin forte 
capsules, 590; Coroserp, 246; Cytoferin, 
Debiline-hol11atrophine, 942; Deltra tablets, 
6; Denabvl, 942; Dexavite, 680: Dexo- 
hist, 510: Diacitrin, 414; Diaparene 
lotion, 240; DicosaJ. 166: Dicurin pru- 
cain solution. 328; Dilanca, 414; Dithri- 
tol, 7ï4; Dolorub, 24ó; Drapolene, 590 
Ebsophyllin-R. 6; Encote \.S..
., 6; En- 
terobiotic tablets, 240; Equal1ll, 246 
Falgos, 942; Fiorinal, 330; Fleet enema, 
ïï4: Fle"\.in, 590; Frenquel hydro- 
chloride, 88 


I X D EXT 0 \ - 0 L U :àI E 5 2 

Gamadyne Ko. 1, Xo. 2, No.3, 166; 
Gamatuss, 166: Gelusil-Iac, 41-1-; Gold 
sodium thiosulphate, 166; Gravol long 
acting, 591 
Bemo coavit, 330; Hexaphenyl. 88; 
Honvol, 41-1-; Hydro dyne, 942; Hyptrol 
spansule, 863; Hylenta tablets, 168 
Ibacide cream, 776; LD.l\I., 510; Influenza 
virus vaccine polyvalent, 168 
J uvalin, 330 
k-C tablets, 88 
Ledercillin tablets, 943; Liquid sobee. 168 
aler-epi, 776; Medomin, 510; Mega- 
Clllm drops, 863 ; Mephenesin, 510 ; 
.lferatran with reserpine, 511; Mestinon, 
510; Meticortelone acetate, 592; .lIeti- 
derm with neomycin ointment, 680 ; 
1Iigraine tablets, 86; Mycostatin oint- 
ment, 415 
X embu-serpin, 86: K eo-barb dures tablets. 
678; N eo-cortef lotion 1 %, 591; N eo- 
tensol, 331; )J euro-centrine tablets, 88; 
X eutra detergent cake, 168; N eutratar 
shampoo, 168 
Pabalate- HC, 168; Pacatal, 678; Parasal- 
S.A. C INH, 678; Parenzymol, 415; 
Paynocil, 511; Pectorea, 168' Persistin 
678; Placidyl, 86; (PR) cor
alent, 680; 
Protost in oil, 6; Protovab, 776 
Relissen, 415; Rhulisprav, 863' Ritalin 
246 -" 
Sabol, 590; Sedrate, 6; Sedwt'll, 88 . 

!romycin crystalline, 862' Set patilin' 
1/6; Sertens. 678; Sign;agen. 330 ; 
Sparine, 678; Statimo, 86: Strepto- 
hydrazid, 862: Styrion, 862; Sulfacet 
suspension, 862; Sustagen 416' Suvren 
776 '" 
Tarcortin cream, 331: Tes-tape, 862; 
Tetracyn-SF, 416: Thiosulfil solution, 
415; Thyama timesules, 168; Tolerin, 
591; Tolox expectorant, 512; Tranplex, 
; Trawil capsule, 88; Tridal, 591; 
Tnethylene melamine tablets. 248; 
Tronolen lotion. 511: Trulfacillin tab- 
lets, 862; Trypsogen, 88; Tvlandril 
864; TYLine nasal spray, 416 - , 
l) rosulfa, 248 
\-almid, 86; V-Cillin, 328; Yeratrite-R, 
41-1-; V oyagol, 511 
Xylocaine viscous, 86 
Zyljectin ampoules, í76 


- \re we equal to our future (Sanders) 781 
Christmas in Korea (1IcA rthur ), 9-1-9 
F or
y years of pilgrimage (Russell), 173 
In tIme of need (ßIacGregor), 517 
enior citizens (\Vilson), 421 
Pratne convt'ntion, 687 
Salaam aliakum (Sharpe), 13 
Service, responsibility, nurture, action 
(MacKenzie), 337 
Sonllnes-nous en mesure de faire face à 
l'avenir (Sanders), 785 
Tomorrow's pattern (Sharpe), 597 
Too few for too many (Girard), 93 
\Yhy attend the CKA convention 
(Carmel), 255 

Fluid balance (Partington). 262 
, E. L. (F erguson, Sholtis) 
Surgical llltrSiHg (rev.), 56 
, Charles Phillips (Bragdon) 
EsscIltials of mcdicine (rev.), 56 
ENFANT est né trop tõt (Saint-Martin), 3-tS 
IOID carcinoma ("- atanabe), 534 
ESSENTIALS of medicine (Emerson, Brag- 
don), (rev. ), 56 
ESSENTT ALS of pediatrics (Jeans, \\T right, 
Blake), (rev.), 218 
ETHICAL religious needs of the patient 
(Frumkin), 263 
E\'AXS. Ruth E. 
Greenhorn on the frontier, 97-1- 
E\OLCTION de la cardiologie et ses problèmes 
(David), 21, 101 
EXPERDIENTATIOX dans Ie domaine de rédu- 
cation de l'infi rmière (Dion), 445 


FALLIS, -\nne (rev.), (}l)0 
F ATIGl.'E factor in peptic ulcers. 223 
FAUGHXA="'. Jeanne E. 
Child in hospital, 956 
FEELY, Irene (rev.), 136 
FELICITAS, Sister M. & por., 805 
Institute on communications, 346 
FERGl'SON, J. Frances & por., 199 
FERGCSON, L. K. (Eliason, Sholtis) 
Surgical Ilursillg (rev.), 56 
, T. (MacPhail) 
Hospital and C011l11l1lllity (reL), 458 
FIDLER. Gail S. (Fidler) 
Illtrodllctioll to ps)'c/Ziatric occupatioJ/al 
t/ZcraP'JI (rev.), 7-1-6 
FIDLER, J. \Y. (Fidler) 
Illtrndllctioll to psychiatric occupatioJ/al 
therapy (rev.). 746 
FIELDWORK experience: 
Venture in, for graduate nurses (Allen), 
FruI S : 
Rehahilitation, 824 
JJOJ/OfICI/U'llt of acute poliomyelitis (rev.), 
FLAXDER, Madeleine 
Pediatric work conference, 951 
Smue thoughtful conclusions. 966 
FLITTER, Hessel H. (Rowe) 
Tcar/ziJ/.Q ph.,"siolog)1 and anatom}' m 
nursillg (rev.), 138 
FLORENCE Nightingale International Founda- 
Planning of nursing studies, 822 
FLUID balance (Partington), 262 
FOOT health: 
Scientists probe, 7-1-9 
Korea - 
\nd the world too (
[cArthur), 703 
Christmas in (1IcArthur), 949 
Turkey - 
Salaam aliakum (Sharpe), 13 
FORTY years of pilgrimage (Russell). (ed.), 


THE CA K...\ D I A X N U R S E 

fcLeød. Palframan, Shouldice) 
Bandl's ring, 266 
FRD:\I custodial to therapeutic patient care 
in mental hospitals 
(Greenblatt, York, Brown), (rev.), 912 
FROM little acorns (Butler), 31 
FRUMESS, Gerald 
Skin, mirror of emotions, 374 
FRUMKIN, Robert M. 
Ethical religious needs of the patient, 263 
 on trains (Steed), 185 
Fl'TPRE nurses' club, 533 


GALDSTO",", Iago 
At eaning of social medicine (rev.), 290 
Fatigue factor in peptic ulcers, 223 
GAZAWAY, Rena (Hayes) 
.. Hum-an' relations in Ilursillg (rev.), 2
GENERAL staff nursing: 
K.P. for double-duty homemakers tBelt), 
Changing attitudes (Phillips), 708 
Impact of chronic illness (Phillips). 524 
1íeaning of rehabilitation (\\-ellard), 904 
Our senior citizens (\\ïlson), 421 
Proportion of aged in population, 975 
Role of the nurse in rehabilitation 
( Phillips), 810 
\Yhat it means to be old (Phillips), 611 
, Guy 
Importance de dosage ingéré et excrété, 
GIRARD, Alice (por.), 84, 93, 693 (& por.), 
Too few for too many (ed.), 93 
GIROüX, Suzanne 
Soin des enfants, 968 
GOOSTRA Y, Stella (Schwenck) 
Textbook of chemistry (rev.), 468 
G, Fern A. (Torrop) 
Practical nurse and her patient (rev.), 
GRADUATION pictures (Bietsch), 980 
GRAHAM, Muriel Jean & por., 544 
GRAHAM, Pearl (rev.), 136 
GRAVES, Gilda G. 
Chromosome deletion in the Rh genotype, 
GREENBLATT, Milton (York, Brown) 
From custodial to t/lerapeutic þatient care 
in mental hospitals (rev.), 912 
GREEN HORN on the frontier (Evans), 974 
Ph:ysiology and anatomy (rev.), 138 
GREVILLE, Theresa (rev.), 218 
Role of the industrial nurse 111 accident 
prevention, 112 
GROEN EWALD, Emily (rev.), 748 
\Vith our training we can help, 122 
GROWTH and development of infants: 
Development at various ages, 834 
From little acorns (Butler), 31 
GYNECOLOGY for senior students of nursillg 
(Cairney), (rev.), 216 


HALL, Gertrude U. (rev.). 913 
HALLA.:\I. Ruth (rev.), 56 
, James .\. 
U11iversity education for admillistration lJl 
hospitals (rev.), 54 
HAYES, \Vayland J. (Gazaway) 
H lt11l0n relatimls in nursing (rev.), 2
HEALTH insurance: 
K ew publications, 824 
HEART, conditions: 
L'évolution de la cardiologie et ses pro- 
blèmes (David), 21, 101 
Scarlatine plus endomyocardite (Payer), 
HEART disease nursing - Teachers College, 
Columbia University, 442 
HISTORIC Manitoba, 339 
In the good old days (The Calladial! 
Hurse J, 42, 106, 220, 294, 387, 469, 554, 
646, 711, 835, 874, 973 
, .\1. (Lawton) 
Cavernous sinus thrombosis, 120 
HOLLISTER, Dorothy G. & por., 978 
HO.:\IE care: 
plans, 982 
HOSPITAL adult education (Vance), (rev.), 
HOSPITAL auxiliaries: 
A \\-omen's, in action (Croll), 25 
HOSPITAL alld com11lunity (Ferguson, :Uac- 
Phail), (rev.), 458 
HOSPITAL in-ser'l'ice educational training 
program (Yance), (rev.), 456 
HCGHES, F. N., 6, 86, 166, 246, 328, 414, 
510. 590, 678, 774, 862, 942 
HUMAN relations in nursing (Hayes, Gaz- 
away), (rev.), 288 
RCNTER, Trenna G., 698, & por. 799 
HYDROCEPHALUS (Jenkinson), 885 
H YPOTEXSlOX (Scl1\\ eisheimer), 53 

hIPACT of chronic illness (Phillips), 524 
hIPORTAXCE de dosage ingéré et excrété 
( Germain), 4ó2 
hIPRESSIOXS d'Afriquc (Tremblay), 630 
bIPROnXG nursing service (Arnstein), 
I ",FIR:\IIERES des salles d' opération (Crouse), 
INFIR:\IIERE en obstétrique (Calvé), 742 
IN memoriam: 
Allison, Loila (
farshall), 264; Allison. 
Mary Gretchen, 545; Anderson. Ethel 
Hilda (Hennie), 978; Anderson, Ger- 
trude Irene, 363; Armstrong, Annie. 
264; .\rner, .\gnes, 39; Atkinson, Mary 
A., 806 
Bagshaw, Esthaol T., 200; Balloch, Jean. 
722; Barclay. Ethel, 363; Beach, Mar- 
garet (
IcC-ullum), 979; Beckett, Mary 
Caroline, 806; Bowie, Elizabeth Jane. 
111; Bradley, .\nne, 264; Burns, 
fary, 200 
Caldwell, Mary Helen, 
Florence Nightingale 
Clark. Edith Grace 
Clermont, Cécile, 910; 

806; Campbell, 
(Sims), 363 ; 
( Bishop) , HI, 
Coleman. Della 


 D EXT 0 VOL U :\1 E 5 2 

Jean (\Yitts), ï22: Coleman, Eva, 452; 
Conway- Jones, Katherine, 363: Corbett, 
Elizabeth (Quinn), ï 22; Cormie, Jean, 
Dalzell. Isabel Janet. 363 ; Dan-iIle, 

Iabel, 39: Davidson, Elizabeth (Dom- 
,-ille), 722; Dawson, Rosa (
722: Day, Barbara Cecilia, 264; de 
I'lmmaculep. Soeur 
Iarthe. 626: de 
Lorraine. Soeur Jeanne, 62h: Dean. 

lary .-\gnes, 363: Delves, A,nn Eliza- 
beth, -t52; Dock. Lavinia Lloyd, 806; 
Dorothea. Sister 
Iary, 626: Douglas, 
.-\II11a, 545; Dyck, Katherine. 80S; Dyer, 
lav. 545 
Ea,'es, Eileén, 910; Elliott, .\udrey Ber- 
nice, 910. 979; Ellis, Gladys, 979; 
Erskine, .-\Iice, 910 
Fabian, Sister. 39: Farrell. Kathleen G. 
(Trainor). 979: Farrell, Patricia (Baz- 
anet), 111; Feeny, Effie 
L. 39; 
Forbps, Ella, 111; Forgie, Effie Helen, 
808; Forrest, .-\nnie 
1., 545 ; Forrest, 
Iaude, 979; Forse), Blanche. 626; 
Fraser. .-\nnie (Smith), 808; Fretz, 

fay Elizabeth, 200 
Gaasenbeek. Ruth (Kool), 910: Garrett, 

Iar'y Ann ( Haire). 264 ; Gauthier, 
Doris (Trevors). 363: Gavin. 
.-\nn, 545: Glass, Robena (\Yilliams), 
452; Goldhawk, 
Iary, 5-t5; Good, Ber- 
nice. 452: Gunne. 
Iarv Graham. 39 
Hanly, Lois, 626; -Hanna, Evelyn 
( Beatty), 264: Harrison, Christine 
lusselman). 200; Hawke, Evelyn 
Elizabeth ( Gouldie), 111: Hichens- 
Smith, Caroline Margaret, 722: Hill, 
A,nnie Louise (Brown), 39: Hodgins. 
Susan Emily, 363; Hogg. Grace 
garet, 264: Holland, Laura & por.. 264; 
Horsnell, Cynthia Pauline, 111 : Hughes, 

Iargaret & por., 910: Humphrey, 
Lenore (Lyle), 626: Husband, 
()26; Hutchison, .-\nn Elizabeth, 39 
J acksoIl, .-\nnie, 265: Jaques, Gwendoline, 
363; Jeanne d'Arc, Sister, 265; Johnson, 
Jean Elizabeth (.-\Iexander), 808 
r ary Jane (Bannister), 722; 
Kilburn, Josephine F" 201; King, 
Frances, 9ï9; Kornelson, Bertha, 808 
Lagüe, Louisia. 265; Laliberté, 
Brigitte & por., 808; Langford, Lila 
808: Lawrence. -\gnes Emily (Peder- 
son), 364; Leckie, Jemina, 111: Legge, 
Caroline, 626: Le Good, Sarah Annie, 
545; Liggett, Flora, 265; Lippert. Mary 
Carolyn (Peppler), 808; Long. Sandra 
"!\Iarie, 910; Lough, Laura B. plac- 
Dermid), 'J1O 

Iacaulay, Robina. 364: 
IacCuaig, Flo- 
rence, 39: lIacDonald, Mary S., 979; 
lfacIntosh. Daisy (Grant), 111; ")'Iac- 
Intosh, ").fargaret Isobella, 979; ")'Iac- 
X eil, Rita. 39: 
Iallock. Olive (Ben- 
tley), 722; 
Iallory, Bertha Lynetta, 
546 ; Martin, Elizabeth Jean, 265 ; 

fary C (Hyde), 39; Mc- 
Cauley, Susanna, 979: McConnell, 
Florence, 722 ; 
fc Dermid, 
111; lIcDermott, Bernadette (\Valsh), 
111; llcDonald, Florence, 722; ).Ic- 

Donald, Ro
-e (I
emmet), 111; 
llyrtle, 265; 
IcGugan, Gwendolyn 
Frances (Birt). ï 2!.: )'IcGuire, Cecelia 
Eileen. 808: 
IcIntyre, Alice (Mac- 
Leod) , 724 ; McKeever, Grace, 545 ; 
licLaughlin, Kathleen (Grattan), 910; 
l1iller. 1Iary, 626: 
Iilligan, Frances, 
lisen-a, Elizabeth (Jones), 39; 
llonan, Vera (Mdlu1lin). 452; 

Iary Elizabeth, 546 ; 1Ioore, Céline, 
546: Morin. Antoinette, 201; Morrison, 
Barbara ( Booth), 265; 
Iorrison, Jean 
(\Yebster), 2()5: llorri<;on, Louisa, 626 
:K eilly. Isabella Jane, 724: 1'\ eilson. Jean, 
626: Xelson. 11ary (\Yoods), 626 
Page, .-\deline 
Iary. 808; Paterson, 
Violet (Ste,"ens). 808; Pedlow, )'far- 
garet Elizabeth (Hunter), 111 ; Pinder, 
Ethel Patricia (Sunderland), 979; 
Poetschke, Helen L. ( Sheldon), 546; 
Portland. Isobel ( Robertson), 834; 
Probert. Lillian (Bolin), 265 
Rankine, Eha (
IacKenzie), 201; Red- 
monò. Elizabeth Mary, 201. 364; Reid, 
Elizabeth, 979: Rice, Flora Mary 
(Phillips), 201; Roberts, 
Iary Joyce, 
910; Rose, Ethel (Boultbee), 452; Ross, 
Charlotte Helen, 724. 
St. Bertha, Sister, 979: St. Onge, 1Iarie- 
.-\drienne, 364: Saunders, Ethel G., 201 ; 
Scott, Hattie llay (Drake), 452; Scott, 
 adeline (Leach). 201; Shuttle- 
,,-orth. .-\nne (Blair). 626: Siyell, 
garet. 201: Smith, B. (Collier). 546; 
Smith, Jean (Yallance), 626: Stanley- 
J ones, Lucille Laura (Ross), 111 ; 
Iary Francis, 911; Stuart, 
Hilda II uir, 911 
Taylor, llary Katalie (l{cAulay), 265; 
Townsend, Estella (Beck), 452; Tra- 
quair, Doretta 
lae (Minchin), 265; 
Tuck. Charlotte, 834; Turnhull, Roberta 
Hope. 9ï9 
Y oisard, .-\ndrée. 39 
\\T ade, l1 aud ( Bennett) . 626 ; \ Y alker, 
Kathleen H.. 111 ; \ Varwick, Irene 
(Follett). 834: \\"atson, \Vanda 
(Hooper). 452: \\- atts. Caroline (Ken- 
nedy). 111; \Yebster. Clara (Evans), 
724; \Yelbourn, Ida Clara, 452; \\'har- 
Iarguerite, 980; \Yheeler, 
.-\nne, 626: \Yhite. Genevieve, 364; 
\Yigginton, llargaret M. (Aikman), 39; 
\\ïllis, Clara ( \ Yhite), 201; \\ïllis, 
Hilda, 265; \\ïseman, Sally Ann, 626; 
\Y yand, Caroline .-\gnes (Ruthven), 980 
Iadelene Elliott 
Pri1/cip/rs a1/d tCc!lIliqucs of ps}'chiatric 
llursing (rev.), 990 
Administration and supervision in nursing 
education, 140, 550 
communications (Felicitas), 346 
K urses' role in civil defence (Sask.), 186 
Kursing aspects in rehabilitation (Nova 
Scotia), 65 
Process notes on the work conference 
(Dimock), 951 
INSl;LlN therapy (Dersco), 621 
INTEGRATION of civil defence nursing into 
the basic curriculum, 47 


THE C.\ X _\ D I _A. X X l
 R S E 

Lex. Congress - 195ï. 981 
Congress theme, 981 
Preliminary program, 981 
I XTERX ATIOX AI. Council of X urses : 
Planning of nursing studies, 822 
Salaam aliakum (Sharpe), (ed.), 13 
IXTRoDccTlox to ps.\'Chiatric occupatiollal 
thcrapy (Fidler, Fidler), (rey.), ï46 
I x time of need (
facGregor), (ed.), 517 


, Christina F. 
Parents' point of yiew, 963 
JEAXS, Philip C. (""right, Blake) 
Essclltials of pcdiatrics (rev.), 218 
Hydrocephalus, 885 
JOHKSO!l., Ida (rev.), 220 
]OSFPH, Sister Thomas (rev.), 385, (rev.), 
JOCLE, J. "". 
Tcxtbook of mcdicillc for nurscs (rev.), 


KA TZ, Barney (Thorpt) 
Clldcrstalldillg pcoplc III distrcss (rev.), 
, Soeur Florence ( re\".), 384 
f. (Skerry, 
fac Lean, Black, 

Radioactiye isotopes, 800 
KERX. F. \\".. 696 
KIDXEY conditions: 
Glomerulonephritis (Doris), ï12 
Salt-losing nephritis (Richards, Dodkin), 
KII_AXDER, \'irginia Curry (Crawford) 
Xllrsillg mallllal for ps.\'Chiatric aides 
(rev.). 468 
KIXGSFORD, Judith (rey.). ï46 
K. P. for double-duty homemakers (Bell), 
District nur
e knows hetter, 180 
KIRhPATlUCK, \ïvian B., 9ï7 


L-\BORATOR\ procedures: 
.-\ summarv of clinical (\Vatson). 601 
L'AcCREDlL'\TIùX - où en sommes-nous 
fcUuarrie), 444 
Lo\:\IP of thc 'ü,ildcrllcss (Spencer), (rev.), 
L.'\l:DER, Helen, 06 
1. & pOL, 806 
L.-\ \\", .-\lma 
Honorary life membership. 48 
L.\ \\' rox, C. (Hobin) 
Cavernous sinu
 thrombosis, 120 
LE.\ \"ELL, Lutie Clemson (Stackpole) 
Tcxtbook of ph'):siolo9}: (rev.), 136 
LEFEB\"RF, Sister Denise. 695 
LEOXE, Lucile Petry, 797. 820 
lilton J. (Anderson) 
.Vllrsillg practice alld the Ill'll' (rev.), 556 
LET'S look at accreditation, 368 

LEL'KDIIA (Schweisheimer), ï24 
LIBR.\RIE:-i . 
X ursing school (Riddell), 798 
LIFE, profession and school (Clarke), 530, 
640, 715 

femorial to, 464 
LOXG- TER:\I illness: 
Impact of chronic illness (Phillips), 524 
\ Yhat it means to be old (Phillips), 611 
LOL'IS- ETlEX XE, Soeur 
Schizophrénie, 539 
Consei!s à une étudiante devant faire un 
stage à la .,alle d'opération, 832 


L\cDOXAI.D, S. (Skerry, }'IacLean, Black, 
Radioactive isotopes, 800 

L-\cGREGOR. Jean E. 
In time of 'need (ed.), 517 

L-\cIsA.-\c. Rita, 822 
Puhlic relations guide, 439 

lary T. (por.) , 337 
Service, responsibility, nurture, action 
( ed. ), 324 

fACLEAX, Beatrice .-\. 
.-\ nurse's private devotions, 27 

[-\CLEAN, ]. (Skerry, Black, Kennedy, 

Radioactiw isotopes. 800 

.n;, E. A. Electa & pOL, 804 

I ACLEOD, .-\gnes J. ( rev. ), 744 

[ACLEOD, Christina 
f. & por., 200 

L-\nIILI.Ax award winners, 324 

fACPHAII., .-\. X. (Ferguson) 
Hospital Qlld col/l1IIllI/it)' (rev.), 458 

[-\CQL-\RRIE, Dorothy (MacTavish) 
); ursing care of patients with lumbar 
inten'ertebral disc lesions, 429 

[AcTA\ ISH, Donalda OfacQuarrie) 
X ursing care of patients with lumbar 
inten'ertebral disc lesions, 429 

[-\CKIE, Jean (rev.), 466 

I -\LE 11111-ses: 
_-\ new deal for (\\. edgery), 636 

L-\LOXE, R. S., 690 

f -\LI.ORY, Evelvn 
Report of Xtlrsil1g Education Committee, 

f \XAGE:\IEXT of aCl/tc poliol1lJ'clitis (Stott, 
Fischer- \\ïlliams ), (rev.), 290 

I -\XAGDIEXT of lumbar inten'ertebral disc 
lesions (Rosen), 423 

Historic, 339 
Xews notes, 226, 301, 391. 475, 561, 652, 
753, 995 
Our senior citizens (\\ïlson), (ed.), 421 
Provincial association acti\"ities. 440 
\\ïl1nipeg, the friendly city, 431 

1AXC^L of ps-,"clliatry (Stalhwrth), (rev.), 

L\XCFI. dl/ scr'i.'ice dll nl/rsing å f'I/lJpital, 
(re\". ), 384 

fARCELlXS, Dorothv & por., 544 

IARIE, Sister Hele;l, 805, (por.) 806 


I X D EXT 0 V 0 I, U :\1 E 5 2 

:MARY Agnes Snively memorial lecture: 
A re we equal to our future ( Sanders) , 
( ed.), 781 
Sommes-nous en mesure de faire face à 
l'avenir (Sanders), (ed.), i85 
Portrait unveiled, 134 
:McARTHUR, Helen G. (pOL), 46, 696 
And the world too, 703 
Christmas in Korea (ed.), 949 
MCCALLCM. Helen Neil & por., 543 
MCCLURE, Ruth Elizabeth & pOL, 977 
McILWRAITH, Effie c., 4i6 
:McI \"ER , Pearl, 791 
:McKENNA, Frances M. 
Thresholds to professiollalllllrsi"9 practice 
(rev.), 913 
:UcLEoD, A. (Foster, Palframan, Shouldice) 
Bandl's ring, 266 
hLL',N, Patricia (rev.), 468 
:UCPHAIL, Dorothy Lyons (Kaufman) & 
por., 38 
MCQUARRIE, Frances C., 694 
Accreditation - où en sommes-nous, 444 
Accreditation - what's on the record, 443 
IEANIKG of rehabilitation (\Vellard), 904 
MEANIXG of social medicinc (Galdston), 
(rev.), 290 
1 ileus (\\'right. Bullock), 193 
:MDIORIAL to Helen S. Peters, 650 

IEMORIAL to :Marion Lindeburgh, 464 

IENTAL health: 
Confusing nmionc; of (Stokes), 519 
for nurses (Cruickshank), 95 

IENTAL health for nurses (Cruickshank), 95 
).IIGRATION of nurses, 202 
MOXTAG, Mildred (\Vright) 
Textbook of pl'armacol09Y alld tllcraþclt- 
tics (rev.), 745 
MOORE, Edna L. & pOL, 976 
lfoREHOUSE, Carol E. 
Using case histories to learn, 361 
MORTOX, H. S. (rev.), 990 

1 Y complaints (Dalton), 197 


NATIOXAL health week, 30 
NATIONAL immunization wtek, 751 
KESBITT, )'Iargaret (rev.), 136 
NEUROLOGICAL conditions: 
Cavernous sinus thrombosis (La wton, 
Hobin), 120 
Hydrocephalus (Jenkinson), 885 
l\ECRIJSCRGICAL conditions: 

fanagement of lumbar intervertebral disc 
lesions (Rosen), 423 
Nursing care of patients with lumbar 
intervertebral disc lesions p.lacTavish, 
:MacQuarrie), 429 
KEW Bruns\\'ick: 
Annual meeting in (Archibald), 130 
Evaluating nursing education, 4i 
Honorary life membership (Law). 48 
News notes, 64, 150, 227, 301, 391, 475, 
561. 653, 754 
Provincial association activities, 441 
N E\V deal for male nurses (\V edgery), 636 
Provincial association activities, 441 
Two-year educational program, 46 

NEW products. 6, 86, 166, 246, 328, 414, 510, 
590, 6i8, 774, 862, 942 
K EW year greeting (Ramage), (poem), 17 
NEWS notes, 62, 144, 224, 299, 389, 472, 55ï, 
649, 752. 838, 920. 992 
NORTOX. Phyllis (pòr.), 125 
K OL'\ Scotia: 
District nurse knows better (Kirk), 180 
News notes, 65, 562, 996 
Provincial association activities, 442 
Ref resher course in administration and 
supervision in nursing education, 140, 
NCRSES as teachers of science (Reid), 187 
N rRSES as women: 
Are we equal to our future (Sanders), 
( ed.), 781 
Sommes-nous en mesure de faire face a 
r a yenir ( Sanders) , ( ed.), 785 
NrRsE's private devotions (
facLean), 27 
NeRsEs' role in civil defence, 186 
NURsEs: their education and their role in 
health programs, 347, 696, 791 
KURSIKG across the nation, 46, 126. 202, 
280, 366, 45-\, 548, i 34, 820, 896, 981 
NURSIXG assistant: 
Functions of, 280 
\\ïth our training we can help 
(Groenewald), 122 
NrRSIXG à travers Ie pays, 48, 127, 204, 
281, 370, 458, 552, i38, 824, 900, 986 

 URSING care: 
Banrll's ring (Foster, McLeod, Palframan, 
Shouldice), 266 
Cavernous sinus thrombosis (Lawton, 
Hobin), 120 
Changing attitudes (Phillips), 708 
Child in hospital (Faughnan), 956 
Child with laryngotracheo bronchitis 
(Cecelia), 351 
Diabetes mellitus (Dersco), 617 
Epidermoid carcinoma (\ Y atanabe), 534 
Glomerulonephritis (Doris), 712 
Hydrocephalus (Jenkinson), 885 
Impact of chronic illness (Phillips), 524 
Leukemia (Schweisheimer), 724 
Meconium ileus (\Vright, Bullock), 193 
of patients with lumbar intervertebral disc 
lesions (
lac Tavish, 
IacQuarrie), 429 
Pedia tric setting (Ross), 955 
Quelques considérations sur l'anémie et les 
états anémiques (T essier), 728 
Radioacti\ e isotopes (Skerry, 
Black, Kennedy, MacDonald), 800 
Rheumatoid arthritis (Ziehran), 448 
Role of the nurse in rehabilitation 
(Phillips), 810 
Salt-losing nephritis (Richards, Dodkin), 
Scarlatine plus endomyocardite (Payer), 
Schizophrenia (Ste\\ art), 114 
Schizophrénie (Louis-Etienne), 539 
Service social et Ie cancer (Chamard), 268 
Staphylococcal pneumonia (Demko), 971 
Student nurse in a pediatric setting 
(Caplan, Dimock). 959 
\ Vhen a nurse has diabetes (Bell), 627 
XCRSIXG care of patients with lumbar 
intervertebral disc lesions (MacTavish, 
).facQuarrie), 429 



G education: 
Accreditation - où en sommes-nous 
fcQuarrje), 444 
Accreditation - what's on the record 
lcQuarrie), 443 
Adventures in science teaching (Alderson), 
Creative nursing (Schwier), 875 
Experimentation dans Ie domaine de 
(Di,m), 445 
Forty years of pilgrimage (Russell) , 
( ed.), 173 
Life, profession and school (Clarke), 530, 
640, 715 
X urses as teachers of science (Reid), 187 
Nurses: their education and their role in 
health programs, 347, 696, 791 
Soin des enfants (Giroux), 968 
Some considerations on the basic nursing 
curriculum (Carter), 357 
XrRSIXG manllal for ps}'chiatric aides 
(Cra wford. Kilander), (rev.), {(i8 
NCRSING practice and the 10'i.(! (Lesnik, 
Anderson), (rev.), 556 
NrRSIKG profiles, 38, 199. 543. 624, 804. 976 
KrRSIXG programs at the Cniversity of 
Saskatche\\ an (\\ïllis), 40 
KrRSIKG research: 
Improving nursing sen'ice (Arnstein), 869 
NrRSIXG school library (Riddell). 798 
X l"RSIXG service: 
Improving (Arnstein). 869 
Orientation manual (Campion), 447 
Too many for too few (Girard), (ed.), 93 
X"l-RSIXG Sisters' Association, 24, 470 
KP. for double-duty homemakers (Bell), 

You are what you eat, 9
}.;l-TRITIOX and diet th crap \' (Proudfit, 
Robinsün), (reL), 913 - 


Bandt's ring (Foster, 
lcLeod, Palframan, 
Shouldice ), 266 
Role of the industrial nur
e in accident 
prevention (Greville), 112 
OCHSXER, .-\lton 
Smoking and callar (rev.), 136 
OFFICIAL directory, 80, 160, 240, 320. 495, 
672, 856, 1014 
OFFICIAL travel agents, LC.X. Congress, 338 
OC,IU"IE, Elsie C. & por., 625 
O,L'\RIO : 
Lying ùf the cornerstone, 548 
11emorial to lone Holdsworth, 562 
News notes, 66, 150, 227, 303, 392, 476, 
562, 653, 755, 920, 996 
Provincial association activities, 442 
Public health nursing service: appoint- 
ments, transfers, resignations, 60, 221, 
388, 470, 649, 917. 970 
Registered 1\ urses' Association of, change 
of address, 940 
es (Crouse), 198 
ORDERL y training program (Richmond), 191 
ORIENTATION (Campion). 447 
ORIENTATIOX manual, 280. (Campion), 44ï 

OCR senior citizens (\\ïlson), (ed.), 421 
OWEN, Joyce, 202 


PAIS, breath of (Bromage). 45 
PALFR.UIAX, ]. (Foster, 
lcLeod Shouldice) 
BandI's ring, 266 ' 
PAREKTS' point of view (James), 963 
Fluid balance, 262 
P A TlEXT care: 
Social sciences and improvement of, 
(Brown), 175 
PATTERXS of patient care (reL), 220 
P A lJL of the Cross, Sister (rev.), 218 
PAYER. Hélène 
Scarlatine plus endomyocardite, 891 
PEARSOX. Nancy (rev.), 21b 
PEDIA TRIC setting (Ross), 955 
PEDIA TRIC work conference (Flander), 951 
Child in hospital (Faughnan), 956 
Counterpane land (Bell), 107 
From little acorns (Butler), 31 

Ieconium ileus (\\"right. Bullock). 193 
Parents' point of view (] ames), 963 
Process notes on the ,,-ark conference 
(Dimock), 951 
setting (Ross), 955 
Soin des enfants (Girom..), 968 
Some thoughtful conclusions (Flander) 
Student nurse in a, setting (Caplan), 
Dimock), 959 
work conference ( Flander ). 951 
PEPPER, Evelyn 
Civil defence, 696 
PERCY, Dorothy 
L, 548. 696, 820 
Signpost at Geneva, 790 
PERRODIX, Cecilia M. 
SIlPeYL'isir}// of n ursiug sC//:'icc þersonnel 
(rev.). 140 
PHILLIPS. Elisabeth C. 
Changing attitudes. 708 
Impact of chronic illness. 524 
Role of the nurse in rehabilitation, 810 
\Yhat it means to be old, 611 
PHYSICAL theraPJ' after amputatioll. tire 
treatlllcllt of the lmilateral [O<l'er extremif\' 
amputei' (Bryce), (rev.). 385 . 
PHYSIOLOGY a1ld 01latolllJ' (Greisheimer), 
(rev.), 138 
1. (re\".), 912 
Counterpane land (Bell), 107 
Outlook in, 874 
PORTRAITS unveiled (
lathewsol1 ), 134 ; 
( Munroe), 568 
POSITlOXS vacant, 71. 152. 232, 309, 398, 
483, 574, 661, 758, 841, 922, 1002 
POSTGRADl"ATE courses available: 
Obstetrics - 
Royal \'ictoria Hospital. 
lontrea1. 10. 
150, 170, 251, 334, 418, 514, 593. 681, 
i77, 867, 946 
\Yinnipeg General Hospital, 10. 91. 169, 
251, 386, 417, 515, 594. b8.?, 775, 864, 


I X D EXT 0 Y 0 L C ::\1 E 

Opera ti ng room - 
\Yinnipeg General Hospital. 10, 91. 169, 
251. 386. .Hi, 515, 59
, 682, ii5, 864, 
ychiatric nursing - 
Iemorial Institute of Psychiatry, 
8. 150, 1iO. 251, 334, 418, 514, 593, 
4, iii. 866, 945 
Hospital for 
fental Diseases, Brandon, 

lan.. 11, 91. 169, 251, 329, .1-1i, 515, 
594, (i84. iï5, 866. 944 
Xova Scotia Hospital. Darmouth, 8, 90, 
1iO, 250, 332, 418, 515, 594. 682, i7i, 
865, 945 
Tuherculosis - 

Inuntain Sanatorium. Hamilton, Ont., 
8. 91. 167. 302, 388, 4ï6, 514, 655, 681, 
iïi, 8Ü6. 945 
X ova Scotia Sanatorium, Kentville, 
X.S., 10. 90, 170, 250, 332, 418, 515, 
594. 682, ïï5, 865, 944 
Cni\ ersities - 
.\Iberta, 90, 169. 249 
.\ssumption. of \\"indsor. 250 
British Culumbia. 249. 332. 415 
Dalhousie, R, 149. 250. 417, 866 

r anitoba. 91. 169, 249, 329, 41ï, ïï5, 
864, 944 

fcGill, 67. 225, 331. 512, 863 

fontrea] X eurologica1 Institute, 
514, 655. ï50, ïï9, 946 

rdraster, ï. 148, 16ï, 248, 330, 416, 
511. 592 
Queen's. 10, 90. 16ï, 945 
Saskatchewan. 253 
Teachers College, Columbia - Heart 
ease nursing, 442 
T orontu, 329 
PR-\CTIC\L lIursc alld hcr paticllt (Goulding, 
Torrop), (rev.). ï48 
PRACTIC'\L suggestion
Xe\\ autoclave tape (Norton). 125 
Xew spectacles aid the deaf. 134 
PRAIRIE convention led.), 68ï 
PRE:\IATl'RE infants: 
Cn enfant est né trop tilt (Saint-
PRFSIDFXTlAL address: 
Tomorrow's pattern (Sharpe), (ed.), 59i 
PRIXCE Edwarrl Island: 
\nnual meeting- in (Bulger), 50, 984 
X ews notes. (iï, 228. 655. 998 
Provincial association activities, 442 
PRIXClI'LES al/d tcchlliqucs of psychiatric 
Jlursillg (Ingram), (rev.), 990 
S nutes on the work conference 
(Dimock), 951 
\ly complaints (Dalton), 19ï 
\Ye cannot come down (Spalding), -US 
PROFESSIOXAL training grants, 456 
I guide for future lIurses' clubs 
( rev. ), 384 
'l planning. ïï 2 
PROCDFlT, Fairfax T. (Robinson) 
X lttrtioll and dict thcrapJ.' (rev.), 913 
PRonxCIAL association activities, 440 
PSYCHIATRIC nursing (Bregg), 183 
Schizophrenia (Ste\\'art). 114 
Schizophrénie (Louis-Etienne), 539 

PS\ CHOLOl:Y in I/ursill[/ practice (Crow, 
Cro\\". Skinner), (rev.), 446 
PCBLIC health nursing: 
Bifocal appruach (Sinclair). 880 
District nurse kno\\'s better (Kirk), 180 
Greenhorn on the frontier (Evans). 9ï4 
Quelques nouvelles tendances dans Ie 
nursmg en hygiène publique, 206 
Société des inhrmières visiteuses (Rivard), 
Pl'BLIï relations: 
g"uide (\facIsaac), 439 
\ Yhen the nurse is the patient, Hï 
Pl'BLIC relatiolls guide (
IacIsaac), 439 



ulum talks, 981 
Expérimentation dans la domaine de J'édu- 
cation de I'infirmière (Dion), 445 
Future nurses' club. 533 
\fontreal General Hospital (alumnae) 
50th anniversary. 998 
X ews notes. 68. 228, 306, 393, 4ï8, 566, 658, 
839, 921, 098 
Portrait of 
rathewson unveiled, 134 
Portrait of Fanny 
[unroe unveiled, 568 
Pro\'incial association activities, 442 
QCELQl.:ES considérations sur l'anémie et les 
états anémiques (Tessier), ï 28 


otopes (Skerry, .MacLean, 
Black, Kennedy, 
IacDonald), 800 
RA:\IAGE, James 
X ew year greeting (poem), 1 ï 
R.-\XGER. \lonique 
Les besoins de t'écolier en matière de 
santé, 52 
R.\\\"LIXGS. Helen (rev.), 7-J5 
RECORD keeping: 
Commentaires. 893 
Films on, 824 

r eaning of ("" elIard), 904 

[iracles - ve:; or no, 896 
Role of the rlUrse in (Phillips), 810 
RFID, Alma E. 
X urscs a
 teachers of science, 18ï 
RELlGIOiIO in the life of a nurse: 
.-\. nurse's pri vate devotions (!\IacLean), 27 
Ethical religious needs of the patient 
(Frumkin), 263 
REPORT 01/ the cxpcrimcllt ill 1lursing educa- 
tion of the A f/?inson school of nursing, 
Toront() IV C.ftCYl/ Hospital, 1950-1955 
(\\'allace), (re\'.), 58 
Crest in two languages English and 
French, 697 
Factual information about nurs1l1g in 
Canada, 69i 
Pilot project on evaluation, 6Y8 
Program of accreditation, 697 
\ Y ording of a nursing pledge, 69ï 
RESPIRATORY conditions: 
Child \\ ith 1aryngotracheo bronchitis 
( Cecelia), 351 


THE C.\ X _-\ D I A X XL R 

RHEL''"\IATOID arthriti
 (Ziehran I. -I--I-
RICHARDS. D. (Dodkin) 
Salt-losing nephriti
. 537 
RICH:\IOXD, llary L. & por., 97ï 
Orderly training program, 191 
RIDDELL, Dorothy G. 

ursing school lihrary, 798 
RI\'ARD. Renée 
Société des infirmières visiteuses. 196 
ROAcH. Florence lIary & por.. 199 
ROBIXSOX, Corinne H. (Proudfit) 
Xlttritioll alld diet thcrap)' (re\'.), 913 
ROLE of the industrial nurse in accid<<;nt 
prevention (Greville). 112 
ROLE of the nurse in rehabilitation (Phillips), 
RosEx, Harold J. 
lfallagement of lumbar intervertebral disc 
lesions. 423 
R0ss, Alan 
Pediatric setting. 9.55 
Ross, Marian (rev.), 913 
ROTuKDA tcxtbook of mid'ë.l'ifcrJ for Ilurses 
(Browne), (rev.). 5-1- 
RO\\'E, Harold R. (Flitter) 
T cachillg þT1Jsioloyy alld allatom)' 11l 
llursillg (rev.), 138 
Roy, Alberte &. por.. 976 
Roy AL c,)mmission on the economic future 
of Cal1ada, hrief to. 366, 5-1-8, 690 
RCAKE. Kathleen (por.), 3-1-1 
Starting from scratch. 3-1-1 
RCSSELL, E. Kathleen, -I-ï, 164, 368. (por,) 
173. 624 
Forty years of pilgrimage (ed.), 173 
RCSSELL, J. A., 687 


SAFETY education: 
Common sense safety precautions, 71-1- 
The role of the industrial nurse in accident 
pren>ntion (Greville), 112 
SAIXT-lbRTlK, Robert 
"C'n enfant est né trop tôt, 345 
SALAA:\I aliakum (Sharpe), (ed.), 13 
SALLE pour enfants hrÚlés (Tanner), 382 
SALT-losing nephritis (Richards, Dodkin), 
SAXD, Ole 
Curriculum stud\' ill basic Ilursillg cduca- 
tÍtm (rev.), 2i 9 
SAXDERS. Byrne Hope por., 350, 368. 698 
.-\re we equal to our future (ed.), 781 
Sommes-nous en mesure de faire face à 
t'avenir (ed.), 785 
SANDFRSOX, H. H.. 689 
.-\nnual meeting in (\\ïlson), 898 
expanding health services ( Bentley), 699 
and its people (Smith), 257 
X ew university hospital organizes the 
nursing service department (Ruane). 3-1-1 
Xews notes, 68, 151. 229, 394. -1-78. 660, 
756, 921, 1000 

' role in civil defence, 186 
Xursing programs at the "C'niversity of. 
(\Yillis). 40 
Provincial association actidties, -1--1-2 
Service. re
ponsibility, nurture. action 
( MacKenzie>. (ed.). 337 

S.-\SK \TCHE\\'-\,\;" and ib people (Smith), 257 
S.-\SK.-\TCHE\L-\,\;"'S expanding health sen'ices 
( Bentley). 699 
SCARL-\TIXE plus endomyocardite (Payer), 
SCHIZOPHRFXIA (Ste\\art). 11-1- 
SCHIZOPHRFXIE (Louis-Etienne), S39 
SCH\\'EISHEI:\rER, \\", 
Hypotension. 53 
Leukemia, 724 
SOfWEXCh.. J. Rae (Gu(lstray) 
T c rtbnok of cllcmistn' (reL). -1-68 
SCH\\ IFR. llildred E. &' por., -1-38. 695 
Creative nursing. 875 
SELECTED 'ë.l'ritillYs of Florellcc Xiglztillgale 
(Se}mer), (rev.), 7-1--1- 
Besoins de l'écolier en matière de santé 
( Ranger). 52 
Comment vi\'ent les hommes en notre 
temps, 298 
Commentaires, 893 
Conseils à une étudiante de\'ant iaire un 
stage à la salle d'opération (Lupien), 
L'enfant à t'hôpital, 132 
Importance de dosage ingéré et excrété 
( Germain). 462 
I nfirmière en obstétrique (Calvé). 7-1-2 
Cne inno\ation qui pourrait réduire les 
cOtits de construction des hÔpitaux, 5-1-6 
Les méfaits du bruit et leurs répercussions 
sur t' orgal11sme humain, 5-1-6 
Les préjugés. 992 
Petite etude psycho-sociale. 63-1- 
Quelques nouyeIles tendances dans Ie 
nursing en hygiène publique, 206 
Salle pour enfants brÚlés (Tanner), 3R2 
SER\ ICE social et Ie cancer (Chamard), 268 
SEDlER, Lucy Ridgely 
Sclected 'ë.l'ritiIlYS of Florcllcc Xiglztillgale 
( rev. ). 7-1--1- 
SHARPE. Gladys J. (por.) 13. 59ï. 69g 
Salaam aliakum (ed.), 13 
Tomorrow's pattern (ed.). 59ï 
SHAW, E. C. (rev.), 290 
SHOLTIS, L. .-\. (Eliason, Ferguson) 
Suryical llltrSillfT (rev.), 56 
SHOLTIS, Lillian A. (Bragdon) 
Tcaching mcdical alld suryical lIltrsillg 
( rev. ), 56 
SHOliLDlCE, D. (Foster, lIcLeod. PaIiraman) 
Bandt's ring. 266 
SrG,\;"posT at Geneva (Percv). ï90 
SI'\;"CLAIR, :\delaide (Macdonald) por.. 21-1-. 
Bifocal approach. 880 
SKERRY, \-. (lIacLean. Black, Kennedy, 
Radioa,ti\'e isotopes, 800 
SKI,\;", mirror of emotions (Frumess), 3ï-l- 
SKI:-;XER, C. (Crow. Crow) 
PS-,"cllOloy.\' ill Ilursillg practice (re\'.). -1-66 
S:\IALL, Barhara Joan & por.. 5-1-3 
S:\IITH. Christian 
katche\\"an and its people, 25ï 
SMITH. Grace (rev. L -1-68 
flTII, Lottie (re\'.), 385 
S'\IOKIXG alld callccr (Ochsner), (rev.). 136 
SOCI.-\I sciences and impnn ement of patient 
care (Brown), lïS 


l E 32 

SOCIETE des infirmières visiteuses (Rivard), 
S01X des enfants (Giroux), 968 
SmlE considerations On the basic nursing 
curriculum ( Carter), 35ï 
SmlE thoughtful conclusions (Flander), 966 
Sü:\ll\IES-nOUs en mesure de faire face à 
l'avenir (Sanders), (ed.), 785 
SPALDING, lone E. 
\Ye cannot come down, 435 
Lamp of the 'wildcY1fcSS (rev.), 47 
Sn.cKPoLE, Caroline E. (Leavell) 
Textbook of ph).'siology (rev.), 136 
Jfall/wl of ps)'chiatr.v (rev.), 136 
STAPHYLOCOCCAL pneumonia (Demko), 9ï1 
STARTING from scratch (Ruane), 341 
Fun on trains, 185 
Schizophrenia, 114 
STEWART. Isabel :.\1. & por., 624 
STI\"ER, :.\1. Pearl 
General secretary's report. 690 
Official notice, 28th biennial meeting, 356 
Confusing notions of mental health, 519 
STOTT, C. P. (Fischer- \\Tilliams) 
.11 allagement of acute poliomyelitis (rev.), 
STUART, Eugenie (rev.), 54 
STCDENT day activities (\\ïldfang), 706 
T nurse in a pediatric setting (Caplan, 
Dimock), 9.59 
S1TDENT nurses' association: 
of .-\Iberta, 212 
Student day activities (\Yildfang), 706 
ns' health: 
Besoins de l'écolier en matière de santé 
( Ranger), 62 
SC\I!\IARY of clinical laboratory procedures 
( \V at son ), 601 

l.'PERnSION of nursing scri:icc perso/1l1el 
( Perroclin), (rev.), 140 
SrRGICAL II/(I'sill!! (Eliason, Ferguson, Shol- 
tis), (rev.), 56 


Salle pour enfants brÙlés, 382 
T A nOR, \\ïnifred E., 920 
TEACHI XG mcdical and surgical 111/1 sillg 
(Bragdon, Sholtis), (rev.), 56 
G methods: 
.-\dventures in science teaching 
( :\ Iderson ), 2ïl 

urses as teachers of science (Reid), 187 
Order Iy training program (Richmond) , 
Lsing case histories to learn (:.\Iorehou:-e), 
TEACIIIXG ph).'siolo[!J' alld 0I1Otom)' tIl 
nursin,lJ (Flitter, Rowe), (rev.), 138 
TELEnsIOx : 
Petite étude psycho-sociale, 634 
:\1 ental health for nurses (Cruickshank), 

TEXTATIVE program for the 28th biennial 
convention, 284 
TESSIER, Eugénie 
Quelques considérations sur l'anémie et les 
états anémiQues, 728 
TEXTBOOK of chemistry (Goostray, 
Schwenck), (rev.), 468 
TEXTBOOK of medicine for nurses (Joule), 
(rev.), 466 
TEXTBOOK of pharmacolog), and therapeutics 
(\Vright, :Montag), (rev.), 745 
TEXTBOOK of ph:vsiology (Stackpole, Lea- 
veil), (rev.), 136 
THERIAULT, :.\[ichelle, 394 
THü:\lAS, Dorothy, 550 
THORPE, Louis (Katz) 
l..;lIderstandillg peoPle in distress (rev.), 
THOCGHT for spring (Bangham), (poem), 
THRESHOLDS to professiollal nursing practice 
(lIcKenna), (rev.), 913 
TICKET of nominations (CN A), 376 
T mlORRow' s pa ttera (Sharpe), (ed.), 597 
Too few for too many (Girard), (ed..>, 93 
TORRoP, Hilda M, (Goulding) 
Practical nurse and her paticnt (rev.), 748 
Impressions d'AfriQue. 630 

A Hunter, president, 799 
THRESHOLDS to professiollal1lursing practice 
(McKenna), (rev.), 913 
TRUTH about cancer (Cameron), (rev.), 990 
prevention in the far north (Walz), 43 
TWEEDIE, Stuart, 690 
Two-year course in nursing: 
Expérimentation dans l'éducation de l'in- 
firmière (Dion), 445- 
Program in i\ e".;foundland, -1-6 
Report on the experiment in nursing edu- 
cation of .-\ tkinson School of !\ ursing, 
Toronto \\Testern Hospital, 1950-55 
(\\'allace), 58 


LXDFRSTANDIXG pcople In distress (Katz, 
Thorpe), (rev.), 747 
C'J I\"ERSlTY hospitals: 
Xew, organizes the nursing sen']ce de- 
partment (Ruane), 341 
UXI\ ERSITY programs: 

 urses as teachers of science (Reid), 187 
Venture in field experience for graduate 
nurses (Allen), 276 
LXI\'ERSIT\ schools of nursing: 
Nursing programs at the University of 
Saskatchewan (\\ïllis), 40 
LXî\'ERSITY education for administration ill 
hospitals (Hamilton), (rev.). 54 
LSING case histories to learn (


\-A:o\TE. Russell E. 
Hospital adult cducation (rev.). 456 
Hospital ill-scr'ë.'icc educational training 
( re\". ), 456 
Y.-\XCF, Y., 563 



YEXTURE in field experience for graduate 
nurses (Allen), 2i6 
YICTORIAN Order of )J'urses: 
Appointments, transfers, resignations, 61, 
538, 83i 
Y ISITlXG nursing: 
Société des infirmières visiteuses (Rivard), 
\-ITAL statistics, R40 


\\"ALL, ::\[argaret Ann & por., 648 
\Y ALLACE, \V. Stewart 
Report on the experimcnt ill lIursillg edu- 
cation of the Atkillson school of nl/rsing, 
T orOllto H T estern Hospital 1950-55 
(rev.), 58 
\VALTERS, Lurline, 202 
\YALZ, Josephine (por.) , 43 
Tuberculosis pre\Oention in the far north, 
""ATAXABE, Lilv 
Epidermoid cãrcinuma, 534 
\Y.UERS, S. ::\lonica (re\. ), 5-1- 
\\- .usO"". E. M. 
Summary of clinical laboratory procedures, 
\YE cannot cume down (Spalding), 435 
\YEDGERY, Albert (por.), 636, 691 
X ew deal for male nurses, 636 
\YEISS, ::\1. Olga 
.-lffitltdcs in ps)'chiatric llursing care 
(rev.), 385 
""ELLARD, Frank G. 
::\Ieaning of rehabilitation, 90-1- 
\YHAT about \"acation plans (Collins), 109 
"" HA T it means to be old (Phillips), 611 
\ Y HEX a nurse has diabetes (Bell), 62ï 
\YHITEFORD, Jean (re\".), 466 
""HY attend the CX.-\. convention (Carmel), 
(ed.), 255 

\YILDFAXG, Edythe 
Student day acti\'ities, i06 
\YILUS. Lucy D. 
Xursing programs at the Cniversity of 
Saskatchewan, 40 
\YILSOK, Helen Christena, 545 
\\"ILSOK, Lola (rev.), 556 
.-\,nnual meeting in Saskatchewan, 898 
\VILSOX, ::\Iary Emily, 412 
Our senior citizens (ed.), 421 
\VILSON, ::\1. Jean (rev.), 219 
IPEG, the friendly city, 431 
"TITH our training we can help 
( Groenewald), 122 
\\"mlEx's auxiliary in action (Croll), 2S 
\\'ORLD Health Organization: 
Xurses: their education and their role in 
health programs, 126. i91 
Signpost at Geneva (Percy), ï90 
Sume considerations on the basic nursing 
curriculum (Carter), 35ï 
That the people be senoed, R20 
""RIGHT. ."-lice L. & por. 4il, 548 
""RIGHT, Doris (Bullock) 

Ieconium ileus. 193 
\\"RIGHT, E. HowelI (Jeans, Blake) 
Essentials of pediatrics (rev.), 218 
""RIGHT, Harold 
. 010ntag) 
Textbook of pharmacology and thera- 
pCl/tics (rev.), ï-l-5 


YEARBOOK of modern nursing, CN.-\. con- 
tribution to, 5-1-8 
YORK, Richard Y. (Greenblatt, Brown) 
From cl/stodial to t1lcrapeutic patient care 
ill men tal lwspi tals (rev.), 912 


ZIEHRA:'i:, Rita 
Rheumatoid arthritis, -1--1-8 




Editor and Busit,ess Uanage,' 

A ssistant Editor 
lacGREGOR. B.:"ì.. R.


Chairman - ISOBFL l\IACLEOD 



Alber to ........................................................................................................ \ \. I X X IFRED X ORQl' A Y 
B ,.;tish C 01 U III bia ...................................................................................... \ \. IL:\I A \ \" OOD 
M ani t 0 ba ......... ................. ...... ...... ..................... ...... ...................... ..... ........ LILL IA X PETTIC. RF \\ 
New B,'unswick ........................................................................................] EA K L Y XDS 
Newfoundland .......................................................................................... LILLIA X COLE:\IA K 
No va Scotia ........................................................................................... .....DüROT H Y GILL 
On Iorio ................................ ....................................................................... SAR.-\ H \ \" ALLACE 
P,.;nce Edward I sland ..............................................................................S ISTER ,M ARY DA nD 
Q ueber ............................................................................................ ............ 
Saskatchewan .............................................................................................CA T H ERI XE O' S HA UG H NESS Y 

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IS P rescrl e '... . 

/ ' '. 
R I . f / ,/ 
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may b,e 
Vicks VapoRub 
" \ 
" \ 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No.1 






"": . 







( )J 

THE volatile ingredients included in 
the basic Vicks VapoRub formula wïll 
make a steam treatment more effective, 
These ingredients-menthol. thymol, 
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I AUAKU),L.._..,.........................,...,........,...........Gladrs J. Sharpe 

OTYPI-. ...,..,...............,..........................,......................Cilda C. Crm'es 

1'1' SES PROßLF:\IFS.................................................._....,......Paul Dm'id 

25 A. \\'mIEN's .-\UXIUARY IN ACTION..........., ......... \Jarie C. Crull 

27 A Kl'RSE'S PRIVATE DF\'OTlONS............Beatrice A, AlacLean 

31 FRo),1 LITTLE .\coR
s............,.........................,...............Ethehll Butler 


39 J" 

OF SASKATCHF\VAN ,...,...,...............................,............Luc)' D. TI'iliis 

 THF FAR :\OHTH................. ................................./osephine TVaiz 



Editor and Business JlanllgeJ' 

The 'i'ic'lC's expressed 
in the 
'arinlls articles 
arc the vic'll's of 
the authors and 
do not nccessarily 
represcnt the policy 
'iC'lC's of 
nor of the Canadian 
SlIrses' Association. 

53 HYPOTE,,"SION .._ ,......_ ..........,...,...................,...........TI . Schwl'Ïshrimer 

54 BOOK Rn'IEws 

62 KEWS 



Assistant EditoJ' 

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Since gloss, like wood, changes with age, thermometers 
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Each B-D Thermometer undergoes 70 operations, including 
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I B-D I 


In Canada 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. No.1 


Ie ()

True to tradition, the president of the 
Canadian Kurses' Association, Glad
.s J. 
Sharpe, is our guest editor this month. 
Her account of the meeting of the I CN 
Board of Directors in Istanbul, Turkey, 
last August is useful and informative. After 
you have read that summary, be prepared 
for an interest-packed story of places visited, 
of thrills and experiences on a tour through 
many parts of this little known country. 
Perhaps January v.- ith its icy blasts, deep 
snow and frozen radiators would be a good 
time to go to Turkey! Since it is a physical 
impossibility for most of us to go perhaps 
you will draw vicarious enjoyment from 
the warmth and sunshine of Miss Sharpe's 
description of her trip. 
* * * 

Do you ever wonder, when you read part 
of a story in the daily paper or news mag- 
azine, what happened next? Only occasional- 
ly at a later date can we find any reference 
to the story that held our interest. On one 
story at least we are privileged to bring 
you some of the inside information. Do you 
remember the story' of the newborn infant 
in California whose life was saved by the 
transfusion of blood donated by two Indian 
women in Alberta? Every newspaper carried 
the story of the trip made by the R.CA.F. 
to Redwood City to deliver the precious 
shipment of the very rare type of blood. 
We are delighted to bring you the story 
behind this news item. Gilda G. Graves 
has written a fascinating account of the 
extraordinary discovery of an Indian tribe 
in Alberta many of whose members have 
this exceedingly rare type of blood. Do not 
fail to read "Chromosome Deletion in the 
Rh Genotype." 

* * * 
Every now and then we receive letters 
from nurses who write us that they want 
to get away from routine duties in a city 
hospital. "Can you tell me where I should 
apply for a position in the far north. . . in 
Labrador?" Josephine \Valz did not write 
us for any such information but she has 
been having some truly wonderful experi- 
ences while carr)ing on her tub
prevention program in northern Saskatch- 
ewan. It takes courage and stamina to de- 
velop a pioneer service of this kind so far 
from all the comforts and easy living in an 
urban job. 
Iiss \Valz is one of the growin


company of nurses who get great personal 
satisfaction from the service they can offer 
to settlers in the vast, underdeveloped areas 
of our country. 
If any of you are interested in breaking 
away from the ordinary humdrum of rou- 
tine nursing care and want Adventure (with 
a capital A,) we suggest that you study the 
advertisement of the Federal Indian Health 
Services on page 69 or that of the Gren- 
fell Labrador Medical Mission on page 74 
Your life would be very different, to put 
it mildly. 

* * * 
It is an essential part of every nurse's 
training that she should become as familiar 
with the details of the growth and develop- 
ment of normal infants and children as 
that she should know the signs, symptoms, 
treatment and nursing care for all of the 
abnormal conditions she may see. Ethelyn 
Butler used a most refreshing approach to 
her learning situation when she vitalized 
every phase of it into a human interest story. 
You will enjoy reading about the fashion in 
which the "Stuarts" adapted their pattern 
of living around their adopted baby - and 
in the reading you will be reminded of many 
points of chiid training you may have for- 

* * * 
The new pattern in curriculum develop- 
ment that is emerging at the l:niversity of 
Saskatchewan- School of Nursing is de- 
scribed for us by Lucy D. Willis, who is 
an assistant professor in that department. 
Those of you who read Betty Ellison's 
discussion of the value of operating room 
experience to the student nurse in our 
November, 1955 issue will be interested to 
discover how this experience fits into the 
total picture of training. The learning op- 
portunities that will be provided in the 
rural hospital affiliations, that are a part 
of the students' experience, will be an in- 
teresting development to watch. 
* * * 

If we wish to avoid despair for the future 
of mankind, we must cherish the hope that 
the nations of the world will find their way 
back to humanity and thereby arrive at a 
deeper and stronger capacity for humanity 
than ever before flourished on earth. 




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H COl"RTESY OF Canadian Pharmaccutical J oltrllal 

Manufacturer-A, H, Robins Co" Montreal, Que, 
Description-Each yellow compressed tablet contains methamphetamine HCl 3.33 
mg_, and phenobarbital 21.6 mg. Each yellow coated extentab contains the equivalent 
of 3 ambar tablets, the release of ingredients being controlled to provide therapeutic 
effects for 10 to 12 hours. 
Indications-Tension-anxiety states; as an appetite depressant in management of 
Administration-One or 2 tablets 3 or 4 times daily or as prescribed; or one or 
2 extentabs before breakfast 

Manufacturer-Paul Maney Laboratories of Canada Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 
Description-Each tablet contair..s: Aluminum hydroxide 3 gr., magnesium trisilicate 
6 gr., ascorbic acid (as sodium ascorbate) 20 mg. 
Indications-Gastric hyperacidity, peptic ulcer, chronic gastroenteritis. 
Administration-Adults, one or two tablets after meals; children, less in proportion, 
as prescribed, 

Manufacturer-G. W, Carnrick Co, Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 
Description-Each tablet contains: Butabarbital sodium 10 mg" methylcellulose 350 
mg" d-amphetamine sulphate 5 mg. 
Indications-For appetite control in management of obesity. 

Manufacturer-Sharp & Dohme Division of Merck & Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 
Description-A derivative of cortisone with anti-inflammatory activity in lower 
Indications-Conditions in which cortisone may be indicated. 

Manufacturer-E. B. Shuttleworth Limited, Toronto, Ont. 
Description-Contains per tablet: Oxethyltheophyllin 200 mg" reserpine crystalline 
0.1 mg, 
Indications-Congestive heart failure, cardiac edema, angina, coronary thrombosis, 
cardiac and bronchial asthma, hypertension. 
Administration-One or two tablets three or four times a day, 

Manufacturer-Paul Maney Laboratories of Canada Ltd" Hamilton, Ont. 
Description-Enteric coated red tablets acetylsalicylic acid 10 gr. 
Indications-Rheumatic disorders requiring large doses of acetylsalicylic acid with 
minimal gastrointestinal irritation. 
Administration-2 to 8 tablets daily. 

Manufacturer-Paul Mar..ey Laboratories of Canada Ltd., Hamil ton, Ont. 
Description-Each cc, contains: Progesterone 25 mg., testosterone propionate 25 mg., 
chlorobutanol anhydrous 0,5/'0' sesame oil q,s. 
Indications-Used as an aid in controlling functional uterine bleeding and amen- 
orrhea therapy. 
Administration-One cc. daily for 3 to 5 consecutive days by injection into the 
upper quadrant of the gluteal muscle or as determined by the physician.. 

Manufacturer-E. B. Shuttleworth Limited, Toronto, Ont. 
Description-Contains per tablet: Mephobarbital, 30,0 mg., reserpine crystalline 
0.1 mg, 
Indications-As a day-time sedative in treatment of agitated, depressed and anxiety 
states where a minimum of hypnotic action is desired. 

The Journal p/esents pharmaceuticals for illformatioll. Nurses 1111derstalld that onl}' a ph}'sician may prescribe. 




"'." . 


School of Nursing 


A Four-Calendar-Year Course designed to prepare students for all 
branches of community and hospital nursing practice and leading to the 
degree, Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.Sc.N.). It includes studies in the 
humanities, basic sciences and nursing. Bursaries, loans and scholarships 
are available. 

A Two-Year Course designed to prepare graduate nurses to teach basic 
sciences in schools of nursing and leading to the degree, Bachelor of 
Education in Nursing (B.Ed.N.). It includes studies in the humanities, the 
physical, social and biological sciences, teaching and nursing education. 
For additional information, write to: 
School of Nursing, Hamilton College, 
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. 


Offers to qualified Regist
red Nurses 
a 16-week supplementary course in 


with instruction and practice in the 
general surgical, neurosurgical, plastic. 
orthopedic, gyn
cologic, urologic and 
ear, nose and throat operatinc room 
services. Maintenance and stipend are 

For information write to: 

Director, School of Nursinl 
The Johns Hopkins Hospital 
Baltimore 5, Maryland, U.S.A. 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. NQ. 1 

Philadelphia, Penna. 

The largest eye hospital in the 
United States offers a six-month course 
in Nursing Cm'e of the Eye to Grad- 
uates of .-lccredited Xursi"g Schoo/so 
Operating Room Training is scheduled 
in the course. 

per month for four months and $175 
per month for the ne)o.t two months. 
· REGISTRATIOX FEE is $15 which 
takes care of pin and certificate. 
· Classes start 
Iarch 15th and Sept. 
15th. Ophthalmic nurses are in great 
demand for hospital eye departments, 
operating rooms. and ophthalmologists' 

F 01' information w,.;te to 
Dire(.tor of :Xur
\\'ills E)'e Hosl)Ïtal, 
1601 :SprinJ{ Garden 
Philadelphia 30, Penna. 





This course is especially valuable 
to those contemplating Public 
Health, Industrial, or Tuber- 
culosis Nursing. 

For further infon11ati011 apþly to: 
Director of Nursing, 

1ountain Sanatorium, 
Hamilton, Ontario. 


HOSPITAL offers six-month courses in 
Theory and Practice in Psychiatric 
Nursing to Graduate Nurses in good 
standing in their own province. 

Classes - Spring and Fall. 

Complete maintenance or living-out 
allowance, meals in hospi tal and uni- 
form laundry for the first three months. 
General duty rates the second three 

For further information 'lJ.'rite to: 
Miss H. M. Lamont, Director of Nursing, 
Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal Z, Que. 
or Miss Kathleeen Marshall, Supervisor of 
Nurses, Allan Memorial Institute of Psy- 
chiatry, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal 
Z, Que. 


THE Nov.'\ SCOTIA HOSPITAL offer, to 
Qualified Graduate Nurses a 5ix- 
month certificate course in Psychiatri
N "n;"g. 

· Classes in J un
 and December. 

· Remuneration and maintenance, 

For furthel" illformation apþly fo: 

Superintendent of NursE's 
N ova Scotia Hosilital 
Drawer 350 
Dartmouth, X o\'n Scotia 



Courses for Graduate Nurses 

Term 1955-56 

The School of Nursing offers one-year 
diploma Courses in the following fields: 

1. PublIc Health Nursing. 

2. Teaching and Supervision in 
Schools of Nursing. 

The Director, 
School of Nursing 
Dalhousie University 
Halifax, N.S. 


For" run-down II people 

PERI HEMIN certainly picks up 
"run-down" patients. It's the hema- 
tinic with the purified intrinsic factor 
concentrate and includes all the 
known blood-building essentials: 
Iron, B 12 , C, Folic Acid, Stomach, 
and Liver Fraction. 
PERIHEMIN is a master-builder of 
red blood cells and hemoglobin and 
is prescribed in the treatl11ent of the 
common anemias and as an adjunct 
in treatment of pernicious anemia. 

PERIHEMIN is available in these 
convenient forms: 
JR Capsules for Children 



Perihemin * 

C h 


Iron · BI2 . C . Folic Acid. Stomach. 
Liver Fraction 
with Purified Intrinsic Factor Concentrate Lederle 

- , 

."eg, Trade Mark 

5550 Royalmount Avenue. Town of Mount Royal. Montreal, Quebec 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No. 1 



Offers to qualified Registered Grad- 
uate Nurses the following oppor- 
tunities ior ad\"anced preparation 

1. A six-month Clinical Course in 

2, A six-month Clinical Course in 
 Room Principles and 
.4 dvanced P,'actice. 

These courses commence in JANUARY 
and SEPTEMBER of each year. Main- 
tenance is provided. A reasonable sti- 
pend is gi\Oen after the first month. 
Enrolment is limited to a maximum of 
six students in each course. 

F or further illfor/llatiml Please <.l'rite to: 



School of Nursing, Montreal 


1. A four-month clinical course in 
Obstetrical Nuning. 

2. A two-month clinical course in 
Gynecological Nursing. 

Salmoy-After second month at 
General Staff rates. 

For information aPPly to: 

Director of Nursing 
Royal Victoria Hospital 
Montreal 2. Que. 



1. Degree Course learling to B.N.Sc. 
Opportunity is provided for special- 
ization in final year. 

2. Diploma Courses: 
(a) Teaching, Supervision 111 
Schools of Nursing, 
(b) Public Health Nursing. 

Fnr information appl)' to: 




Offers to Graduate 
urses a Six- 
Month Course in Tuberculosis Nursing, 
including Immunology, Prevention, 
Medical & Surgical Treatment. 
1. Full series of lectures by Medical 
and Surgical staff. 

2, Demonstrations and Clinics. 

3. Experience in Thoracic Operating 
Room and Postoperative Cnit. 

4, Full maintenance, salary & all staff 

50 Classes start :!\1.ay 1st and Novem- 
ber 1st. 

For illfor1llatio" apply to: 



1955 INDEX 

1955 11tde


1522 Sherbrooke St, '''est 

Please þrillt all details. 




Number of copies desired 

Zone No. 

Provo . 



The Hospital for Mental Diseases, 
Brandon, Manitoba, offers a 6-month 
Diploma Course in Psychiatric Nursing 
to Registered Nurses. 
Applicants accepted in September of 
each year. Salary while taking course: 
$205 per mo. less $25 per mo. for full 

Upon completion of course nurses are 
eligible for positions on Permanent 

F or further iJtformation at Ply: 

Superintendent of Nurses, 
Hospital for Mental Diseases, 
Brandon, Manitoba. 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No.1 




for Stafi and Supervisory positions in 
various parts of Canada 
Applications will be considered from 
Registered ?\ urses without Public 
Health training but with Cniversity 
entrance qualifications. 


4..J.P ply to: 
Director in Chief, 
Victorian Order of Nurses 
for Canada, 
193 SP:\Rh:S STREET, 
. Ont. 





Sterile, pyrogen-free 
and ready-to-use 
For Vacuum Collection: 
AlIO-VAC(R)-A-C-DSolution, U.S.P. 
(N.I.H, Formula B), in Universal 
bottles. 500- and 250-cc, sizes. Blood 
is drawn directly iRto container by 
vacuum. Sterile, disposable Blood 
Donor Set also available. 
For Gravity Collection: 
NON-VAC. - A-C-D Solution, U.S.P. 
(N,I.H. Formula B). in Universal 
bottles, 500- and 250-cc. sizes, Blood 
is drawn directly into container 
(closed technique) by gravity. 
Donopak(R) 24and 48. with or without 
attached, sterile, disposable needles 
also available, 
AbboU A-C.O Blood Contain. - A-C-D 
Solution, U,S,P, (N,I,H. Formula B), 
in the familiar Abbo-Liter(R) 
intravenous bottles, 500- and 250-cc. 
sizes, Blood is drawn (closed 
technique) direclly inlo container by 
gravily. Available wilh Sodium 
Citrate 3% Solution in 5oo-cc, size. 
Vonopak 24 and 48, wilh or wilhout 
disposable needles also available. 
For Storing Plasma: 
EvacUlled Emply Plasma Containers- 
Sterile evacusled 500- and 250-cc. 
Universal bottles tor storing, 
transporting and administering 
plasma or serum. 
Blood Racipi.nI III-Sterile, disposable, 
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administering blood from any 
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cha m ber. 
VENOPAK(R)- Abbott's sterile, 
disposable venoclysis unit for the 
administration of all intravenous 
solutions. Converts readily to a blood 
recipient set with a special, disposable 
blood filter, For use exclusively with 
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(Series Hookup) 
S-dary Recipient 111- A unique, 
disposable unit with a built-in, 
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Designed to plug into any Universal 
blood bottle and to connect with 
Abbott's VENOPAK dispensing cap. 
Allows changeover from saline to 
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removing needle from vein. 
SecondaryVENOPAK - Disposable 
unit designed for the continuous 
administration of fluids in the series 
hookup with VENOPAK. 
SUB-O-PAK(R)-A completely dispos- 
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unit with plastic Y tube for admims. 
tration of fluids subcutaneously. 
VENOTUIE(R)- Length of plastic 
tubing with attached male and female 
Luer adapters and pinch clamp,Allows 
anesthesiologist to keep syringe 
oft the patient's arm. Panch clamp 
offers additional factor of safety. 


with Venopak@serles hookup 

WHEN seconds count, )'ou can chan/le fluid therapy in less than 
30 seconds 
 ith Abbott's eas} -to-use \ E:'iOP -u.. in series hoolup. 
There's no time-consuming dismantling and reas<;emhling of 
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suspend,; the spcond fluid rlìntainer in position and inserts the 
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the primaQ containcr. Lile all others in the .\.bhott I. Cline, 
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Abhott represcntatÏ\ e for a demonstration. Or \\ rite (illß--ott) 
nIITED, \IO:-'TRE-\L. 




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THE cßnßulßn nURSE 



" " 







Salaam Aliakum* 

I T HAS BEEN SAID that the pleasures 
of travel exist best in retrospect 
and seldom in the instant when ex- 
perienced. Hmvever, one infallible aid 
to retrospection is to prepare a report 
such as this, with the hope that you 
too will share these first brief and 
still vivid near-East impressions. Why 
Turkey? was an oft-asked question, 
and the answer takes us back to the 
LC.N. meeting in Rio de Janeiro, 
July 1953, when the Turkish Nurses' 
Association invited the Board to hold 
their 1955 meeting in Turkey and 
thereby commemorate the IOO-year an- 
niversarv of the work of Florence 
Nightingale at Scutari. 
Our first impressions of Turkey were 
at Yesilköy - Istanbul's modern air- 
port, reached after an uneventful trip 
with brief stops in London, Amster- 
dam and Munich. We were met bv 
two members of the Turkish Nurse
Association and the husband of a third 
who expedited tl)e details of passport 
and customs examination and police 
registration. Our hostesses knew a few 
phrases in English, w
 not a word 

* The common Turltish salutation - 
"Peace be 'with you." 

JANUARY, 1956 · Vol. 52. NO.1 

of Turkish. The hour-long drive to the 
largest city and former capital of 
Turkey took us on a rough, hilly road, 
through pastures of Biblical shepherds, 
to the city gate of Istanbul, a narrow 










Graetz Bros. Ltd., Montreal 


opening in the 1 SaO-year old wan built 
In- Theodosius II. At il1teryal" we 
cãught the aroma of spicy cooking 
and heard strains of haunting Turkish 
music. It was midnight when we 
reached the fabulous Hilton Hotel and 
morning before we gained our first 
magnificent ,-iew across the Busporus. 
Istanbul, formerly Constantinople, is 
built un méUlY hills, on one of which 
is the Hilton -Hotel. It is the site from 
which, in 1453. the 1Ioslem 
portaged his ships m"erland to drop 
them behind the defense chain
ing the entrance into the Golden Horn. 
-:' so doing he conlluered the weak- 
ened Christian Byzantine Empire. 
It can truly be said that the week 
in I
tanbul \
.as constructive and in- 
spiring. There was good discussion 
of the business items of the Agenda; 
social en'nts and visits to historic 
places were wisely interspersed; and 
from the windows of the room set 
aside for the meetings, delegates could 
look across the Bosporus to the Bar- 
racks at Scutari. where. one hundred 
years ago, Florence Xightingale car- 
ried out a revolution in nursing care 
and hospital administration. 
The meetings were presided over 
hy our president. :\Iarie Bihet. and 
attended hy reprðentatives of 2ó 
member associations. Executive sec- 
retaries from 16 associations were also 
present, and for the first time (by 
unanimous decision of the Board at 
its opening session) were permitted 
tu participate freel} in discussion. 
Here are some important matters 
on which the Board took action: 
It was recommended to the Grand 
Council, that there be a reorganization 
of the administrative "machinery" of the 
F.X.I.F., by \d1Ïch it will become the 
Educational Division of the Le.X., and 
be associated with the total progr
even more closely than at present. One 
activity of the F..K,LF. has been the 
compilation of a bibliograph
 on the life 
and work of Florence ?\"ightingale. The 
bibliographer, the former head of the 
\Yellcome Historical 
Iedical Library 
has drawn to our dttention that the col- 
lection of Florence ?\"ightingale's letters 
\, ill b
 something quite unique and 
probably much sought after by historical 
libraries all over the world. It will con- 
taill over 10,000 letter.. and will be the 


largest collection of letters written by 
one individual ever catalogued and pub- 
New premises for Le.X. headquarters 
have been purchased within five minutes 
walk of \Yestminster ,Abbey. 
The Le.X. 11th Quadrennial Con- 
gress will be held at the Esposizione 
Clliversale Romana Congress Hall in 
Rome. l\Iay 2i-June I, 195i. It was de- 
cided that the registration fee will be 
5 shillings Sterling, exc1usiye of ac- 
commodation charges. As seating facil- 
ities in the Great Hall are limited to 
3000 an allocation "ill be made, each 
national association being allowed a 
percentage of places according to its 
A meeting of the Grancl Council will 
be held during the Congress week. and 
(for the first time in LeX. history) 
will be open to all Congress participants. 
The theme of the Congress \\ ill be 
"Responsibility" (the watchword given 
by the retiring president. 
Iiss Gerda 
Höjer, at the last session of the Con- 
gress in Brazil, in 1953). The languages 
of the Congress will be Italian. French 
and English. 
E),.change pri" ileges of nurses beÌ\\ een 
various countries '" ere studied. In the 
past two years more than 4.000 nurses 
have obtained employment in countries 
abroad and 1200 haye studied abroad, 
The committee on nursing sen-ice 
presented a yaluable report on the need 
for, and the denlopment of acceptable 
standards of nursing care throughout 
the world. A paper of acceptahle stand- 
ards of neurosurgical nursing presented 
by the S\\ edish N urses' A

ociation was 
accepted for release to all countries. 
On the final day of meetings our 
group, of comparable size to the one 
led hy FlorL'l1ce Xightingale, made a 
pilgrimage to the Se1imiye military 
harracks in Scutari which includes 
the historical harracks hospital. The 
immense square building of three 
stories surrounds a cuurt. At each 
corner is a tower and the distance 
from the entrance to the X urses' 
Tower is roughly a quarter of a mile. 
\-isualize a colonnaded corridor. each 
column effectively draped with the 
crimson and white national flag, and 
in frunt of which stand alternatek a 
member of the garrison forces an
l a 
Turkish nur
e. A. brass hand occupies 


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J.e.v. Board of Directors at H ()te1 Hilton, Istanbul. 

one wall. At the signal "present arms," 
the officers of the garrison honored 
those of us who represented the 
450.000 nurses of the world and re- 
mainerl at salute until all members of 
the Board had filed past. Then came 
the stirring roll of drums and a few 
seconds of deep silence! Such an emo- 
tional experience comes but once in 
a lifetime! Following several addresses 
from military and other dignitaries, 
the Board of Directors presented to 
l\Iiss Esma Deniz. president of the 
Turkish X urses' Association a cita- 
tion : 
Here in Turkey the spirit of nursing 
was born. Here in Uskudar, Florence 
Nightingale, pioneer of nursing. admin- 
istrator and statesman, demonstrated to 
the world the efficacy of nursing care. 
Here, during the century that has fol- 
lowed her great achie\-ements, her spirit 
has remained, her memory has been 
cherished, and her work carried on. 
The ceremony concluded with the 
presentation of 
flowers to 
Ille Bihet 
bv a membtT of the Turkish Nurses' 
A.ssociation with whom we agreed 
when, in making the presentation, she 
exclaimed, "J am so exciting!" 
Our husiness concluded. 
Iiss Stiver 
and 1 were free to see and learn more 
of our environment. Istanlml is the 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No.1 

only city in the world "astride two 
continents." Europe on the west and 
Asia on the east. it is situated on the 
entrance of the Bosporus which links 
the Sea of :\Iarmora with the Black 
Sea. \Yhile no longer the capital. Is- 
tanbul is still Turkey's most important 
social, intellectual and commercial 
centre. The 1950 census gi\ es the 
population as slightly oyer one million 
- that of Turkev as 21 million. 
Accompanied 1))" guides who spoke 
fairly good English we were taken 
on a tour of the citv and. in a most 
interesting manner, -briefed as to its 
social and archaeological history. \Ve 
were impressed by the many references 
to the driying Kemal Ataturk, who it 
is said, "carefully transplanted the 
western democratic system like so 
much new turf on Turkey's ancient 
culture where it has taken root and 
grown." \\'e learned how, from 1923 
until his death 15 \Tears later, he re- 
made the language ánd the la \\"s. broke 
the hold of church on state, organized 
industry and education, hrought 
women from "Yasmak" to franchise 
and aholished the Fez. \ V e visited the 
bedroom in a fonner Sultan's palace 
in which Ataturk died, and sa,,- the 
reycrence with which it was yie\\"ed 
by the Turkish nurses in our partv. 


The old part of Istanbul is sur- 
rounded by Byzantine walls repaired 
and enlarged by the Ottoman Turks 
in the mid-sixteenth century. Viewing 
the city from the sea or from any hill, 
one is impressed by the domes and 
minarets of its many mosques, some 
500 in all. One of the most beautiful 
visited was that of Sultan Ahmed, 
better kno"'n in the west as the Blue 
l\Iosque. Built in 1609 it is the only 
one in the world sentinelled by six 
minarets. The luminous blue air is 
made so by the blue-green mosaic of 
its enormous dome around the outside 
of which pigeons circle, while inside, 
soft Turkish carpets stretch over a 
floor "the size of four baseball dia- 
monds. ., As \ve replaced our shoes 
we heard the cries of the muezzins, 
who are chosen for the beaut" and 
power of their voices, calling"" from 
the minarets the five l\Ioslem hours 
of prayer. In response came the faith- 
ful, pausing in the courtyards to wash 
head, arms and feet. 
\lVe travelled on the car-ferrv from 
European I stanbul across th
porus to the Asiatic suburbs in 20 
minutes and for less than ten cents, 
On board, the other passengers drank 
coffee and tea without milk, from 
tiny glasses standing on saucers. (A 
demi-tasse of Turkish coffee at the 
Hotel Hilton cost the equivalent of 
40 cents.) In the corner of the deck 
sat a group of older Turkish women 
wearing heavy black clothes with 
shawls covering their heads and held 
over the lower parts of their faces. 
Passing up and down Bosporus were 
the pcaked-sterned, blue and orange 
fishing boats which daily weave 
through the submarine nets at the top 
of the Bosporus to fish in the choppy 
Black Sea. 
On one trip we passed Leanders 
Tower where legend says the unfor- 
tunate Hero watched her lover 
Leander drown as he swam to meet 
her. Our port of call was the Billue 
Kosk where delicious tea was brewerl 
the Turkish way in a tiny teapot 
atop a samovar. Here we saw men 
smoking the long curved waterpipe 
called the K agleh which is "fired" by 
jasmin wood and Persian tobacco, then 
cooled by being passed through rose- 


One day we drove to the small sea- 
side village of Shile some 80 miles 
along the south coast of the Black Sea. 
There, as guests of a fortner Egyptian 
Princess, we were welcomed in homes 
where we saw flax being spun, woven 
and embroidered. The houses were as 
clean as scrubbing could make them, 
but of course, we unbelievers had re- 
moved our shoes. vVhen we saw a row 
of only partially covered buckets along 
the wall of the central living-room and 
learned these comprised the sanitary 
facilities of the average vilIage home, 
the presence of many flies and the 
high rate of infantile diarrhea were 
understood. The peasant women wore 
long black Russian-type blouses over 
fitted white trousers above bare feet 
with a balaclava-like head dress of 
yellow. \Ve saw a wedding party leave 
the Shile viIIage, the bride weeping 
bitterly, the groom somewhat embar- 
ressed as they sat on opposite sides 
of a small bus which was taking them 
and some two dozen guests to their 
new home in another village. 
Our chauffeur doubled as waiter 
and provided a meal such as we had 
110t dared indulge in during the meet- 
ings. An old Turkish proverb says 
"The spirit gets into a man with the 
food he eats" and so the Turkish 
spirit entered us as we enjoyed: 
Do/mas - green peppers stuffed with 
rice and meat cooked in olive oil, 
Güllac - a typical dessert of starch 
wafers with pounded almonds, all 
soaked in milk, white cheese, olives, 
Yogurt - which the Turks eat as 
much as we eat ice cream - Anatolian 
wine, and finally bunches of white, 
red, green and blue grapes. The strong 
Turkish coffee acted as a salutary 
From the normal disorder of Istan- 
bul to Greece was a matter of about 
three air hours. We were greeted at 
Athens airport by members of the 
Greek Nurses' Association and a 
station wagon inscribed "gift from 
Kanada." \Ve considered ourselves ex- 
tremelv fortunate in that our visit co- 
incided with the "Festival of Athens," 
A great philosopher once said that the 
function of drama is to cause a purga- 
tion of the emotions through pity and 
fear. That was our experience. \Ve 
sat on the ,veather-beaten tiers of the 


ancient odeion of Herod Atticus and 
heard Gluck's pn.::-;entation of "Orfeo 
and Euridice" in the original Italian. 
Problems of an evervdav world sud- 
denly became insignifical{t. 
I _eaving the theatre and the very 
seats on \vhich the Greeks had sat 
for 2,000 years we were awed by the 
splendor of its natural setting. From 
under the shadow of the Parthenon. 
moonlight flooded the Acropolis and 
the hill of the :\Iuses, and we were 
transported to the Golden Age. There 
is no douht that the ancient Greeks 
chose ideal sites for their temples and 
theatres for each fulfills a practical 
e, and also satisfies one's high- 
est sense of beauty. On a spot of awe- 
inspiring grandeur was built the 
sanctuary of Aesculepias. It was here 
that our guide, an instructor at the 

A New Year Greeting 

May Faith be with thee thro' the year. 
That realizes God is near, 
That fills with peace and life and light, 
That guides thee in the darkest night. 
\Vhate'er thy circumstances be. 
May steadying faith abide with thee! 

fay hope be with thee thro' the year. 
To smooth thy way and give thee cheer, 
To sing to thee in cloudy day, 
T a pour on thee her gladdening ray. 
However drear thy lot may be, 
May heartening hope abide with thee! 

Red Cross school of nursing, was in 
her element. vVe were guided step by 
step through the ruins of the world's 
first hospital, and followed the medical 
routine prescribed for the people of 
centuries ago. impressed again and 
again by the wisdom of the Ancients 
whose dream oracle - baths and gym- 
nasia - were directed towards pre- 
vention and cure just as surely as the 
psycho-therapy and physiotherapy of 
20th century medical science are direc- 
ted towards rehabilitation. 
Here, reflecting on the most beau- 
tiful ruins of antiquity, I would take 
leave of the age of Pericles and return 
to our 20th century task of meeting 
the health needs of Canada's people. 
Canadian J.Vurses' Association 

Iay love be with thee thm' the year, 
.-\. love that shall make duty dear. 
That breathes in word and shines in deed 
That's richer. grander far than creed. 
That's quick to feel and do and see. 
May strengthening love abide with thee! 

Iay Gorl h
 \vith the thro' the year. 
Thy hand to hold, thy path to clear, 
To feed thee 011 the bread of life. 
To crown with victory in the strife, 
In this and in the world to be. 
May God himself abide with thee! 

In 1956 may you have - 
Enough happiness to keep you sweet; 
Enough trials to keep you strong; 
Enough sorrow to keep you human; 
Enough hope to make your heart sing; 
Enough labor to keep you from rust; 
Enough leisure to make you broad; 
Enough religion to make you value the best; 
Enough of the love of Christ to make vou serve 

Things cannot always go your own way, 
Learn to accept in silence the minor ag- 
gravations. cultivate the gift of taciturnity 
and consume your own smoke with an extra 

.JANUARY. 1956. Vol. 52. No.1 

draught of hard work, so that those about 
you ma
 not be annoyed with the dust and 
smoke of your complaints. 


Chromosome Deletion 
In the Rh Genotype 


I K RI:D\\'OOD CITY, California, a baby 
was born bv Caesarean section. 
I\ewspapers Ü\'er the entire Korth 
American continent carried news of 
her condition. Radio stations in the 
"Gnited States. Canada, and as far 
away as Lausanne, S,yitzerIand, in- 
formed their listeners in both French 
and English that bahy Denise Robert- 
son had survi,-ed. 
The story behind the press releases 
was as fascinating as the medical case 
itself. Babv Denise had heen trans- 
fused, fol1åwing her birth. with blood 
donated by two Canadian women of 
Indian extraction - two, of onlv three 
known donors, of sufficient age and 
rare blood type, who could have given 
her the precious chance of life. 
The story. of course, goes further. 
I n the Rh genotype there are two 
chromosomes with six genes, 1\\"0 pairs 
of three. They are lettered in the fol- 
lowing manner: cdejcde. One set is 
transmitted In- the mother, the other 
by the father. "J f any of these six genes 
is expressed by a capital letter 
CDejcde or cDEjcde, or any number 
of possible variations, the individual 
is Rh positive. If expressed in small 
letters, with the absence of even one 
capital letter, the individual is Rh 
negative - that is, cdejcde. To estab- 
lish which of the ktters are present, 
the hlood cells are tested with anti- 
sera C, antisera D. antisera E, and 
antisera c. and antisera e (small d 
being unavailable.) If agglutination 
occurs with large anti-C for example, 
you would know that the serum being 
tested would have a large C on at 
least one "side" of the division or 
chromosome. Similarly, if agglutination 
occurs with anti-small c serum vou 
could assess that the patient posse
a small c gene on the other '(side" 

Miss Graves has joined the faculty 
of her Alma Mater, the General Hos- 
pital, Edmonton, Alta. 


or chromosome. The only unknown is 
the s111al1 d gene. \Yhen the patient's 
cells are negative (are not agglutin- 
'ated) by anti-D, the small "d" is be- 
lieved to be present - as in the Rh 
negative cdejcde. 
So it progresses. with the D, and 
E, e antisera until the entire geno- 
type can he worked out (excepting d). 
In 1950, Dr. R. R. Race of London, 
England. discovered an extremely rare 
case of chromosomal deletion, where an 
individual was found to possess no c,C, 
and e,E, genes, and the blood geno- 
type was expressed -D-j-D- the pa- 
tient being Rh positive. 
entil 1954-, only four such persons 
had been discovered in the entire 
hematological world - Dr. Race de- 
scribing one case, Drs. \Valler, Sanger 
and Bobbitt, one ca
e in 1953, Dr. 
PhiUip Levine of the Ortho Research 
Founòation. Raritien, New Jersey, 
also descrihing one case, In all four 
of these isolated cases, the familial 
geneology and relative blood testing, 
dre\\' forth no new cases. 
Then in l\larch, 195-+, a thirty-one 
,-ear old woman of Indian descent was 

dmitted to the l\lisericordia hospital, 
Edmonton, with a hemoglobin of 8.5 
gm. per cent on admission. Cross- 
matching by the Canadian Red Cross 
Blood Transfusion Service showed her 
to be group O. Rh positive, and yet 
none of the 22 bottles of Group 0 Rh 
positive blood, held at the bank, 
matched the patient's specimens. 
It was realized that here must be 
an extremely rare type of blood. Speci- 
mens were sent to Toronto, and to 
Dr. Levine who confirmed this fact. 
Rarest of medical rarities - her blood 
proved to be a chromosomal deletion 
-D-j-D-. · 
As her hemoglobin further dropped 
to 5.8 gm. per cent, relatives were 
called for cross-matching, and one 
sister's blood was compatible in saline, 
albumin and indirect Coombs method. 


After only 250 cc. had been adminis- 
tered the transfusion had to be di
continued. This could have been a 
pyrogenic reaction but could also have 
been due to the fact that in 1951-52, 
the patient had been given a total of 
eight transfusions of 500 cc. each of 
blood containing C,c, and E or e an- 
tigens to which she had developed 
antibodies. Her sister's blood also con- 
tained anti-e and probably anti-c re- 
sulting from three previous pregnancies 
and two transfusions. At the time of 
the donation, she was in the sixth 
month of another pregnancy at which 
time the antibody level was further 
Dr. D. I. Buchanan, Provincial 
Director of the Canadian Red Cross, 
then began his quest, '\vhich continues 
after 18 months, as elusive as when 
commenced. Blood specimens were ob- 
tained from the original patient, her 
husband, and family, and samples were 
sent to Dr. Race and Dr. Levine for 
confirmation of results. "'C"nbelievably. 
it was found that the patient had 
married a man who also posses
the rare deletion on one side CDej-D-. 
This had no known precedent in med- 
ical historv. 
Since, ;t that time. I was the nurse 
in charge of the Edmonton Indian 
Agency, Indian Health Services. and 
knew so manv of the relatives of thes(' 
people. Dr. -Buchanan asked me to 
assist him in obtaining hlood speci- 
mens of the family. 
Knowing thes
 people wen, and 
knowing of their close intermarriages 
(the original patient was second 
cousin to her own children) and the 
magnitude of the groups. we needed 
some guide to selectivity of hlood 
Dr. Buchanan had heen asked to 
write a paper on the original case for 
the International Convention of Hema- 
tology in Paris in September. 1954, 
and the paper was to he ready by 
June. Since it was already 
\pril, and 
the roads were quagmires of mud we 
could not waste time. 
Knowing that the entire group were 
Roman Catholics, I realized that at 
least the deaths, baptisms, and formal 
marriages had been faithfulIy recorded 
by the Oblates of :l\Iarv Immaculate 
order. who have been \vorking with 

JANUARY. 1956. Vol. 52, NO.1 

this particular group since 1845. The 
hub of this wheel was the Parish of 
St. Albert, where by rare good luck, 
we discovered the parish priest, Father 
Emile Tardif, o.m.i., to be the ideal 
partner we needed. 
For the next two months Father 
Tardif and I spent every available 
moment reading page after page of 
old church records; S1. Albert, Ville- 
neuve, Rivière Qui Barre, Lac Ste, 
Anne, and even to Lesser Slave Lake. 
\Ve sent to Quebec for information. 
vVe pondered over minutely small 
handwriting long faded with age, 
checking and rechecking. Two months 
later, as we eased aching fingers and 
burning eyes, we realized that we had 
traced over 1650 people, through six 
generations, back at least to the year 
N ow, as I met these people in my 
daily travels, all those who belonged 
on our "family trees," in the direct 
lines of descent, further augmented 
our information. They willingly gave a 
blood specimen. l\lore elusive people 
were sought on our muddy expeditions 
by station wagon, panel, team, or on 
foot until we had collected over 150 
blood specimens. \Ve found 24 people 
with the deletion on one or both sides 
of the genotype! 
The first paper on the mating of 
rare chromosomes was presented in 
Paris in September 1954 bv Dr. 
George Miller, National Director of 
Red Cross, Toronto, The tt'n minutes 
alloted for this paper were doubled 
due to the extreme interest of the del- 
A second paper was presented in 
Toronto at the Canadian Red Cross 
meeting in June, 1955, and a third 
on the successful completion of a 
pregnancy of a -D-j-D- mother and 
a complete chromosome father, at the 
joint British Canadian Medical con- 
vention in June, 1955, in Toronto. 
\Vhen it was found, at the Sequoia 
Hospital. in Red \Vood City. that 
11rs. K adine Robertson, an obstetrical 
patient. had a missing E-e gene, an 
appeal ,vas macle to Dr. Le,'ine for 
assistance in locating blood for the 
expected complete replacement of 
blood that the baby would require. 
Knowing of our work, he suggested 
an immediate contact through the Red 


s. The California hospital author- 
ities notified the K ational Office of the 
Canadian Red Cross in Toronto, and 
California joined Alberta in an inter- 
national effort to save the life of a yet 
unborn child. "' 
Dr. Buchanan knew he had three 
donors whose hlood would match. 
being uniyersal donor type O. Rh 
positive as was :\lrs. Rohertson. Since 
one donor had already gin'n 1500 cc. 
of blood in Februarv for his sister's 
deliYen", it was dec1ded to take the 
two si;ters' blood - both group 0, 
Rh positiye -D-j-D-. Since they pos- 
'>e"sed no cCjeE, there could be no 
reaction to 
Irs. Robertson's anti- 
bodies that she had developed from the 
pregnancy. She possesscd no small e, 
that her husband had transmitted to 
their unhorn child. 
Thirtv-fin' miles nortl1\\"('st of Ed- 
monton' to the :\Iichel Band, Dr. 
Buchanan and ] went hy station 
wagon and, completing thé trip by 
horse and wagon. we obtained the 
first donation. The next dav Dr. Buch- 
anan drove to :Marlborough, 140 miles 
west of Edmonton for the second 
Tests completed; the hlood cleared 
through customs; special fi Iters pro- 
vided to prevent the bottles bursting 
at high altitudes: the blood was taken 
hy an R.C.A.F. jet to California. On 
arrival the hlood was spun down a 
centrifuge to remove all the plasma 
(the antibodies present frum the don- 
or's transfusions and pregnancies are 
in the plasma) and the packed cells 
were then washed in saline (anti- 
hoclies also coat the outside of the 
cells). The blood was then recon- 
stituted in group ...-\.B antibody free 
The replacements were carried out 
through the baby's umbilical vein. After 
the cut-down incisions of the ankles 
had healed, baby Denise joined her 
ten-vear old sister Susan at home with 
other and father. And no happier 
than they were two Canadian women, 

of Indian ancestn', who wanted no 
thanks or praise: They were truly 
happy that they had sayed the life 
of a hahy by their own generosity. 
K ow the publicity has died, and 
one can bareh- recall the event. Yet 
the work \yilt" continue. Partial dele- 
tions are still found as we explore the 
fringes of our two groups and there 
are many questions 
til1 awaiting 
answers. \Yhy do their cells agglutin- 
ate in saline with blocking anti-D? 
"Thy did the c or C and e or E drop 
off in the first instance? Is it due 
to some weird transmutation or freak 
of nature, or do these lkople possess 
some other factor - an inhihitor or 
destroyer. that Father Tardif and I 
like to call our "X" factor for want 
of a better term? \Yhat is filling in the 
void created hv the ahsence of four out 
of the six genés? Is the rcmaining -D- 
chromosome a more complex factor 
than is known or might they have a 
al type for which a testing 
antisera is as vet undiscoyered? 

I y mail; qu
ry is unanswered. \Yhy 
did our mo.ther \\-ith -D-j-D- geno- 
type delivt'r a baby of the identical 
-D-j-D- genotype when the father 
was of genutype CDejcDE? If he 
transmitted one or other of the chrom- 
osomes CDe or cDE ,,'hat happened 
to the c, C or e, E in the bahy's geno- 
type? Of course, a simple explanation 
is that he was not the father. but men 
of -D- type are rare and the mating 
with a deletion should not ha\ e caused 
the increased antihody titre up to 

ome six weeks before full term, the 
extrenwlv clark amniotic fluid, or the 
obvious -distress of the fetus in utero 
as ascertained by the extremely rapid 
and \',;eak fetal heart tones. Could these 
symptoms possihly have been caused 
hy the breaking down or extrusion 
of the C, cor e,E of the father's genes? 
These questions and countless others 
mav never be answered. Still the re- 
sea-rch continues as we plow through 
the mud or snow in our own quest for 

In spite of their high efficiency mechanical 
respirators are sometimes unable to deliver 
as much oxygen as needed to patients par- 
alyzed by bulbar poliomyelitis. Dr. Gunnar 
Miörner and collaborators In 1\Ialmo. 


Sweden, ha\"e found that such patients can 
be helped by artifically lowering their body 
temperature, The procedure decreases the 
amount of oxygen they require. 


L'Evolution de 10 Cardiologie 
et ses Problèmes 



I - EpOqUL' anato11liquc ct ph}'sio- 
logiquc: Les époques de la cardiologie 
sont cel1es òe la médecine en général. 
Ce qui 11mb parait simple aujourd'hui 
a exigé des sièclt's de minutieuses oh- 
servations, Petit à petit s'édifia la 
compréhensiun anatomique elu coeur, 
muscle puissant dans leque1 sont pla- 
cées quatre cayités. (Galien 138-201 

\.D.. Ihn an-Xafi
 1210-12KS). Une 
c1oison sépare Ie coeur gauche du 
coeur droit mais oreil1ette et ventricule 
communiquent par eles orifices sur 
lesque1s sont fixées des valvules tri- 
cuspidienne et mitrale qui alternative- 
ment It'
 OU\Tent et les ferment. Le 
ventricule droit reçoit Ie sang ell'S 
veines caves et ille chasse dans l'artèrt' 
pulmonaire. Ie ventricule gauche Ie 
sang des veines pulmonaires qu'il 
éjecte dans 1'aorte. A 1'origine de ces 
artères, sont placées des valvules en 
nid de pigeons dites lJulmonaire et 
aortique. On identifia les diverses 
structures du coeur clont la masse 
musculaire, myocarde, est enveloppée 
au dedans par l'enclocarde et au dehors 
par Ie péricarde. Le microscope permit 
une étude détaillée de ces structures à 
leur état sain et pathologique. (Yan 
Leeuwenhoek 1632-1723). 
Beaucoup plus tard et c'est la pé- 
riode physiologique, on identifia Ie 
jeu de la circulation sanguine. Sang 
n'ineux arrivant au coeur òroit et 
transformé par oxygénation en sang ar- 
tériel dans Ie poumon pour être chassé 
par Ie coeur gauche clans la gran de 
circulation (Han-ey 1578-1657). La 
force de propulsion clu \"entricule 
gauche fut mesurée (Hales 1677-1761). 
Les lois de la contraction cardiaque 
furent décriks (Starling 1866-1927). 

Docteur David est directeur de l'Ins- 
titut de Cardiologie de rHôpital Mai- 
sonneuve de 

JANUARY. 1956. Vol. 52. No.1 

Si la physiologie <..Iu CueUr nurmal est 
l1laintenant hien connue, la physio- 
pathologie dl1 coeur malade présente 
encore aUlol1rd'hui hon nombre de 
ll1vstères. - 
"n - Epoguc clillique: La clécou- 
verte du stéthoscope (Laellnec 17Rl- 
1R2ó) ouvre cette épuque extrême- 
ment riche et qui fut l'époque glorieuse 
de la médecine française en particulier. 
:\lais tous les pays de 1'Europe civi- 
lisée ont édifi
 cette méelecine <.J'ahord 
strictement cliniql1e, c'est-à-dire, n'po- 
5ant sur des symptômes et des signes 
yisihles, palpables on audihles. Puis 
la c1iniqne s'est enrichie d'appareils 
rendus accessibles par Ies progrès (Ie la 
physique. rayons X (Roentgen 
5-1922) et l'électrocarcliographie 
(Einthoven 1860-1927) deyinrent les 
iilstruments toujours indispensables de 
la cardiologie moderne, 
I Jes hruits et les souffles anormaux 
furent décrits et interprétés à la lu- 
mière des ohservations anatomiques. 
On iclentifia Ie rôle de la syphilis, 
maladie courante à l'époque. sur l'aorte 
et les yalvules sigmuides aortiques. 
T ÆS rapports entre Ie rhumatisme ar- 
ticulaire aigu et les lésions vah-ulaires 
furent codifiés dans 1es lois célèhres 
de Bouillaucl (17
6-1881). Les troubles 
clu rytlllne ont été c1assifiés. Le symp- 
ttulle angineux fut elécrit (] Ieberdeen 
1710-1801) et ses rapport:' a\"ec l'arbre 
coronarien établis. L'occ1usion de ces 
yaisseaux et l'infarctus du lllvocarcle 
rentrèrent définitivement dans -Ie cha- 
pitre des cardiupathies (Herrick 
1912) . L'h ypertension et ses consé- 
quences vasculaires et cardiaques 
ùepuis déjà longtemps fixées. Signa- 
Ions Ie travail de pionnier du docteur 
:\[aude Abhott de 
Iontréal dans Ie 
domaine des ma]adies congénitales 
(1869-1940 ) 
En même temps que s' édifia la car- 
diologie c1inique on a établi une théra- 
peutique rationnelle dont plusieurs 
médicaments sont encore d'usage 


courant tels la digitale (Withering 
1785, Nativelle 1872), la quinidine 
(Wenkebach et Frey 1918), les sali- 
III - Epoque Chirlfrgicale: Nous 
yivons actuellement cette époque qui 
débuta vers les 1945 à Baltimore 
lorsque Blalock et Taussig imaginèrent 

ne technique chirurgicale pour amé- 
horer la condition des bébés et enfants 
bleus. Leurs succès précipitèrent des 
recherches qui s'étendent aujourd'hui 
à la correction chirurgicale de toutes 
les maladies congénitales et acquises. 
II faut souligner que tous ces exploits 
chirurgicaux, dont la presse et les 
revues à grand tirage sont remplies, 
ont été rendus possibles par l'avance- 
ment des sciences conn exes à la 
chirurgie, en particulier l'anesthésie. 
Citons quelques-uns seulement des 
pionniers dont les noms resteront pro- 
bablement dans les annales des pro- 
grés de la chirurgie mondiale ou 
locale - Blalock Baltimore' Gros 
Boston; Crawford,' Stockholm;' Bailey: 
Glover, O'Neil, Philadelphie; ::VIurray, 
Toronto; Brock, Londres; l\Iercier- 
Fauteux, Gagnon, Vineberg, l\lontréaL 
II est réconfortant de vivre cette 
période où les chirurgiens du monde 
en tier rivalisent d'audace et d'ingénio- 
sité pour Ie seul intérêt des malades 
du coeur et des vaisseaux. II est in- 
quiétant de suivre cette course non 
moins spectaculaire du développement 
atomique à laquelle participent les 
physiciens de génie de tous les pays, 
course qui prépare possiblement la 
destruction d'une partie de l'humanité. 
:-+J ous dirons plus loin queIle attitude 
me semble saine et raisonnable de la 
part du médecin et de l'infirmière 
devant les progrès ahurissants et réels 
de la chirurgie. N ous parlerons aussi 
 problèmes so
iaux et économiques 
qt1l vont de pair avec cette théra- 
peutique nouvelle. 


Les premières années: Pour des fins 
pratiques, cette première étape s'éten- 
dra .de la. naissance à cinq ans. Les 
cardropathles observées sont essen- 
tiellement congénitales. Leur incidence 
dans notre milieu est certainement 


supérieure à ce que laisse soupçonner 
l'expérience hospitalière courante. 
Beancoup de lésions congénitales sont 
découvertes après la cinquième année 
faute d'examens plus précis avant. A 
l'Institut, nous avons' confié au 
Docteur Ghislaine Gilbert ce chapitre 
de la cardiopathie. La congénitalité 
cardiaque pose au cardiologue deux 
problèmes: celui du diagnostic et celui 
du traitement, l'un et l'autre étant 
intimement associés. 
II est important d'avoir une claire 
vision et une saine compréhension de 
nos pensées lorsqu'un médecin nous 
réfère ou des parents nous amènent 
un enfant porteur d'une cardiopathie 
congénitale. Avant l'ère de la chirur- 
gie, .Ie diagnostic était un acte de gym- 
nastlque inteIlectuelle qui n'aboutissait 
à aucune sanction thérapeutique. On 
pouvait sans aUCUlIe importance pour 
l'enfant ni les parents commettre toutes 
les err
urs possibles de diagnostic. 
N ous ne pouvions rien faire d'autre 
que d'assister au cours inexorable de 
la maladie. Or, nous savons que la 
survie d'un enfant porteur d'une lésion 
quelconque congénitale dépasse rare- 
ment la vingtième année. Nous savons 
qu'en très grande majorité ces enfants 
ont un retard remarquable de crois- 
sance. N ous savons que trois fois sur 
cinq aujourd'hui une cure chirurgicale 
peut guérir ou améliorer ces enfants. 
Pour nous, cardiologues, convaincus 
de ces faits, Ie choix est fait. N ous 
proposons une opération chaque fois 
que la chose est possible c'est-à-dire 
chaque fois que la lésion dont est por- 
teur l'enfant est susceptible d'être 
guérie ou améliorée par un acte chirur- 
I ais, et sur ce mais, j'insiste, 
il faut opérer exclusivement sur des 
diagnostics certains. Les types de 
lésions congénitales du coeur sont 
nombreux et les techniques chirurgi- 
cales n'en corrigent actuellement qu'un 
certain nombre. Si dans Ie langage 
courant on en tend dire qu'un enfant 
a un ('oenr congénital cela ne veut pas 
dire que tous les enfants qui ont un 
coeur congénital ont tous la même 
maladie c'est-à-dire la même lésion. 
_ \fin d'apporter plus de lumière sur ce 
point mal compris du public et de bon 
nombre de médecins, permettez-moi 
d'insérer une classification des princi- 
pales cardiopathies, classification que 


nous ayons, en collaboration avec Ie 
Docteur GÜhert, déjà publiée dans 
Classification des cardiopathies con- 
génitales cyanogènes et acyanogènes 
d'élprès Ie Dr. II. B. Taussig: 

(shl/Ilt 'l'cilloartéril'l) 

A - Avec débit þl/lmonaire diminllé: 
I. Tétralogie de Fallot 
2. Trilogie de Fallot 
3. Pentalogie de Fallot 
4. A trésie triscuspidienne 
5, Transposition vasculaire a\'ec 
sténose pulmonaire 
6. Tronc artériel commun avec 
circulation bronchique 
7 Yentricule unique avec sténose 
8. Maladie d'Ebstein avec com- 
munication interauriculaire 
9. Hypertension pulmonaire con- 
génitale (PPH) avec pcrsis- 
tance du foramen ovale. 

B - Avec débit þulmollaire allgmellté: 
I. Complexe d'Eisenmenger 
2 Anénisme artériovcineux pul- 
3. Synrlrome Taussig-Bing 
4, Transposition yasculaire sans 
S. Tronc artériel commun avec 
implantation directe des pul- 
monaires sur Ie tronc artériel 
6. Ventricule unique sans S.P. 


A - A'i'cC shunt artériO'l'cillCllX: 
1. Communication inter-ventricu- 
2. Communication inter - auricu- 
3, Persistance de l'ostium primum 
4, Persistancc de I'orifice auri- 
culo-ventriculaire commun (A. 
Y. Cummunis) 
5. Syndrome de Lutcmbachcr 
6. Anomalies du retour veineux 
ï. Persistance du canal artériel 
8. Communication aortopulmo- 
naire (aortic septal defect) 
{j. Allévrisme du sinus de Val- 
10, Anévrisme artérioveineux sys- 

JANl.:"ARY, 1956. Vol. 52, NO.1 

B - Sa1ls shullt: 
1. Sténose pulmonaire isolée 
2. Sténose aortique et subaortique 
3. Coarctation de l'aorte 
4. Arc aortique double (vascular 
5. Sténose mitrale. 

C - Autre.r maljormations: 
1. Anomalies des artères coro- 
2. Fibroélastose 
3. 1Ialadie de Fiedler 
Ialadie de Van Gierke 
5. Tumeur auriculaire 
6. Bloc auriculo-ventriculaire 
7. 1féthémoglobinémie congéllité\lc 
8. Kyste et tumeur du péricarde. 

En conclusion, seules It's lésions 
opérahles pcuvcnt évidenUl1cnt être 
opérées avec succès. Dans nul autre 
chapitre de la cardiologie doit-on être 
plus précis que dans celui-ci et c'est 
pourquoi tous les raffinements de la 
cardiologie llloderne sont employé
Un certain nombre de cardiopathies 
congénita!es sont d'un diagnostic facile 
aux seuls examens de routine cardio- 
logi<..jue, c'est-à-dire, clinique, radio- 
Iogique et électrocardiographiquc tels 
la coarctation de l'aorte et Ie canal 
artériel; d'autres résistent à Ct:" exa- 
l11ents courants et pour eux furent 
imaginées des techniques plus récentes 
de diagnostic, Ie cat1zétéris11lc des 
cavités cardiaques et de l'artère puI- 
monaire ct l'angiocardiograplzie. Résu- 
mons ces techniques qui pour un 
certain nombre c!'entre \'ou
 sont peu 
ou mal connues. 


Par nnl' veine du pli du couùe, 

ous an3.sthési e locale, est introdui t un 
cathéter spécial très solide quoique 
flexihle et opaque aux Rayons X. -II 
est acheminé ver
 l'oreillette droite, 
passe Ia tricuspide dans Ie ventricule 
droit et franchit Ies sigmoides pulmo- 
naires vers Ie tronc coml11un et ks 
branches de l'artère pulmonaire. L' opé- 
rateUf et Ie radiologul' sltÏ\'ent sous 
écran fluoroscopique Ie trajet du ca- 
théter qui peut, a \'cc certains types 
ùe lésions. emprunter des chemins 
anormaux dans l'oreillette gauche par 
une communication interauriculaire 


dans Ie ventricule gauche par une com- 
munication interventriculaire. 
Iais en 
dehors de suivre Ie trajet de la sonde, 
cet examen a deux buts précis: 
1 - La me sure des pressions dans 
les diverses GlYités. mesures qui ren- 
seignent sur les obstacles valvulaires 
ou infundibulaires possibles ou sur des 
apports supplémentaires de sang par des 
communications anormales. 
2 - Le prélèvement d'échantillons 
sanguins aux différentes étapes. Ces 
échantillons sont prélevés dans des 
éprou\"ettes sans couvert de parafine et 
leur contenu en 0 est examiné au laho- 
ratoire au Van Slyke ou par lecture 
directe à I'oxymètre. Des variations 
significati,"es du taux d'oxygénération 
dans les din
rses cavités examinées sont 
les éléments importants pour Ie dia- 
gnostic de présence ou absence d'un 


Examen qui consiste à injecter rapi- 
dement par voie veineuse une subs- 
tance radiopaque et à sectionner Ie 
passage de cette substance par des 
prises rapides de clichés sous unc ou 
deux incidences. Le but de cet exam en 
est de suivre dans Ie coeur le temps 
et l'intensité de l'opacification des dif- 
férentes cavités, voies cl'apport et 
yoies de débit. Nous nous servons d'un 
appareil Suédois, un Schoenander, qui 
permet d'impressioner des films sous 
deux incidences simultanément à la 
vitesse que nous fixons a\Tant l'examen 
à 2. 4 ou 6 films à la seconder La 
substance de contraste utilisée chez 

nous est de l'urokon à 70 pour cent. 
X ous tirons 60 films, 30 50US chaque 
X ous sommes loin d' un diagnostic 
stéthoscopique! II n'est pas du cadre 
de ce tra ,'ail de discuter les limi tes 
de ces examens qui n'éclairent pas 
automatiquement tous les mystères. 
J'aimerais souligner la dépense consi- 
dérable que supposent ces examens et 
Ie personnel énorme mis en activité. 
Le cathétérisme demande une équipe 
qui, à l'Institut, comprend deux méde- 
cins, un radiologiste. une technicienne 
en radiologie, une technicienne de labo- 
ratoire. uue garde-malade et un physi- 
cien. Chaque examen prend entre deux 
et trois heures. L'anah'se des gaz d'un 
seul examen demancle - un minimum de 
six heures de travaiL Oue dire du 
temps que doit prendre Ie radiologue 
pour examiner dans ses plus petits 
détails soixante films! n faut égale- 
mcnt avouer que ces exam ens pré- 
sentent un risque. Les accidents sont 
rares mais possible.;, fait que nou
révélons chaquc fois aux parents. X ous 
sonuues cepcndant moralement bien 
convaincus qu'il est infiniment moins 
grave de faire run ou l'autre ou les 
deux examcns flue d' opérer sur un 
diagnostic d'à peu près. Presque tout 
enfant porteur d'tme lésion congénitale 
dont Ie thorax est ouvert et chez qui 
Ie chirurgien ne fait rien meurt des 
suites de cette opération inutile. De- 
puis l'ouverture de l'Institut. nous 
avons fait 85 cathétérismes avec un 
décès dans Ies vingt-quatre heures et 
64- angiocardiographies sans incident 

(La suite au proclzain llltméro) 

Nursing Sisters' Association 

The \Vinnipeg Unit had an active and 
interesting year in 1955. The annual dinner 
meeting was held in the Business and 
Professional \Vomen's Club. Mrs. E. A. 
Rabson, national president. stressed the aims 
of the association in her address, These 
were: to stimulate friendship among mem- 
bers; to work for national unity and in- 
ternational peace; to give aid and comfort 
to nurses in need. 
Three general meetings were held during 


the year. _\ raffle was conducted in con- 
j unction with the annual spring tea, the 
proceeds being used for welfare work. The 
Remembrance Day tea was held in Novem- 
ber. Mrs. F. Sharp, president, and 
1iss E. 
Hudson represented the Unit at the :Memo- 
rial Day service when Mrs. Sharp placed 
a wreath on the Cenotaph. Plans are being 
made to welcome and entertain the nursing 
sisters who attend the biennial convention 
in June this year. 


A Women's Auxiliary in Action 


T HE \\"01\1EK'S AUXILIARY of Victoria 
Hospital, London, Ont., was or- 
ganized in April, 1924, when 12 mem- 
bers, who had been specified and 
appointed by the Hospital Trust, met 
and elected their officers. Twenty-fiye 
associate members joined the Auxil- 
iary soon afterwards. K ow the mem- 
bership is about 350. It fluctuates as 
new members join and old members 
neglect to renew their membership fees 
which are onlv 50 cents. 
The object .of the Auxiliary is "To 
assist in eyery way possible the Hos- 
pital Trust, the Superintendent, and 
the Superintendent of K urses in mat- 
ters pertaining to Hospital patients, 
nurses or equipment." (Quoted from 
Constitution) It is affiliated with the 
1. Local Council of Women 
2. Good \Vïll Industries 
3. \Vomen's Hospital Auxiliary of 
4. National Hospital Association 
The Board consists of 20 members, 
10 elected each year for a two-year 
Tag Day, an annual affair, is heM 
on the Saturday nearest Hospital Day, 

Iay 12th. This is the onlv monev 
raising effort for the Auxil(ary as 
whole and the only time in the year 
when they go to the public for funds. 
One hundred fiftv members and 260 
,>cRool children as-sisted with Tag Day 
last year. when $1,500 was raised. 
The Auxiliary is composed of 12 
committees or groups, each doing its 
specific work. Each member is urged 
to assist \.".ith the work of the Aux- 
iliary by belonging to one of these com- 
mittees. Some of these groups raise 
money to carryon their work, while 
others are purely seryice groups. The 
smallest group has 12 members, while 
the largest has over 60 mcmbers. 
Each February. a ::\Iemhership Tea 
IS held at the nurses' residence ,,"hen 

:Mrs. Croll is president of the 
\Vomen's Auxiliary of Victoria Hos- 
pital, London, Ontario. 

.JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. No.1 

new members are welcomed, and old 
members may come and renew friend- 
ships as well as their membership, 
Each member then joins the group or 
groups of her choice, to carryon the 
work in which she is most interested. 

Co M 1\1 ITTEES 

1. Thc A1c11lbership Committee is in 
charge of the l\Iembership Tea and all 
social affairs as well as the member- 
2. The Literary Committee operates 
a lending library of books and maga- 
zines for the use of the hospital 
patients. The members of this com- 
mittee take turns with a cart which 
is taken twice weekly around to the 
patients in the wards, loaded with 
magazines and books donated by mem- 
bers and their friends. They visit with 
the patients on their rounds. About 30 
members are on this committee. 
3. Entertainment and Cheer Com- 
mittee provides special treats for ward 
patients at Easter, Thanksgiving and 
Christmas. Fruit, candy and cigarettes 
are arranged on the patients' trays as 
well as special gifts at Christmas, some 
of which are articles made by the 
members. such as bed-jackets. Bridge 
parties and rummage sales are their 
main sources of revenue. This group 
furnished a three-bed room in the 
new wing at a cost of $1,000 the 
money being rai
ed in addition to the 
SUl11 required for their regular work. 
They ha\Tc 25 members. 
4: National Council of Jewish 
rVomen yisit their own patients and 
entertain relatives and friends of out- 
of-town patients. Their money is 
raised through voluntary subscription. 
They furnished a t\\'o-bcd room in the 
new \ving at a cost of $ï50. 
5. Flmo..'er CO/llmittee places flowers 
in the wards, at the hospital entrance. 
Cancer Clinic. x-ray department and 
nurses' residence weekly. 
Ioney for 
this \York is raised by priyate dona- 
tions (sometimes talent money) within 
the group. They haye about 30, 


6. .Vllrses - in - Training Committee 
provides entertainment for student 
nurses. Parties are gi\'en in the fall 
and at Christmas. .L\ reception and tea 
on graduation day make this a special 
occasion for the nurses' relatives and 
friends. Sick nurses are remembered 
with cards and magazines. Four com- 
munity concert tickets are purchased 
for the use of the nurses and given 
out at the discretion of the director 
of nursing. As a special project this 
group is gradually furnishing a roof 
garden on the nurses' residence. There 
are about 30 members. The \,'ork of 
this group is much appreciated by the 
director of nurses who would like the 
Auxiliary to extend its \vork for the 
7. JI[ otors Group, \vhich consists' of 
only 12 members, meets regularly for 
social affairs and raises its money 
among the members. Transportation 
for student nurses is provided at 
graduation and on other special oc- 
casions. Theatre and concert tickets 
are provided by this group also. 
8. Prenatal C011lmittee, one of the 
largest groups with a membership of 
about 40, assists in the ohstetrical 
wards and operates a gift shop in the 
hospital. Their very smart and modern 
new shop in the main corridor of the 
hospital was opened last June. It is 
operated from 2-4 and 7-9 daily by the 
members of the group, who also make 
the knitted and hand-sewn baby gar- 
ments which are for sale, as well as 
toys etc. Two Isolettes were donated 
by the group in 1954 at a cost of $825. 
Two mobile sitz baths at a total cost 
of $465 were given in 1955, as well 
as the office furnishings for the nurse 
in charge of the obstetrical ward, ,at 
a cost of nearly $600. 
9. Visiting and Service Committee 
stands ready to give personal service 
to patients who may require it. This 
group has offered assistance in the 
psychiatric ward when an occupational 
therapist is available. A dessert bridge 
in April provided them \\'ith funds for 
material and equipment. They have 
about 20 members - nearly all young 
doctor's wives. 
10. The Educational Committee 
awards a scholarship of $350 each year 
for graduate work at the University 
of \Vestern Ontario School of K ursing 


to the new graduate who stands high- 
est in her c1ass. Sen,
ral tickets for 
London Little Theatre are also pro- 
vided for the student nurses. 1Ioney 
for these projects is raised through 
an annual Garden Tea in Tune. Last 
year the membership of. about 60 
raised $425. 
11. The Cancer Committee ser\"es 
coffee and cookies three mornings each 
week to the patients in the Cancer 
Clinic - there are as manv as 30-40 
patients each time. All equ1 p ment for 
making and sen'ing the coffee, as well 
as the coffee. is supplied by the com- 
mittee. Tea was 
en'ed at the formal 
opening of the Cancer Clinic (Fall. 
1954), by the group. Magazines. flow- 
ers and newspapers are also supplied. 
A large tea is held in :\Iay to assist 
the membership of 30-35 in raising 
the funds required for these projects. 
12. The Coffee Shop, that is owned 
and operated by the Auxiliary, is our 
chief source of revenue. It is managed 
with all paid help under the supervision 
of a committee consisting of the past 
presidents. In June 1954., the Coffee 
Shop was opened in new quarters 
in the main corridor of the new wing 
of the hospital. It was completely 
furnished by the Auxiliary at a cost 
of over $18,000. It is very bright and 
modern and pro\"ides a wonderful 
service to the hospital patients and 
In addition to the contributions of 
the various committees. the Auxiliary 
has taken care of the following: 
A $350 scholarship to University of 
\Vestern Ontario School of 
Christmas trees provided for the hos- 
pital entrance, nurses' residence and 
\Var Memorial Hospital. 
Furniture for the waiting room in the 
new x-ray department, cost $950. 
Curtains for admitting room, cost $250. 
Tea and reception following opening 
of the new wing for 400-500 guests. 
* * * 
"Pourquoi diable," demande Ie médecin à 
son confrère, "demandez-vous toujours à vos 
malades la composition exacte de leurs re- 
pas?" "Parce que cela Ill'aide à fixer Ie 
montant de mes honoraires." 
* * * 

Un homme, toujours satisfait de lui-même 
I'est peu souvent des aut res : rarement on 
I'est de lui. 


A Nurse's Private Devotions 


"\Ve are either instruments or 
agents of God." This arresting thought 
made me pause and consider my rela- 
tionship to God. An instrument may 
serve a very useful purpose but it lacks 
feeling or response either for what is 
happening to it, or how its use may 
be affecting others. An agent is con- 
stantlv aware of his function. He is able 
to enjoy the privilege of responding to 
the call to be an ambassador and of 
sharing responsibility. To qualify as a 
good agent, one must really believe 
in one's product, know it well - be 
sold on it. 
I began to wonder about my own 
status. \Vas I an instrument or an 
agent of God? Very quickly I decided 
- I was an agent. Then I began to 
appraise myself. What kind of an agent 
was I? How effective was I? \Vas I 
sold on my product 100 per cent all 
of the time or just when I was with 
a group of enthusiastic people who 
shared my beliefs? How vital and 
important would my product be to me 
in the face of opposition? \Vhat \vould 
I do when others said, "Oh yes, that 
can be used here, here and here, but 
in this practical situation, forget it - 
it just won't \vork." There is no doubt 
that I would prefer to be a good 
agent. \Nishing would not make me 
one. \\That must I do? 
A good agent must know his pro- 
duct well. I must get to know God 
better. I knew much about Him. I 
kne\\' many who testified to the fact 
that lIe had made a great success (in 
His terms) out of each life fully com- 
mifted to Him. I had increased my 
knowledge about God through the 
Bible, and by observing His creation 
all around me. Still I really did not 
know Him. He was not a living God 
to me. I thought of Him as a rather 
stodgy, old, far-away Spirit, This con- 
ditioned my prayers into becoming 
burdensome duties - a matter of re- 

Miss MacLean is associated with Five 
Oaks Christian Workers' Center, Paris, 

JANUARY. 1956. Vol. 52, NO.1 

citing petitions for things I could have 
accomplisherl for myself had I tried 
hard enough. I prayed only when I 
happened to have spare time. was in 
the mood or thought of it. I looked 
upon prayer as an unimportant duty 
with no expectation of results - al- 
together a pretty static affair. \Vas it 
any wonder that I had little assurance 
about private devotions? How could 
I put into \vords for someone else a 
faith which was not a living, dynamic 
one for me personally? 
The late Professor Einstein once 
wrote that the problems of the world 
will onlv be solved when we have 
dealt with the problems of the human 
heart. He was right. All other prob- 
lems are symptomatic of personal 
problems. We need to know God be- 
cause we find the world has become 
too complex for us to handle it ade- 
quately alone. We are not self-suffi- 
cient. For a long time we have been 
content to busy ourselves with every- 
thing but the development of our 
spiri tual nature. A great many of us 
are content to concentrate on building 
generations of physically healthy 
giants who are babes in spiritual de- 
velopment. The basic solution to our 
spiritual growth is to be found in our 
own private devotions. J would like 
to share some of the discO\'eries I have 
made in enriching and vitalizing my 
own devotions, 
I began by reading so that I might 
profit by the experience of others. I 
wanted to see how they had handled 
this question. Some books I read 
simply to broaden my view and un- 
derstanding of the world in which I 
lived. I sought to improve the quality 
of my prayers through this. Another 
great aid to me was attending retreats. 
Here I found splendid opportunity to 
receive spiritual instruction from those 
long experienced in the field. I shared 
in the discussion, studied the Bible. 
read devotional helps, and had a period 
of quiet time to meditate. In addition, 
I prayed. I was more convinced than 
ever that one could only learn by 


doing. If one is to learn to pray, one 
must practise pra) mg. 


\Yhat \\-as my purpose in having 
private deyotÏons? J concluded that it 
was that I might know God and His 
nature, in order to have fellowship 
with Him as a friend. \Ye do not make 
friends with the idea of using them 
to further our own purposes. K 0 more 
should we approach God in this 
fashion. Primarilv we want to be 
friends with Hit;1 so that we may 
enjoy His fellowship. ..-\s we grow in 
our knowledge of Him, we come to 
love Him more and more. \Ve find 
that He has a purpose for each one 
of our lives. 

I had to be willing to make time. 
I could always do this for anything 
I deemed really important. Rare was 
the occasion when I did not take time 
thrice dailv for the meals to nourish 
my physical body. \Vas not nourish- 
ment of my spiritual nature equally 
important? \ Vas I more interested in 
making a living than in making a 
life? If I was to knO\y God, I had to 
conscioush' take time out to commune 
with Him
\\Then should I take time? This could 
not depend on just \\-hether or not I 
was in the mood. Our God is a jealous 
God and makes imperious demands 
upon us. He insists on heing put first 
in all things. \Vhat would happen to 
our clubs if we only attended meetings 
when we felt like it? Or to the quality 
of our nursing if \ye only attended 
lectures when we were in the mood? 
\Ve must he equally regular in our 
private devotions. 
\Ve mnst pray daily - not because 
we are being good but hecause we need 
the friendship of God daily that we 
mav live at our best. I remember a 
fri;nd saying "It is when I'm wanting 
most to do the will of God that I feel 
temptation closest. In fact, the devil 
is sitting right there on my shoulder 
working o\Tertime to lead me into 
temptation. The devil is not nearly so 
concerned over those who are indif- 
ferent to Christ's claims as he is over 


those who are seeking to do the will 
of their Father and so be rid of his 
evil influence." This is one reason wl1\" 
we need to pray daily for Goù's help. 

I found that mv best time for devo- 
tions was when Í was most alert. \Ve 
alwavs want to be at our best for 
company, when applying for a job, 
or when meeting someone we feel to 
be important. The same principle ap- 
plies to our periods of private worship. 
The time set aside has varied. Ideally, 
I found that when I took time out for 
private devotions before breakfast. I 
was better equipped for \\-hatever the 
day might bring. 

I like to have a definite and quiet 
spot. It helps me to concentrate more 
quickly. Perhaps when my prayer life 
has developed more richly this will 
seem less important to me. 

\Vhen I expected little or nothing 
to happen during this period, usually 
little or nothing did. I discm-ered that 
if God was to become real to me, I had 
to he utterly sincere in my seeking. 
I shall always be grateful to the minis- 
ter who illuminated the statement 
"Thou shalt not take the Lord's name 
in vain." C ntil very recently I had 
thought that this 
tatement - applied 
only to swearing. X ow it has taken 
On a much richer meaning for me. 
If I am not to take His name in vain. 
I must not pray half-heartedly. not 
really meaning what I say. If I am 
sincere, mv devotion will he a rich 
time of fell.owship. 
:\ly chief obstacle in finding real 
communion with God lay in the verse 
of scripture to be found ií1 St. :l\Iatthew 
5 :23, "So if you are offering your 
gift at the altar and there remember 
that your brother has something 
against you, leave your gift there he- 
fore the altar and go; first. be recon- 
ciled to your brother." An unforgiving 
heart and unwillingness to put every 
area of life in God's hands can con- 
stitute a complete block to effective 


prayer. \ Y e must implicitly believe in 
His great pO\Yer, that in and through 
Him all things are possible. 
Our approach to God should be un- 
hurried and thoughtful. \Ve must come 
before Him purposing to be obedient 
to the guidance He gives. This God 
of ours is not a wishy-washy Spirit. 
He demands complete obedience. We 
must come into His presence humbly 
- remembering \Yhu He is. lIe is 
a God whose wisdom and loye is so 
vast that it is beyond the comprehen- 
sion of our finite minds. Our minds 
must he free of distractions with our 
attention centren. completely on Him. 
I have found the Lord's prayer par- 
ticularly helpful as a guide to what 
should he included in prayer. For a 
mOlnent let us think of it phrase by 
phrase. \Ye will hy no means exhaust 
its implicatiuns hut merely touch on 
Olfr Father - \Yhat does this per- 
sonal pronoun mean? Simply that no 
one of us can think of ourselves as being 
favorites with God. He is impartial to- 
wards all of His children. He is con- 
cerned about the welfare of each 
regardless uf \\'hat part uf tuwn, ur in 
which part of the globe they live. Father 
implies that \\ e are all His children, 
therefore we are brothers 'whatever our 
color or nationality. He amply supplies 
our every need. He disciplines us for 
our 0\\ n good because He loves us. He 
rightly expects Our lo\'e and devotion 
in return, for He is very much alive. 
Tf'hicl, art in JIcG'l'en - Heaven is 
not a place for Gud is everywhere, 
Heaven is a relationship - the right 
relationship beh\ een God and man. 
Therefore He is there with me in my 
prayers if I fulfill my duties towards 
Th}' Kingdom comc, Th}I 'Zvi/! be done 
un eartl, as it is ill JJ ea'vell - These 
phrases art' coupled together because one 
can be accomplished only as the other 
is fulfilled. 
Gi'Z'e us this da)' ollr doily bread - 
This reminds me that we are to live 
one day at a time. 
.-:llld forgi-z'c ItS oltr trespasses as 'lPC 
fnrpi'l'e others - Xote the condition. 
Think of the great number of times in 
our lives when we have disappointeò 
God, Yet He is always ready to forgive. 
He is so gracious - we can be so 

JANl'ARY. 1956. Vol. 52. No, 1 

grudging with our forgiveness towards 
It has been said that prayer should 
include adoration, thanksgiving. cun- 
fession, petition and intercession. 
.-:ldoratioll for what He is. \\' e adore 
Him because He first sought us and by 
His Spirit prompted us to seck Him. 
Tlwnksgi'l.'illg - How ungrateful v.e 
are to accept His countless blessing
which have surrounded us from birth, 
and yet neglect to take time to so much 
as murmur a '" ord of thanks to Him. 
C onfcssioll- - Huw the light of His 
presence brings to mind so many sins 
we would Hot otherwise see! 
Petitioll - Recently a retreat leader 
described this portion of prayer as 
presenting God with a shopping list and 
expecting Him to fill it "but quick." 
Is God to be merel) our errand boy? 
Do we seriously consider to \\'hom we 
are speaking and what we are asking? 
Is it a purely selfish request? Is it a 
wise request? Should we just leave it to 
His wisdom to decide what will be best 
for our ultimate and greatest good? 
Intercession - \\lith the knowledge 
that God alone can adequately supply 
every need of His children, we are eager 
to bring our friends and our enemies 
into His presence. I can recall including 
in this part of my prayer only those 
whu were my friends or for whom I 
had a special concern. Suddenly one day 
two verses of Scripture flashed into 
my mind, "Love your enemies" and "If 
you love them that love you, what do 
ye more than the others? Do not even 
the publicans so?" Right then I started 
to think of the person 1 disliked most 
and sincerely asked God to bless her 
richly and fil1 her every need. 
During my prayer time I like to 
read a portion of the Bible. I first ask 
God to upen my eyes to the truths 
\d1Ïch lie therein. then proceed rever- 
ently, expectantly, intelligently, slowly 
and thoughtfully. T usually find some- 
thing which arrests my attention. I 
close the Book and ponder on what 
it has to say to me. This is essentiallv 
a portion óf the listening process i;l 
prayer. Too frequently we are inclined 
to go ahead with our own plans, (in- 
stead of first seeking God's will) anù 
then ask 1 lis blessing for what we 
have attempted tu do. Let us ft.'memher 
I [e will gi\ e us victory in all things 


as long as we abide in Him. 
I have not related this private de- 
votion period to the nursing situation 
particularly. It is an individual mat- 
ter and each of us has her own special 
needs regardless of which branch of 
nursing we follow. Each of us has to 
work out our own salvation and estab- 
lish our own personal relationship 
with God. 
\i\That fruits can ,ve expect from 
our period of private de,'otion? \Vhen 
we fulfill the conditions this period will 
become increasingly meaningful to our 
lives. \Ve will find it absolutely in- 

National Health Week 

This year, Canada's 12th Kational Health 
\Veek, sponsored by the Health League of 
Canada in cooperation \\-ith Departments 
of Health and Education from coast to 
coast, will take place from January 29 to 
February 4. 
How many of us realize the millions of 
dollars that are poured out on medical care 
- medical care for diseases that could be 
þrevented each year in Canada. 
A regular, paved, two-lane highway, com- 
plete with underpasses and sidewalks, could 
be built from Halifax to Vancouver and 
back for what Canadians payout in medical 
and dental bills in one ]!ear. The yearly bill 
for dental care alone runs over the seventy- 
million dollar mark. 
Time lost at work through illness mounts 
to a staggering figure - 143.150 years of 
working hour
 - or a period many times 
longer than all recorded history is lost in 
one year by Canadian workers. 
Eight thousand Canadians lose their lives 
through accidents. Of this figure, 1,500 are 

dispensable. \Ve will find ourselves 
increasingly dependent upon His 
guidance and steadfast goodwill. 
Prayer will become more stimulating. 
It will cause us to grow in under- 
standing of our Father, of the world 
in which we live and of ourselves. It 
will give us a new sense of values 
and a new freedom. It will give us a 
high purpose for living and a new zest 
for life. We will experience a true 
inner joy and peace because we are 
not frustrated trying to serve two 
masters. Rather we are agents of one 
Lord \Vho takes priority in all things. 

children, under the age of 15. Death comes 
from traffic accidents, drowning, fires, suf- 
focation by ingested objects, accidental 
poisoning. falls and crushings, firearms and 
accidental electrocution. 
1Iuch illness and disease CQ1
 be þYe'l'ented, 
The enOrmous dental bills can be reduced 
by fluoridation of communal water supplies, 
which measure has already reduced the in- 
cidence of tooth decay by as much as 69 
per cent in some areas. 
The grisly yearly toll of human lives 
lost, and the greater number of cripplings 
resulting from accidents, can also be low- 
ered. Health is everybody's business - and 
everybody can help. 
Health Week will focus attention upon 
two particular phases of health this year 
- accidents, that could be prevented, and 
fluoridation of communal water supplies, 
that has been called one of the greatest 
discoveries in the field of public health in 
the past century. 

The shortage of public health personnel 
is felt in most countries of the world, and 
nowhere so keenly as in the rural areas. 
It is perhaps difficult for city-dwellers to 
realize that over two-thirds of the world's 
population live in technically less developed, 
largely rural, areas, that their life expect- 
ancy at birth averages only 30 years, in 
contrast with 63 years in the more favored 
countries, and that their average annual 
per capita income is under 50 dollars. 
Poverty helps to create more disease 


which, in turn, tends to perpetuate poverty. 
It is a challenge of our times to apply 
properly the technical advances now avail- 
able to combat such communicable diseases 
as typhus, yellow fever, malaria, tuberculosis, 
and the treponematoses, and thus bring to 
this large group of people an improvement 
in health without which they are unlikely 
to realize their full social, cultural and 
economic potentialities. It should be added 
that the improvement of environmental 
sanitation is fundamental to any advance. 


From little Acorns 


W EARE GOING to trace the growth 
and development of a child from 
birth to adolescence so let us, for the 
sake of interest, make it a living child. 
To be sure, statistics are derived from 
living children, but let us dust off 
the dryness of mere statistical facts. 
Let us give this child not only sex but 
a name, weight, color and indi\'idual 
characteristics. Let us give him parents 
and a home. In a manner of speaking, 
we are going to watch this child 
through several years of growth and 
development so what \vould be more 
natural than that we should come to 
know him well and to like him. 
Let us say that his parents are a 
young couple named Stuart who live 
in a small house on the outskirts of a 
large city. .Mr. and :VIrs. Stuart are 
college educated people who have plan- 
ned for a child for several years. That 
is why they bought the house in the 
suburbs rather than going on living 
in their city apartment. They are keen- 
ly interested in every phase of their 
child's growth and development not 
only because they are intelligent people 
but because they have found that they 
are unable to have a child of their 
own and so must find one thev can 
adopt. . 
The Cradle Agency has had the 
Stuarts' name on their list of approved 
parents for some time and finally they 
have made the happy announcement 
that a child of suitable background 
(that is, race, coloring, mental level 
of parents) wiIJ be born in the middle 
of 1\Iarch. If 1\fr. and .Mrs. Stuart are 
wiIJing to take the child regardless 
of its sex they may take it home from 
the hospital five days after it is born. 
.Mr. and .:\lrs. Stuart reallv don't care 
at all whether the child is. a boy or a 
girl. They even enjoy the elen{ent of 
surprise which is the normal condition 

Miss Butler wrote this as a student 
from Columbus Hospital School of 
Nursing, Seattle, 'vVashington, when she 
was on affiliation in pediatrics at the 
Vancouver General Hospital. 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No.1 

for prospective parents. Let us say that 
the great day has come. The child was 
born at 8 :10 p.m. on :March 14th. It 
is a boy who has been listed as "ap- 
parently normal" and entered into the 
newborn nursen'. lVIr. and 1\1rs. Stuart 
have hurried t
 the hospital and are 
standing outside of the glass partition 
waiting for a look at what will be, 
for the rest of his life, their son. 
The first thing that struck :\lr. and 
1\1r5. Stuart was the realization that 
birth is not the beginning at all. Of 
course they had known this all during 
the time they had been gathering 
clothes and equipment for the baby but 
they were reminded more forcibly 
when the
Y observed the perfection of 
the child's small bodv. Thev read on 
the card on his bassii'Iet that his birth 
weight was seven pounds and eight 
ounces, his length was 20 inches, the 
circumference of his head 13 
his chest 120 inches and his crown- 
rump measurement 13
 inches. They 
were happy to learn that these 
measurements were considered quite 
normal. They knew that the propor- 
tions were correct because the chest 
measurement is supposed to be one 
inch less than the head measurement 
and the crown-rump measurement:. is 
supposed to be the same as the head 
measurement. The child's birth had 
been normal, so he lay in a rather 
curled up position. The doctor dem- 
onstrated to them that the baby had 
normal muscle tone by showing. them 
how he resisted extension, that is. 
when his small arms were straightened 
out they immediately curled up again 
when released. 
:ð1r. and 1\1 rs. Stuart surreptitiously 
counted the number of fingers (and 
found five) when the doctor demon- 
strated the grasp reflex. The baby 
grasped fingers so tightly that the 
doctor was able to lift him. This was 
as it should be as a baby is capable 
of tensing his muscles only to their 
maximum, and having done this, can- 
not readily release the tension as he is 
unly a creature of reHexes of the sim- 


plest sort at birth. Next the doctor 
showed the "walking reflex" which 
made .Mr. Stuart think he was acquir- 
ing a Herculean child until it was 
explaim..d that this is quite normal. 
It was, none the less, quite impressive 
when they sa'w that when the baby's 
body weight was supported he made 
walking movements ,vith his feet. 
\Vhen the habv was laid back in 
his bassinet the JStuarts noticed fine 
tremors in his little hands. They might 
have worried that this indicated some- 
thing wrong had they not known that 
this is normal and caused by the in- 
complete development of a newborn's 
nervous system. The baby had about 
fallen asleep at this point when the 
doctor jarred the base of the bassinet 
sharply as he had another reflex to 
demonstrate. This was the :1\1 oro 
reflex, sometimes called the "startle" 
reflex. The baby reacted normally, 
shooting his arms and legs out quickly 
like a frog. He began crying at the 
same time but the doctor paid no 
attention to this as he wanted his 
examination to be quite complete. He 
turned the baby's head to the right 
and observed that when he did this 
the child's right arm and leg extended, 
and when he turned the child's head 
to the left his left arm and leg ex- 
tended. This appeared to be quite a 
ridiculous bother to the babv but the 
Stuarts knew that the absence of this 
normal reaction would have indicated 
sOJjle defect in the baby's nervous 
- There was no decision to make 
about wlwther the Stuart's bahy was 
to be breast fed or bottle fed sö' 1\lrs. 
Stuart had ready a dozen bottles made 
of heat resistant glass, a sterilizer 
with a rack for holding the bottles, 
nipples and nipple covers and large 
gripping forceps for handling the hot 
bottles. The doctor had already given 
her a formula that was quite simple. 
It was 8 ounces of evaporated milk, 
14 ounces of water. and 2 tab!espoons 
of sugar. She knew how to prepare 
the whole day's amount, at one time, 
using aseptic technique, and put it 
into six bottles. The bottles were to 
be covered with nipples and nipple 
shields and put immediately into the 
refrigerator. . 
Ir. and ::\I
s. Stuart 
wanted to watch their haby being feel 


so they went to the hospital and waited 
outside the window of the nursery. 
"They're starving our baby," 1\Ir. 
Stuart said, "Some of those bahies are 
getting milk but all our baby has had 
is a little waÌl'r!" "But he's only two 
days old, dear," ::\lrs. Stuart renlinded 
hill1. "Don't yOU remember that the 
hooks all said that mothers' milk 
doesn't hegin for ahout three days. 
ancl that it is not good for a baby to 
have milk before then? Anyway, that 
water he's getting contains Sr-c sugar, 
the doctor said. You remember that 
the books on infants agreed that hahies 
are born with a calcium accumulation 
and that the giving of milk at too early 
an age might raise the baby's phos- 
phorus le,-el which would lower his 
calcium balance. which would be 
bad for him ? You don't want him to 
have connllsions, do you? 
"That's right, I guess," ::\.Ir. Stuart 
admitted. "but it does seem heartless. 
See how he keeps trying to suck. 
Every time something touches his 
cheek he turns his head towards it as 
if he were hungry." 
"\Yell. the impulse tu suck is one 
of the primary ones he's born with. 
The nurse says that the sugar and 
water solution he gets will not only 
keep him from getting dehydrated but 
also give him some practice in sucking 
so that when he begins on formula 
he'll he ahle to take it \vithout any 
difficulty. Besides that. his taking the 
water well will prm-e that there is no 
ohstruction or abnormalit,- which 
would need to be corrected -before he 
really begins to eat. Tomorrow he'll 
be three days old and then ""ell see 
:,ome milk i;l his bottle." 
\\Then he was five days old 
and 1\lrs. Stuart brought J their baby 
home and hegan trying to rememher 
to call him "Toe," the name the,' had 
chosen for . him, instead of' "the 
Laby." Their homecoming with Joe 
coincided ,,"ith that of their neighbors. 
the Smiths. who had had a hahy girl 
horn to them on the same da,' that 
Joe was born, This was a -happy 
coincidence as the two new mother
could loot.. forward to companionship 
for their children when the,- "-ere old 
enough to enjoy it. neside
 this. they 
could haH' fun comparing their babies' 
grmvth and development. 


At first it seemed that Joe's only 
interests in life were food and sleep. 
Joe's mother, \\,ho spent the most time 
\\-ith him, knew that he did respond 
to \-arious things in his environment. 
She could tell that, though he couldn't 
really see very well, he knew the dif- 
ference between light and dark as he 
would blink his eyes and turn a\\"ay 
from a bright light. She knew that he 
enjoyed some sort of emotional pleas- 
ure 'while eating. She found, for in- 
st:mce, that when the holes in one of 
the nipples were too large that he 
could finish all his feeding in ten 
minutes but that this left his sucking 
impube somewhat unsatisfied so that 
aÏter he had eaten all he wanted he 
\,-ould continue to suck on \\-hatever 
\\-as near his mouth, often his fist when 
he could find it. His mother adjusted 
this so that all the nipples were made 
to offer enough resistance to his suck- 
ing that a feeding would take 20 
minutes time to finish. \ Yhen this was 
done Joe fell asleep after each feed- 
ing. To accomplish this 1\lrs. Stuart 
Inught new nipples which did not have 
any holes so that she could make the 
hules herself with a hot, sterilized 
need1c. She founcl that they were just 
right \\,hen they would pour milk out 
in a fine spray for the first moment 
after she tipped up the bottle and then 
quickly drop milk in drops. The nip- 
ples that continued to dispense milk 
in a spray were giving it too fast. 
Those that dropped milk in drops 
when first tipped up \\-ere dispensing it 
too slowly so that a bahv would be- 
come too-tired to suck e];ough to get 
1 the milk he should haye. 
Fur a few days Toe had small blis- 
ters on his lip
'hich were cau
from sucking. At first 1\lr5. Stuart \vas 
afraid that the nipples she had bought 
were too harsh and irritating, especial- 
ly when she saw that her neighbor's 
hahy. \\,ho was breast fed did not have 
e. Although her hooks stated that 
this \\-as quite normal she felt a little 
hctter \\"1Kn, one day, little Cora Smith 
ck vel oped a blister too. 
\\'hen Toe's mother cleaned his 
nostrils w
th cotton-tipped applicators 
he opened his mouth wide to protest 
thi.. indignity. \\Then he did this his 
mDther noticed that he harl small, 
white spots on the midliJ1e nf his hard 

JANCARY, 1956. Vol. 52. No.1 

palate and gums. She took a clean ap- 
plicator and tried to wipe them away 
but this could not be done so she knew 
that they \\'ere what the books had 
described as "epithelial pearls" caused 
hy normal excess of epithelial cells, 
J r ad these spots appeared on his 
tongue or in the folds of his cheeks 
she - would ha \'e known that he had 
thrush, and she would need to consult 
the doctor for treatment. 
One da\ when 
Irs, Stuart visited 
11 rs. Smith she obsern'd that Cora's 
stools were of a different color and 
consistency than those of her baby. 
Joe's stools were a uniform, semi- 
firm con
istency and a light tan color 
while those of the Smith hahv were 
more mucoid appearing and a J bright 
"elIo\\' color. The difference here did 
110t indicate anything \\Tung with 
either child, but was due to the fact 
that one baby was formula fed and the 
oth('r was h
east f('rl. 
Joe's parents had studied the graphs 
0'1 normal child development so they 
w:tited for his first voluntarv effort 
to appear \yhen he was bet\yeen t\yO 
and three weeks old. His parents were 
satisfied when they were able to attract 
his attention with a brightly colored 
tov held for him to see. He stared 
edly at it as if fascinated. 
Bv the time roe \ya
 five \\-eeks old 
he \
'a'ì quite in- the habit of staring at 
whatever face was peering clO\yn at 
him. One day when he was starin<s 
at his mother he hroke into his Er.;t 
big, unmistakable smile. She was not 
ody glad that he was happy but \yas 
p1eas(.d that he had passed this par- 
ticular mi!estone in hi
which should occur he1\\ een the ages 
of four and six \\'eeks. 
\ Yhen Joe was two 1110nths old he 
somd1mes sucked his little curled up 
.ts hut when he mO\Td his arms away 
from his mouth he did not kno\\' how 
to guide them hack to it again. By the 
time he was three months old, how- 
ever, he was able to put his fists into 
his mouth whenen'r he liked. He could 
not yet reach Tor an ohject though his 
eyes would be fastened on it longingly, 
hut if the ohject. such as a rattle. were 
put into his hanrl he would wave it 
around happily. Joe's parents \yanted 
their haby to develop right on sched- 
ule, but \\ hen he did, it sometimes 


seemed a mixed blessing. 
Ir. Stuart's 
close-up yièwS of Joe were myopic 
because the baby usually snatched off 
his glassl's. He
 was s(x months old 
,,-hen he had become expert at this and 
his mother found it a bother too as 
11<<:' was equally good at putting her 
heads into his mouth or picking up any 
tin\" obiects, all of \d1Ìch he routed 
for dig
Joe weighed 1 
 pounds when he was 
six months o!cl. He had weighed 15 
prmnds at four months \"hich was 
right for his age according to the 
 graphs. His parents knew 
this \vas right as it \Vas double his 
birth weight. He was a good natured, 
he;:t1thv bab\-. He was ahle to reach 
for tI-Íings 
\'ith both hands or with 
one hand. He could pull himself to a 
standing position by the hars of his 
crib or play pen, though he was not 
much good at getting himself down 
again once he was up. He often 
laughed and crooned and babbled non- 
sense. He ,,-ould reach for his mother 
he came near him and seemed 
to play most happily when he was in 
the same room with her. Hc greeted 
his father each e\Tning with happy 
squeals of cmticipation for the rough 
sort of play that his mother pretended 
to scold ahout. Besides his formula 
he was getting quite a variety of soft 
strained \-egetablcs, fruit and cereal. 
He had had a small amount of egg 
yolk. Occasionatty his mo:her offered 
him milk froIll a cup. 
Joe hacl heen such a good haby that 
hi.;; mother was a bit worried when he 
hecame cross and irritah!e, refused his 
food an(I ran two degrees of te111- 
Irs. Stuart telephoned her 
doctor for advice and he suggested 
examining the bahy's mouth for teeth. 

lrs. Stuart found no teeth but there 
were some light colored raised areas 
,dwre teeth appeared to be ahout to 
come through and his gums were gen- 
era lly rc(I and s\\'ollen. During the 
xt few weeks Toe cut four teeth. 
The first to apI;ear were thc lower 
first incisors: ne::d camc upper front 
'ors to match. During this time 
Joe.'s mother ga\'e him firm ruhbf'r 
toys to chew on. and put away an 
tOYS ma(Ie of 
uch material a
 ceUu loid 
,,'hich might have hroken into piecf's 
lw could swallO\\". Cora Smith. the 


neighbor baby, was cutting tet'th at 
ame time at ahout the same rate. 
After a fe,,' clays spent \"ith their 
irritahle children the two mothers be- 
gan snarling at their hu
ban(k One 
day the fathers were caught making 
sma!! het
 on ,,-hich child would cut 
the most teeth the fastest. For some 
rt'a "on this increased the domestic ten- 
sion and tranqui11ity wasn't restored 
until the habies had heen left with 
a sitter and the mothers taken out 
to dinner! 
.-\ double birthday party \"as held 
for 1 oe Stuart and Cora Smith hut 
the è>ccasiol1 was appreciated more by 
the parents than the guests of honor. 
The hahies reached for the lighted 
candles hut were not allowed to ha\'e 
them. Their parents en-n ate their 
birthday cakes except for small bits 
which had the icing remoycd. The two 
children were pnt in a pen to play 
together but at one year they had not 
karm..d much about sharing so their 
p!aying was mostly of the "para11e1" 
h-pe, They observed each other clo"ely 
from time to time, hut mostlv their 
direct contact was for the l;urpose 
of one taking the particular toy that 
the other was holding. Early in the 
en-ning the babie
 grt'\\' bored and 
feU asleep which left the parents free 
to get on with the main purpose of 
the party which was evaluation of 
their chi!dn.-n's year of growth and 
Physical development records show- 
ed that each child had tripled the birth 
weight. \\'hich nwant that Joe ,,'eighed 
22 yj pounds, Each child had grown 
9 inches in length, which meant that 
Joe was 29 inches long. Joe had 6 
teeth, which is normal. Cora had 7. 
r r. and ...\lrs. Stuart told each 
other later \\-as a11 right hut not a bit 
necessary. Their motor development 
,,"as such that they could pull tht'm- 
s<.'1\-e5 erect, and manage their arms 
and legs quite wdl. Cora Smith had 
been ahle to \va!k alone for two dap; 
hut lOt' could \"alk o11h- if S0111eO;1(' 
held "onto at least one hånd. ] r e could 
stand alone. though, especia1Jy ,,'l1en 
 c1irln't notice that he \"as doing it. 

l1ch a..; \"ht'n he held some interesting 
)il"ct in hoth hand,;. 
Per"ol1a!-social deyelonment showed 
the good effect of a \
-h():cs0111e e11- 


"ironment as the bab:es were happy 
and outgoing. Cora was a 1ittle shy 
hut would allow herself to be picked 
up by a 
tranger if gi"en an hour or 
two to stud\" her from a distance first. 
Both chileh:en skpt \yell a!most any- 
where, often in very awk,,"anl posi- 
tione:. Elimination had never been a 
prohlem. Each mother had learned her 
child's schedule so well that a casual 
SfJrt of toilet training had heen begun. 
A.t this time, this onh" amounted to 
a usually productive ti;ne spent on a 
child\; pot in the morning. The main 
habit peculiarities \yere that Cora 
would not go to s!eep witl-.out a par- 
ticular rag doll and Joe would always 
crawl to the foot of his heel where he 
could set' his mother through the door- 
way. J o
's mother adjusted this by 
moving his crih a little so that he cotÙI 
,,-atch her \yhik lying in a normal po- 
\daptiYe dlTelopment was meager 
at this 
tage. Cora hael a vocalmlary 
of a dozt..'n words, or so her parents 
claimed, hut all that cou 1 d be und<:'r- 
st00 I In' outsidlTS was "l\Iamma. 
Dada, éu;(l hall." Toe could sa\' on'y 
three words but e\"
rvone could -unde;- 
stand them. The\' w
re " )'Iamél, Dada 
and t..'at." Cora had several inches of 
fine, dark hair hut Jot'\; little bald 
head was just beginning to show some 
yellow fuzz. Cora's cheeks were quite 
pink while Joe was cream-colored all 
over. )'Ir. and )'lrs. Smith thought thi... 
indicated that Cora was hea!thier until 
th("y read that many bahies, especially 
those of hlonde coloring like Joe, were 
normally pale. 
During their next Yt..'ar Joe and 
Cqra played in the same yard hut they 
dicln't learn much about playing to- 
g"ther. They appeared to entertain 
each ot her hut did not work long on 
a community project. This could he 
observed in the sand hox, for instance. 
(h1e would watch the other shO\"l'}ing 
sand into a pail hut when given 1ike 
equipment. would fling sand ahout in- 
dt']wndentlv. lh" the time th('\" reacht..'d 
l'co!;d b[rthda\'
chi:d had 
)lot only front teeth hut upper and 
lower h:cu
pids, sometimes called 
"t\Yo-n'éu 11101ars.'' ('flra could walk 
quickÍ y élnd run without fa
ling hct 
Toe lumhered ahout more awkwarelh'. 
-I r is parents helieH'el this was hecau

JANUARY. 1936. Vol. 52 No.1 

Cora was thin and wiry while Toe was 
plump anù sturdy. U
th chilcÌren ate 
chopped fooel that \Ya
 usually part of 
the familY meal rather than special 
baby fnocÍ. C'Jra talkeel a grt..'at deal 
 quite p!ainly ; Joe usecl only simple 
sentences such as "This is mv truck" 
or "V ou go hl>lne." He forgot even 
the "'01-els he knew when <.. 'ora incited 
his anger, so would rt..'vert to a tor- 
rent of nonsense words, delivered ",ith 
great feeling. Joe's father maintained 
that Cora spo\;:e mon' hecause she was 
going to be a ,,'oman and \yas getting 
into practice. If he had any secret 
fears, he needn't ha\"e, because hy the 
time both children were thret..' vear" 
olel they could talk equally \\"t..'lÍ. In 
fact 10e learned t\\'o \yords that Cora 
ever heard. Harl it not been for 
the hook's ITcoml11eI1(lation against it. 
 mother would have washed his 
mouth out ,,-ith soap. 
One afternoon a little old lalh, who 
was collecting funds for a 
\'isited ::\1rs. Stuart as she was about 
to get Joe up from his nap. She in- 
troduced herself a.;; )'Irs. Gunder, ex- 
plained her mission and n>ceiyed a 
contribution. A near fall over a to\' 
on the flflur brought the cOl1\'ersatio;) 
around to children and resultecl in 
)'lrs. Gunder's staying to see Joe. 
After admiring him enthusiastically 
enough to please his mother. she asked 
if he resembled his father. This brought 
out the fact that he had come from 
the Cradle A.gency. On hl'aring this 
:\Irs. Gunder near:y choked with 
"How ] admire you. mv dear" she 
said "for g: \"ing tÍ1is fortunate child 
a home! \ rhen I thii1k of the institu- 
tions crowded with hundreds of bahies 
lweding to he adopted my heart 
aclws !" 
"Hundreds of -" l\Irs. Stuart sput- 
terceL "It's tl'C who are lud.;:\'! \\'f' 
\H'fl' on él waiting list for fou
hefore \\"t..' got this hahy! It took sev- 
eral years before that for u
 to hecome 
estahlislwd well t..'nough to even get 
011 a waiting list. This house. our sav- 
ing", my hushand's joh, the security 
of our marriage, all had to be proH'd 
ht'fnn: any agency \nmld e\"t..'n accept 
our application. Don't} ou kno,,' there 
arl'!1 't uymgh adoptah\' infants to go 
aronnd? In this city, thi; year, there 


are eleven qualified couples waiting for 
each adoptable baby. Those who can 
have their own don't realize how much 
easier it is!" "\\,h,' I had no idea it 
was like that," sai(Í :\Irs. Gunder dis- 
appointedly, Then, brightening, she 
whispered. "Are you e,-er going to tell 
him he's a-d-o-p-t-e-d?" 
"\ Vh,-, we've told him that smce 
 da;' ,ye got him," replied 1\lrs. 
Stuart. "Joe, who's our best little 
acloptecl boy?" 
"1\1e," answered Joe with a wide 
"Oh, I know he doesn't know the 
meaning of the word now but by the 
time he does he'll be used to it and 
then we'll tell him how we ,vanted him 
so much that we chose him out of all 
others. ., 
1\lrs. Gunder was leaying and had 
gone as far as the front porch steps 
when she thought of one more pos- 
sibilitv for drama in the situation. 
('HO\,: long will it be before you can 
tell if his blood is tainted?" she asked. 
1\1rs. Stuart's puzzled expression made 
her explain. " You know, had blood in 
case any of his ancestors were 
criminals ?" 
1\lrs. Stuart wavered for a moment 
between humor and exasperation. 
Humor won, and she answered. "Sci- 
ence had made great strides in the last 
few years. vou know. \Ye had a 
 of J o
's blood tested in a hig, 
shiny laboratorv and now we know 
we don't have 
to worry. The report 
told us that his blood is as pure as the 
driven snow. Goodbve 
1rs. Grund,' 
- I mean :\Irs. Gt1l1der." And Joe 
and hi5 mother went in and shut the 
Joe's year from two to three was 
fun to watch because of his rapidly 
expanding vocabulary and because of 
his attempts to imitate the adults in 
hi" life. He acted out the delivering 
of milk. the selling of newspapers and 
the departing for ,\'ork ,,-ith hat and 
hrief case. His motor development 
showed most in his improved body 
balance which made it possible for him 
to be pushed a little without falling. 
He had learned to play with other 
children so that he would often help 
to make a snow man. build a fort, or 
pull a wagon. At his third birthday he 
weighed 34 pounds and was 23.% inches 


tall. His toilet training ,,-as complete 
now except for some occasions when 
he was awav from home. He was 
still friendly and happy but not quite 
so docile as he had been, For a while 
he had an almost automatic habit of 
saying "no" to everything, even hefore 
he kne,,- what the request was going 
to be. This negative attitude was just 
as noticeable in Cora Smith. 
Joe's and Cora's fourth birthday 
party was the first one they really 
enjoyed because they were uld enuugh 
to anticipate events to some extent, 
and also they could enter into group 
g;unes ,vith 
everal children. Joe 
weighed 370 pounds and was 26 
inches tall. which was normal for his 
age. His play showed more imagina- 
tion now. He often insisted that he 
was not Joe but Dick Tracy on the 
trail of bandits. 
By the time Joe's fifth birthday 
came his parents were considering 
huying more books so that they could 
look up suitable answers to his many 
 " \\ - 1 " d " h ., f d - 
questIOns. ry an 0\\- pre ace 
most of the things he 
aid. Some of 
the questions like "how far away is 
the moon" and "why is ice cold" .sent 
his parents scurrying for references. 
The answers to these things had to be 
simple and brief. though. or his atten- 
tinn would wander. Sometimes he in- 
terrupted an overlong explanation of 
something with another question. Joe's 
height was now 20 inches more than 
the year before, and his weight was -J.2 
pound3. His eagerness to learn things 
and his ability to play well with other 
children hrought him to the right stage 
(Jf de\'e!opment for kindergarten. 
Before Joe started school at age six, 
he had cut two more molars behind 
those he had cut at age two. This did 
not cause the distress that his first 
teeth had. though he did salivate a bit 
more than u
ual. He had lost three of 
his deciduous teeth in front. He rather 
liked this process of losing teeth he- 
cause each one turned into a dime 
\yhen put under his pillow and, besides 
that, adults seemed to think his smile 
was more dazzling. His weight on 
entering school was a husky 48 pounds 
and he was 32 inches tall. He had, 
by this time. absorbed a simple sex 
eclucati011. as his mother was wise 
enough to answer his questions simply 


and matter-of-factly as he asked them. 
At this age he often avoided his friend, 
Cora Smith. as he was Leginning to 
believe that there was some sort of 
stigma attached to boys playing with 
girls, He had a few brid, transient 
compulsions at this time, some ap- 
parently copied from the other children 
at school, and some of unknown 
origin. Examples of these were the 
avoiding of all cracks in a sidewalk, 
scratching his ribs like a monkey, and 
automatically saying "what ?" so that 
questions had to be repeated. 
At age seven, even Joe's mother 
admitted that he \vas no longer a cute 
baby. J [e had grown three inches 
dllring the last year but had gained 
only four pounds. His baby "tummy" 
had disappeared and he had a long and 
stringy look Two enormous teeth in 
his upper gums and one and a half 
teeth in his lower gums made his 
remaining baby teeth look even 
ler. He regarded his teachers at 
school as more lofty authorities than 
his parent.;:. on all- things scholastic, 
annyav. lIe rdused to wear anv sort 
of - clothes that were not the sa;11e as 
those heing worn by every other boy 
at school. 
A.t age eight Joe looked bettcr to his 
parents. He had enough of his per- 
manent teeth to make a more even 
smile now and his face had grown 
enough to fit them a little better. He 
W<JS not so intense about school and 
had cven clecided that his parents 
probably had education enough to help 
him \\ ith his humework. He had 
gained another fouf pounds and had 
grO\n1 another two and a half inches. 
Toe's ninth, tenth and ele\'enth 
bi;thdays saw no great change in him 
except for the normal increase in 
height and weight. Of course his mind 
developed in pace with his body so 
that at eleven he was in the sixth 
grade. "'as 58 inches taIl and weighed 
75 pounds. His neighhor Cora, was 2 
inches shorter and six pounds lighter 
but she. too. \vas within the range of 
normal. Cora hegan her pre-pubertal 
developmcnt at this age but Joe did 
not b:,,'gin this process until two years 
During the years between eleven 
and thirteen it looked as if Cora and 
Joe cou
d not possibly have been babies 

JANUARY, 1956. VoL 52, NO.1 

born on the same day and year. She 
grew at the rate of 3 inches a year 
until she towered over Joe, She gained 
a total of thirty pounds without be- 
coming at all ovenveight. By the time 
she was thirteen, even her parents 
were admitting that she would soon 
be a young lady. She imitated older 
girls so that she seemed even older 
than she was. She repaid Joe's years 
of neglect by scornfully referring to 
him as "the little boy next door." 
By the time he was thirteen Joe's 
puberty dlTe!opment was most notice- 
ably manifested by the fact that his rate 
of growth stepped up very sharply. 
\\'hen he was fifteen he was 68 inches 
tall. a good four inches more than 
Cora Smith. Cora, at fifteen, had at- 
tained all hut 0 inch of the height 
she was to have as an adult, but Joe 
continuerl to grow until he was nearly 
eighteen. The growth after fifteen was 
slower. totaling only two inches. 
At age fifteen Joe and Cora won- 
dered \vhether they were adults or 
children. 1Iost people considered them 
children, of course. Thev were still 
dependent upon their par
nts in many 
\\-ays and they still had years of educa- 
tion ahead, but mixed with the accept- 
ance of these facts was a restlessness 
and a desire to manage their O\\"n liyes. 
Joe was bigger than his father and 
Cora was bigger than her mother. 
Each weighed less than the parent of 
like Sex, howeyer, as their develop- 
ment was not so complete as they 
thought. Cora and Joe became friends 
t this age. They cheered each 
OIher in sports activities, associated 
with the same group of young people 
and attenòed the same school affairs, 
They never quite regained the un self- 
conscious relationship they had en- 
joyed as small children, but they didn't 
mind this. Once thev had been small 
and their \\"orld had - been small. Now 
they had grown larger physically and 
menta}!y and their world had grown 
larger still. Their physical develop- 
ment was largely, hut not entirely 
complete. Their personal, social and 
adaptive development would go on all 
their lives. Thev had little idea where 
their growth a;1d development would 
lead tlwm or what factors would in- 
fluence it, but at age 15 they were 
eager to get on with it. 


Nursing Profiles 

During- this past year. Doroth:v Lyons 
(Kaufman). :McPhail assumed her dutie" 
as director of the Division of Public Health 
X ursing- with the Alb
rta Department of 
Public Health. 
Born in .\Ib
Irs. .ðlcPhail receiyed 
her professional training at the Hospital for 
Sick Children. Toronto. Securing h
r di- 
ploma in public health nursing and a cer- 
tificate in advanced study in practical 
obstetrics occupied her time foHm\ ing gradu- 
ation. She began h
r professional career as 
a district nurse with the department sl:e 
now serves. Later she travelled much farther 
afield, spending several months ,,-ith the 
United States .\rmy as a civilian charge 
nurse in 
 anking, China. Back in Canaùa 
again. .ðlrs. .ðlcPhail rejoined the .\lb
Department of Public Health, acting at 
various times as assistant director d public 
health nursing 
nd assistant dir 
ctor of 
health units. Interested in professional af- 
fairs. she has found time to carry out lh
duties of program convener with her provin- 
cial association and to sen-c on the enter- 
tainment committee of th-: .\ ':...crta Pub
Health .\ssociation, 

. . 



Brst's St"diD 


'nthia Cavell has been appointed to the 
teaching staff of the Uni\ ersity of Toronto 
School of X ursing where she will assist 
with the teaching of nursing in the basic 
course. A graduate in arts of the Cniversity 
of Toronto. sh
 studied at the Yale Gniver- 
sity School of X ursitlg recelnng h
master's degree in nursing in 195.2, After 
completing her professional preparation, 
Miss Cavell joined the nursing staff of the 
Yale PS} chia
ric Institute for a year of 
practical e-'p;:riencc. .\ desire to study 
thods elsewhere lead her to 
Hospital, London and later to the A.merican 
Hospital of Paris before accepting her 
present position. 

Lucille Cot{>, as director of nursing. 
Iary Y eteran 's Hospital, l\Iontrea!. 
brings a rich Inckground of experience to 
her new positiotl. A graduate of I'E:nle des 
rcs de I'Hopital de la PrO\'idulce, 

Iiss Coté obtained h'r diploma 
in public health nursing frcm the Ct'iversity 
Io:ltrcal and a master's degree in arts 



..;. . 





from Columbia Cniversity. Her practical 
experience has been varied and enriching. 
As visiting nurse with the 
Life Insurance Company. she spent several 
years in charge of the Thetford 
lines dis- 
trict. This W;-ìS followed by administrative 
experience as director of the Orientation 

Centre of 
lontreal. .\s assi5tant director 
of the ScI
ool for Public Health K urses, 
University of 
lontreal. she shared her 
knowledge of public health requirements and 
prohlems, K ow her professional talents are 
being directed towards the field of institu- 
tional nursing. 

3Jn fMemoríam 

Agnes Arnf>r, a graduate of Grace Hos- 
pital, \Vindsor. Ont., died at Leamington, 
Ont., in September, 1955, following a year's 
illness. For ten years Miss Arner was in- 
dustrial nurse for Canadian Automotive 
Trim at \\ïndsor. 
* * * 

Mabel Darville, who graduated from 
Roya] Victoria Hospita], llontrea]. in 1919, 
died at VancoU\'er on N ovemb
r 13, 1955, 
following a lengthy illness. After many 
years as a head nurse at R.V.H,. 
s Dar- 
ville was in charge of the student health 
sen'ice prior to h2r retirem
* * * 

Effie Jf. Feeny, who graduated from 
Toronto General Hospita] in 1907. died at 
Dearborn, 1Iich.. on September 27, 1955. 
}'lrs. Feeny was appointed as the first school 
nurse in Prince .\lbert, Sask.. in 1 q13. She 
joined the staff of the School Hygiene 
Branch of the Saskatche\\"an Department 
of Education in 1918. transferring with that 
Branch to the D2partment of Public Health 
in 1928. She retired from her work as a 
public health nurse in Regina in 1 fJ35. 
* * * 

' Graham Gunne, a graduate of the 
Genera] Hospita], Dauphin. 
lan, èied at 
\Vinnipeg on October 19, 1955, }'Iiss Gunne 
\\ as one of \\ïnnip
g's first school nurses, 
She had also served as matron at Dauphin. 
* * * 

Annie Loube (Brown) Hill, who g!'ad- 
uated from \\ïnnipeg Genera] Hospita] in 
1901, died at \\ïnnipeg on S:pt(mber 24. 
1955, at the ag
 of 79. 
* * * 

Ann Elizabeth Hutchison, who gradu- 
ated frum th
ral HospitaL S
. Cath- 
arines, Ont.. in ]892. died at Orillia, Ont., 
on Octob(T Ii, 1955. 
Iiss Hutchison was 
superintendcnt of nurses at the S1. Cath- 
arines hospital 1893-96. During her active 
career in nur'iing she also engaged III 
pri\"ate du
y and l}Uhlic health nursing 
sernc Throughout her years of retirement 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No.1 

she maintained an active interest III her 
Iater and its graduates. 
* * * 

Florence lUac('uaig, \\ ho graduated from 
the Genera] H(J
pita], Cornv.-all, Ont., in 
1922, died at Toronto on October I, 1955. 
* * * 

Rita MacNeil, who graduated from the 
Genera] Hospita], Brockville, On1., in 1936, 
died at Cornwall. OnL, on Octob
r 5, 1955, 
in her 42nd year, 
 ei] had prac- 
tised her profession in Cornwall and district 
prior to her illness in 1954, 
* * * 

Mary ('. (Hyde) McCallum, v. ho grad- 
uated frem T aronto Genera] Hospita] in 
1900. died at Toronto on October 5, 1955. 
at the age of 83. 
[rs. McCallum's first 
assignment following graduation was to care 
for victims of a typhoid epidemic at Copper 
Cliff. Ont. In 190ï she became matron of 
the hospital at Dauphin, 
ran. leaving that 
position to be man ied. 
* * * 

Elizahf>th (Jones) Miserva, a Canadian 
graduate of an Am
rican Hospital who 
served on the staff of Royal .\lexandra 
Hospita], Edmonton. and at Cold Lake, 
.\lta., died at Stettler. .\lta., in October 
1955, after a lengthy illness. 
* * * 
Sister Fabian, formerly superintendent of 
St, Joseph's Hospital. Iondon, Ont.. died 
there on O
tober 8, 1955. at the age of 63. 
* * * 

Andrép Yoisard, 'who graduated from 
Royal Victoria Hospital. lIontreal. in 1455, 
was instantly killed by the accidcnta] dis- 
charge of a gun on Octoh:'r 24, 1955. She 
\\ as 22 years o!d. 
* * * 

:Uargarf>t :.\1. (Aikman) \\ïgginton, 
\\ ho graduated from tht: \\ïnnipcg General 
Hospi tal in 1929, died on ,\ ugust ] 2, 1955, 
follo\\ ing an illness of many months. _\ t 
one time. 
lrs \\ïgginton was on the staff 
of the \\ïnnipeg 
Iunicipa] Hospitals. 



Nursing Programs at 
the University of Saskatchewan 

Lucy D. \VILLIS J l\I.A. 

T HE OPEXIKG of the University Hos- 
pital un the campus of Sas- 
katchewan has made possible both 
enlargement and diyersification of the 
School of 
 ursing programs. 
The basic degree program follows 
a pattern of two academic years, two 
calendar years, one academic year - 
in all 45 months of study spread out 
oyer four and one-half vears. This 
basic pattern remains th
 same but 
within the framework there have been 
major changes. The full clinical pro- 
gram with the exception of tuber- 
culosis and rural experience is now 
available on the campus. University 
faculty members direct, supervise and 
participate in the clinical program. 
It has also been possible to include 
a nursing science class with laboratory 
riods on the hospital wards during 
the second university year. Thus stu- 
dents have a gradual introduction to 
the clinical fielel and are able to make 
earlier applications of some of their 
basic science courses. 
A three-year diploma program, also 
under the direction and supervision of 
the University School of Nursing, has 
bèf'n launched. In late August, 1954, 
80 students entered this school and 75, 
or 95 per cent of the original group, 
have completed their first year. Stu- 
dents selected by School of Nursing 
faculty are aelmitted once a year only. 
They spend the first 16 weeks of their 

Miss \Villis is assistant professor of 
nursing education in the School of 
N ursing, University of Saskatchewan, 


course along with students from other 
Saskatchewan schools in the Central- 
ized Lecture Program. During the 
next ] 6 weeks their time is divided 
between classroom lectures and dem- 
onstrations and practice in the 
classrooms and wards. 1\ ursing fun- 
clanwntals are taught gradual1y 
throughout this period, Considerable 
use is made of patient-centred situa- 
tions and whenever possible these are 
taken directly f rom the students' 
current expe-riences. Other classes 
commonly taught in the junior period 
are given, such as diet therapy, 
pathology, pharmacology, junior med- 
icine and surgery. Clinical practice is 
limited to the general medical and 
surgical wanls. A new course, "Health 
as a Community Problem" has been 
introduced. This includes a survey of 
pu blic health and social service re- 
sources, an introduction to major 
health problems and concludes \vith 
communicable diseases, Use is made 
of films, tours, projects and group 
Basic (legree course students who 
have already completed pathology, 
pharmacology, and some of the nurs- 
ing fundamentals course follow a 
somc\vhat similar pattern to the above 
during the first 12 weeks of their pro- 
During the remainder of the clinical 
program for both groups of students 
the theory and clinical experience are 
concurrent. This is made possible by 
the cooperation and interest of the 
professors and lecturers in the clinical 
areas and by blocked rotations. This 


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'ersit)' llospital] Saskatoon] Sas/,. 

. Len H illiarå 

meanc:.; that a group of students go 
together to a clinical seryice and \yhile 
there haye lectures and experience 
concurrentlv. All rotations and hours 
for studpnt
 are planned by the teach- 
ing staff in co
peration with the nurs- 
ing supervisors. The student follows 
through the usual basic experiences 
of medicine. surgery, obstetrics. pedi- 
atrics, operating room. Every student 
spends 12 weeks in psychiatry, and 
plans are under way for each to have 
six weeks of tuberculosis affiliation. 
Three weeks are spent in diet therapy. 
Here students are asc:.;igned specific 
experiences by the teaching dietitian. 
They spend one-half of their time on 
each of the medical and surgical serv- 
ices 'where, under the supervision of 
a dietitian. they learn to select and 
supervise the diets of patients. 
In our proposed third year \ye an:' 
looking toward helping soh'e some of 
the problems of nursing in Saskatch- 
e\yan. Our prm-ince has 121 hospitals 
with 50 beds or less. :\Iany of our 
young graduates go out into - these in- 
stitutions. \ \. e hope to help them do 
a better joh. Larger city hospitals and 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. No. 1 

smaJI hospitals alike are employing 
nursing assistants and trained-on-the- 
job nursing per:-:onnel. \Ye hope our 
graduates ,\'ill be prepared in some 
measure to \,.ork with and guide such 
workers safely. \Ye refer to our third 
r experiences as maturing ones. 
Ao..; WL haye no third vear students to 
date we can only S'peak of plans. 
Students will return to the operating 
room for four weeks for further scrub- 
bing experience anù to learn the in- 
tricacies of setting up for various 
operations. cost and care of equipment 
ancl instruments. preparation and 
sterilization of packs. Some of this 
time will be spent in central supply 
service. A return of four weeks to 
obstetrics will concentrate on respon- 
sibility in the nursery. greater re- 
sponsibility in supervision of labor, 
prepara tion for deli\'ery, setting up the 
delivery room, and additional experi- 
ence in teaching the mother in the care 
of herseJf and the infant. ..:\ week in 
the dietary department will be spent in 
learning about large scale orch'ring, 
sltpen-ision of the preparation of food 
in large quantities and menu-planning 



ç? ( . .. . 








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t.......,- ..' 




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[-11 i'l'crsity H OS pi tal C a /,s. 

 1 ft 

for ft.-gular diets. Concurrent w
th or 
prior to these experiences the studen
will have hasic lectures on principles 
of administration and superyision. 
\Yith supervision, she will have an 
opportunity to he a tl'cHn leader and 
will have a senior night or evul=ng 
term and senior experience in mecl' cine 
and surgery. 
-\rrangements are being 
made for a four-week period in se
ted rural hospitals for experienc:.' in 
giying nursing care and learning some- 
thing of the ach1Ïnistrative relation- 
ships and responsihJities of the nurs Oo . 
These "maturing eXperiences" \\"'11 
he incorporated in the hasic degn e 
program during the la ttl:'f ll1cnths of 

the clinical program and in a thorough 
and more extens:ve wav in the final 
academic year. It is iri'teresting and 
encouraging to note that the degree 
program has continued with markedly 
incrcased enrollment e"en after the 
opening of the sh
rter bas;c diplonn 

The diploma program 111 teach' ng 
and supen-ision for graduate 1ltlP'l'S 
has henefited from the opening of the 
hospital also. To a 
mall extent !ast 
year. and it is hoped in !arger mea
this year. we han- had a convenient 
 for ohservatiun and for practice 
teaching during the un:versity tt'nn. 

In the Good Old Days 
(Tht' Canadian Xursl' - ]AXCARY, 1916) 

For thc first time in history, an a:-my in 
ld is b:ing protected ag irst the 
onset of an infectious disease by inocula- 
tions, Among 20000 0 f the Canadian forc s 
there \\ as 1)ot one case of serious trouble 
from th
 typhoid fever inoculations nor diJ 
any of the men take th2 disease. 
* * * 

One of the large problem
 is the integra- 
tion of the foreigncrs who have crmc to our 
coun:ry into the Canadi;:n way of lif
, This 
is esp::ci,.lIy true in \\' estern Canada \\'h re 
tlv' \\,om n ;. r 
 marri::d \\':l
n v
ry young - 
13 v
ry often - and Lw live to b
 30 In 

one district wh
n the nurse urg xl :h:-\t 
a doc:or b
 called for a desperately sick 
woman, the husb:md said: "
o. it's too much 
mO:1ey. I can get another wife for $500." 
* * * 

The _-\lumr>a2 As
()ciati()n of the Hospital 
for Sick Children has remcmb
red its mem- 
bcrs \"ho are s.:rving overseas by sem1:ng 
a box of apple
 to each. 
* * * 
The schopl nurs:;s of Toron:o I
a\-e estab- 
d a fund, on a per-cent-of-salary basis, 
to assist in caring fc'r 
pecial1y urg::nt cases 
of nee,1 that they find, 

La réputalÌon d'un hln
me cst commc 
ombre, qui tantÎ1t Ie st;it, et tan
Ôt Ie p,é- 

cède: quelc udois elk est plus longue et 
Q'_I-ku fois phb courte que lui. 




Tuberculosis Prevention 
In the Far North 


G in my seyenth 
year in northern Saskatchewan. 
' first four years were spent in a 
generalized puhlic health program. 
Then, in 
Iarch 1953, I was asked to 
initiate a tuherculosis pre\'ention pro- 
gram throughout this enormous area 
that .covers the top ha] of this large 
The question that \\'as uppermost 
in aI1 our minds as the prevent=on 
program was launched was "\\ïll there 
he a respollse?" The future course of 
my \york hil-ged on the ans\\-er. It 
is most gratify;ng to report that the 
response has heen magnificent. The 
people han' been \\'onderful! .Many 
haYe returned to mv clin;cs for the 
second and thi reI tÜ;w. rust as soon 
as they learned that the 'ohject of the 
program was to prevent the 
of tuherculo
:,is. they were all for it. 
They knew. from l;i tter loss, the to] 
that tuhercu!osis takes - man\' times 
wiping out vd1Gk famiFes. - 
ThelT are manv difficulties to he 
O\-ercome in organizing successful 
clinics in isolated area,> where there 
is infrequent or no mail sen'ice. The 
B.C.G. yaccine. which comes all the 
way from 
Iomreal. has a value-span 
of only five dav
 hy the time it reaches 
me. Since tuhl'fC
ll in test::-; must be 
made and read bdore B.C .G. is given. 
careful plann:ng io;; necessary to reach 
as large a proportioll of th" nega

riss \\'alz is employed by the Sas- 
katchewan .\nti- Tub
rculosis League to 
carryon this very effecti\'e prugram 
that she describes. 

UARY. 1956. Vol. 
2. No.1 

reactors as possible. There has been 
splendid cooperation so the survey 
work has not heen near1v as difficult 
as I had thought it wou1c( be. 
I fly into the larger settlements that 
have mail serY
ce. I make this place 
my headquarters for quite a large 
surrounding area. Then I not=fy the 
settlers over "1\' orthern X ew
:' when 
I will arrive in their locality. "X orth- 
èrn X l'\\"s" i
 a daily radio program 
for the people of the north. hy which 
we send message; and news. To these 
ettlements I tran'l In' canoe. 
spcecl-hoat. bomharclière, dog
slcd o
walk, ahvays with an Indian guide, 
At times we are accompanied by the 
Conservation (>fficer or R.C.11.P., but 
more often 1 trayel alone with the 
guide. I I1tTl'r knU\\' just when
 I will 
eat or sleep. hut northern hosp;tality 
has nnTr left 111t' standing on the dock 
for long. I a-ways carry a hed-roll, 
in \\-hich I slecp most of the time. just 
occasionally in a hed. nnly once d d I 

'. "'. 


. ... 



spend the night in the canoe out on 
the river. I took off my boots. opened 
up my bed-roll and stretched out under 
the bars, with the heaver s\\-imming 
about rocking me to sleep. The guide 
slept on the hank - or 
pent the night, 
I should 
ay - as he almost froze 
for it was - October. At six in the 
. . 
mornmg we were on our way agam. 
Another time in 
Iay 1953, at Ile-à- 
La-Crosse the mail plane arrived with 
111'" B.C.G. on it. At 12 :30 noon I 
rted out for BeauvaL Since it was 
the break-up period we had to travel 
with dogs, skiff and canoe. The trip 
was started with a dog-team, but be- 
fore I could 
it in the dog-sled, I had 
to slide down a rope off the dock to 
get oyer the open water onto solid ice. 
\ \'hat I didn't know was that 50 three- 
week-old turkt'YS and 104 three-week- 
old chicks were trave1Iing with me. 
Thn" had also arrived on the mail 
plan-e from the Prince Albert hatch- 
eries, for the R.C. mission at Beauval. 
Bu1 how were they to get to Beauval 
qt this time of the year? :\ly trip was 
the solution. \Yhen the ice was be- 
coming soft. and the dogs started to 
fall through it, \ve transferred to a 
skiff. \Ye travelled bv skiff until we 
reached the Beaver River. There we 
transferred to speed-boat as the river 
 open, arriving in Beam"al at five 
in the afternoon, chickens and turkeys 
very much alive, but thirsty I am 
In January, 1954. I travelled by 
train to The Pas, l\Ianitoba. It was 
extremely cold, and although the train 
was four hours late, our faithful bom- 
bardière driver waited. After complet- 
ing arrangements for my B.C.G. pick- 
up. we started across the lakes for 
Cumberland House. This was a 45- 
mile trip. It almost seemed like coming 
home, as I had lived there for three 
years doing public health nursing. I 
spent more than a month in that area, 
conducting clinics in four other settle- 
ments, travelling 350 miles by bombar- 
dière across lakes and portages. The 
weather remained 40-50 0 below zero 
the whole time. One dav the tuberculin 
froze solid in my brie"'f case, while I 
was walking from hut to hut vaccinat- 
ing the aged and the blifld. I also had 
to walk to the settlement of Pemican 
Portage, a distance of three miles, 


when it was 50 0 bdow. No transpor- 
tation was available that day - not 
even dogs. To keep the B,C.G. from 
freezing, I put it in my 
ki pants 
pockets. By wiping my face frequently 
to remm'e the frost, I didn't even 
freeze my nose. 
In February, 195..t-, I arrived in Lac 
La Ronge by bus. This was my head- 
quarters for the area of Little Hills, 
Egg Lake, Potato River and Sucker 
RiYer. Here J travelled b," bombar- 
dière, and by plane where there were 
no bombardière trails to the settle- 
ments. One day the public health nurse 
of Lac La Ronge and I flew to Little 
Hills, a distance of 15 miles, and then 
walked back. There were huts all a!ong 
the trail and this was the only \\-ay of 
conducting a clinic for this årea. \Ye 
did not have to be rocked to sleep 
that night, as we had been \\-alking 
on a narrow toboggan trail all the 
way! E,'en this was soft in places. 
for quite frequently we passed open 
water on the lake. 
D v l\larch I was on my way back 
to Prince Albert by bus: Alo
lg the 
way the bus driver was kind enough 
to wait on the roadside, ,vhile I ran 
to a hut in the woods to see a sick 
baby, for the public health nurse. The 
baby appeared very ill, so right there 
and then I decided to take it with me. 
By six that evening it had been ad- 
mitted to hospital in Prince 
Still another time in 
Iay, 1954, I 
flew mto Foncl-Du-Lac from Uranium 
City on a chartered Cessna. still on 
skis, with the break-up imminent. I 
hoped that five days later the plane 
would still be able to land. Otherwise 
I would have had to remain for six 
weeks with only a tooth-brush and 
the clothes I wore. I travelled as light 
as I could, for even now we had to 
land quite a distance out on the lake, 
then walk into the settlement through 
slush of water, snow and caribou hair 
up to our knees. The young pilot was 
helping me by carrying my bed-roll 
and brief case, my only baggage, while 
I had to take only myself, Even then 
I became winded and wanted to pause 
a moment to sit on the snow, but the 
pilot would not allow this in case the 
ice gave away. The bush pilot takes 
all responsibility until we are safe on 
land. The ,yater all but ran into my 


sheepskin-lined boots, and I arrived 
in the settlement with a ring of caribou 
hair on my ski pants about my knees. 
The natives had dumped all these hairs 
on the St1O\V on the lake as they tanned 
the hides that winter. I managed to 
leave five days later on a ski equipped 
aircraft after a successful clinic. 
In August, 1954, I went from Ile-a- 
La -Crosse to Canoe Lake by speed- 
boat. I put my bed-roll in a log cabin 
then ran dmvn to the dock each mor- 
ning in the rain to wash my face and 
brush my teeth. There I also did my 
laundry. 1\1y meals I had with a native 
family. Five days later J returned by 
canoe. In 
1arch 1955, I tIew into 
South End, a settlement on Reindeer 
lake. Next morning it was 46 0 below 
- br-r-r! There they only have out- 
door plumbing, I offer this tip to new- 
comers on their first experience of 
this type of nursing - wear your 

The Breath of Poin 

In the development of improved drug
relieving pain, the great problem is not the 
devising of promising new agents, for chem- 
ists these days have no end of ingenuity. 
The problem is finding out whether the 
drugs really relieve pain. For pain is an 
experience as well as a sensation; people 
differ in the way they react to pain, prob- 
ably more than in the degree to which 
they sense it. The effectiveness of pain- 
relieving drugs cannot be based on measures 
of tranquillity, for there are drugs that make 
patients tranquil without relieving pain. Nor 
can one rely entirely on studies with labor- 
atory devices like the dolorimeter, which 
inflicts graded heat burns on experimental 
subj ects; the pain of dolorimeter burns is 
not the same as natural pain. 
A resourceful English anesthesiologist, Dr. 
P. R. Bromage, has found a way out of the 
dilemma for one kind of natural pain at 
least - the severe pain occurring after 
operations on the chest or upper abdomen. 
C pper abdominal pain notoriously restricts 
breathing, often to the point where the 
patient turns blue though lying as still as 
he can. Dr. Bromage tests pain-relieving 
agents by measuring their ability to restore 
the patient's breathing capacity, He meas- 
ures the patient's vital capacity - the 
volume oi air he can expel after taking a 
deep breath - before operation to provide 
a base line. The vital capacity is meåsured 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No.1 

pyjamas as undenvear. It not only 
lessens your baggage, but it's a most 
convenient way to get into your bed- 
roll, when there is little or no privacy. 
It is also easier to get dressed when 
it is 50 below. 
The only time that I am not in the 
north is during the freeze-up period. 
Although this is a very rugged life, 
I have enjoyed every moment of it, 
especially because the northerners have 
shown such interest, appreciation and 
cooperation. \Vere it not for this, plus 
the \vonclerful plane and radio service, 
it would be impossible to carryon a 
program of this kind. 1 have seen 
about 7,000 of the 12.000 folk I have 
to contact. Some of them I have seen 
two or three times. So great is their 
interest, if they suspect a member of 
the settlement of having tuberculosis, 
they bring him to me to take out to 
the sanatorium. 

after operation but before administration of 
an analgesic. and then again after the pain- 
relieving agent has an opportunity to take 
Dr. Bromage employed the method to 
test demerol, methadon, xylocaine and a 
nerve-blocking procedure in 20 patients. The 
purpose was more to test the method than 
to test the drugs themselves. His results 
are nevertheless of interest. 
The nerve-blocking procedure - epidural 
block - was much the most effective; it 
restored an average of 86 per cent of the 
breathing capacity lost through pain. Meth- 
adon restored 35.4 per cent of lost vital 
capacity, and xylocaine, administered intra- 
venously, 22,8 per cent. Demerol "as least 
effective; it restored only 13.5 per cent of 
pain-lost vital capacity. 
The method has limitations. It is possible 
that upper abdominal pain can no more 
be equated to other kinds of pain than 
can the pain of dolorimeter burns. There 
are, for example. situations where demerol 
and xylocaine have advantages over metha- 
don, though this test shows methadon to be 
a most potent analgesic drug. However, Dr. 
Bromage's procedure comes close to achiev- 
ing true objectivity in measuring pain relief. 
For observation indicates that even tranquil- 
lized patients will not breathe deeply if it 
hurts. Patients will breathe deeply only 
when it really doesn't hurt. 



prepared by your national office Canadian Hurses' Association, OUOWQ 

::- ...._--_:... .- 

To Serve 

In the field of nursing, bo
ks may 
he \\Titten. research projects deyel. 
oped. outstanding contrihution::, recog- 
nized. hut h
.'hind it all 1:('5 the word 
"service." The events chronicled in 
hooks recmmt the actIvities. both 
amusing and moving, in nursing 
service. Study and research i
l the 
fie:d of nm--sing aim at the im- 
pnn-ement of the service rendered to 
mankind. But the recognition of out- 
stamling contrihutions to the imprm'e- 
ment of the general welfare of o
brings to mind the devotedness and 
unselfishnecs of the nurse in the canse 
of humanity, be it in the large modern 
hospital or on the frontiers d onr far 
flung country. 

Katherine Brandon 
is Remembered 
\ \r e read wi th pride in the press 
clippings of an impn'ssive ceremony 
which took place, late in Octoher. at 
the Indian reservation at :\Iorley, 
.-\lberta, near the foot of the Rocky 
:\1 ountain
I mlian school children, proud chiefs 
and government officials paid tribute 
to a Canadian nurSe. lIonoring Kath- 
erine Brandon, former supervi--or of 
nurses for the Department of Indian 
Health Services. a ca 1 rn, bui!t hy the 
Indians at their personal expLnse, was 
unveiled in remembrance of her 
dedicated serv:ce. 
::\Iiss Brandon. \\-hn:::.e de2'h from 
polio occurred two years ago. had ren- 
dered untirirg service to the Indian 
pnpulation which \Hm her th' 
éUld respect of more than 700 pt.T
Ii ying in t1-.e foothills settlement. 
Heartfelt trihute Wé1S eÀpn's
t..:d . n tIll' 
,,"orrIs of Chief \Yé1J1..;:ing Buffalo "Our 
hearts are pDtlrint T ont \";i1h remem- 
brance of her." ., 



Helen \IcArthur Returns 

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III Korea as coordinator 'ù..'ith tire hltcr- 
national R'd Cross sillce Jill}', l05.J, J/iss 
J/c..J.rtlrllr retlt/llcd to COIwda last II/ollth. 
J!iss llc..J.r:/lltr is ill/l1lediate past presidellt 
of t!ze c..V,.-l. 

Projects in the A t[antic Provinces 
s Pauline L:traC\', executive 
secretary of the .-\s:,oc' adon of Regis- 
tered Xurses of Xt'wfoun(rand. has 
heen sending us some interestir::g in- 
formation ahout changes in 1\\-0 of 
their ::,chools of nursing. [n ell' fall 
of 1955 e'\:tensive curricu'u1ì1 changes 
were made so that th..' traditional three 
year program could he revised to aHow 
a one year intcrnsh:p after a concen- 
trated t\\"o year educational program. 
It Wé'S f(':t that such a pn'gram would 
hay';.' greater educ1 lonal value. wou 1 d 
he more attracti\ e to prospect' v;> "'tu- 
dents (If nursing, wOlÙl he1
Mahilize nursing <aff and, ahove a1!, 
\vou!d improve patient :- n s


up the ne\y curriculum the content 
\\'as selected on the basis of its im- 
portance in helping the student to meet 
the needs of the people she is to sen'e 
and to adju,>t to the changing dem2.nds 
of the practice of nursing. 
From X e\y Brunswick comes word 
Iiss E. Kathleen Russell is well 
into her project of eyaluating nursing 
education in that prov:nce. From this 
eva!uati< n \yi11 come rec8111mendations 
regarding future policy, In this, the 
second month of a full )Tar project. 
it is too earh' to have any :ndication 
of what the r"esuIts may h
. Ho\Yeyer. 
all nursing eclucI'ion 'waits \yith an- 
ticipation the puh
ication of reporb. 
Blsides the :nflu::.'nce till' project may 
have on nursing in g.'neraL it is of in- 
terest to us in that it is the first p:ece 
of research in nursing education 
financed hy a Dominion- Proyincial 
health grant. 
Lamp 0/ the lViiderness 
In a reCent issue of XC'Ll''''- of Rcd 
(ross we find that thc..Te is a ne,,' hoo!..: 
written 1)\" vet another Canadian nurse. 
The hool
 written under the pen 
name of Tune Srencer hut the author 
is 1frs. J. Osinger R.:\". A. graduat'-, 
of Toron 0 East General Hospita!, 
the author is now on the staff at 
King's Daughters' Hospital. Duncan, 
D.C. "Lamp of \\ïlclerness" describ.'s 
the varied exper
ences of t\yO years' 
nursing service at a Canadian Red 
Cross Outpost H(I,:;pital in an i
district of the Carihoo. 

Nursing E ducntors 111 eel 
The sec(md course on the "Integra- 
t;on of Civil Defence X ursing into the 
Basic Curriculum" was held in Oc- 
tober at the Civil Defer.ce Col'ege. 
_-\rnprior. Sixty-four nurses from 
acros", C
nada. active in nursing edu- 
tion. attended. Following a week of 
lecture.;; and dell1O!Ytrations. the !ast 
(hv was sd aside for the nm-ses to 
cuss prob\'ms relating to the top:c. 
.-\ panel of four nurses fir<;t discus
the é'ldditional re:::ponsibilities and 
functions that wonld fall to nurses in 
a 111:1% di
aster. th
 special attitudes. 
sl,ilb an(l knowledge \yh:ch the nur"e 
must acquire and the implication d 

hl:se :n p!annil1g the basic curriculum. 

JAXUARY. 1956. VoL 52. No.1 

Small gnJup discu=:;sions f.Jllowed the 
panel discussion, 
It \\ as recognized that the principles 
underlying good nursing care would 
be the .;;ame in disaster or enwrgency 
nursing. It is important that all nurses 
knmy and understand the basic prin- 
ciples ancl l)f' ahle to apply these and 
adjust their practice to meet varying 
situations. It seemed genera!ly accep- 
ted that ciyil defence nursing cou'd 
be integíated throughout the cur- 
riculum. Some examples discu-sed 
TIp care of ] sychiatric casualties 
occurring in nrss c1isaster. This can b
integrated hy h
lping th
 student recog- 
nize s
rðS siî.u-:tions of yarying degrees 
present in each individual patient an I 
by gi\ ing students guidance in interper- 

onal rela:ions throltghout th(ir èas:c 
The care of patients with radiation 
sickness can start early in the stu- 
dent's science course, :\n understanding 
of radioactive materials can be given 
and continued in the nursing of 
patients haying ra'liation thuapy wi' h 
emphasis On the effects of radiation in 
atomic warfar{'. 
Principles of decontamination are the 
same as those underlying the nursing 
care of patients with communicable 
diseases and the special techniques used 
in Civil D
fence may b
 taught at the 
same time. 
The heavy responsihilities and ad- 
ditional functions which a nurse would 
haye to assume in a mass (lisaster 
such as atom:c warfare were brought 
out frequently :n the lecture,> and dis- 
cussions during the week. It is impor- 
tant that Wf' emphasize the necessity 
of helping the student develop into a 
mature. profes..:iona1 person \\"ho wiI! 
react "'en in emergency situations. 
Special effort should he made to pro- 
yide learning experiences and to utilize 
teaching methods \d1Ích will help the 
student develop skil1 in human rela- 
tionships, in l('adt:'f'
hip. in teaching 
and in acquiring the ahi1ity to èva!uate 
a situation. to use go"d judgment, and 
to act in a purposeful manner. 
Xurses should he aware of and he 
active 1n the total planning for civil 
defence. particularly in hospital dis- 
aster p!am1ing. The nef'd for findirg 
\vays (If improvil
g our C0l11111t'n'C1.- 


tions 111 an nursmg relationships was 
o stressed. TIle ntlfSil1g ser,"ice 
administratOl-'s responsihility in emer- 
gency disaster planning ,,-as clal-ified. 
She must know the total plan of civil 
defence on the national, provincial and 
local le,-eb: be preparerl to fit into the 
overal1 plan; anrl stimulate an interest 
in hospital disaster institutes. 
The duties and responsibilities of 
nursing service personnel should be 
clearlv ddì.ned and a continuous edu- 
catiori' and planning program main- 

T. V. C omefi to A 1l1lullllJI eetin[! 
Octoher 19-20. 1955, marked the 
39th annnal meeting of the X ew 

Bruns,,-ick Association of Registered 
X urSes. The sessiuns were held at 
Hôtc1 Dieu de L' Assomption Hospital 
in :\Ioncton. [n an impressive ceremony 
)Iiss Alma La,,', for manv veal'S sec- 
retary-regi<;trar of the K .Í3..-\.R.X., 
was given the first honorary life mem- 
bership. The citation was read by 
Iyers, director of nursing, 
Tuherculosis Hospital. East Saint 
Juhn, and the presentatiun was made 
hy the president. l\Iiss Gl-ace Stevens. 
The ceremonv was televised and 
later ,-iewed with great interest hy all 
X ew Brunswickers. Is this unique in 
the annals of provincial annual meet- 
ings? It seemed to us that it was. 
Congratulations to X e\\' Bruns\\'ick in 
this successful effort. 

Le 1tu't 4tfe 9 à t't4f,le't4 te paf14 


Le nursing. dans tout son ensemble, re- 
pose sur ce terme. On peut, dans ce domaine, 
écrire des volumes, exécuter des programmes 
de recherches. apporter la contribution de 
tout son talent; sen-ir, reste toujours Ie 
principe fondamental de toute cette actiyité. 
Des faits, parfois amusants, parfois tou- 
chants, de la profession d'infirmières, sont 
relatés dans les livres et revues. L'étucie et 
la recherche ont pour objet l'amélioration 
des services rendus à I'humanité mais une 
conception nette de tout ce qui peut être 
accompli pour améliorer Ie bien-être général, 
Ie sort de l'humanité, voilà ce qui inspire 
au coeur de l'infirmière Ie dévouement et 
I'oubli de soi pour soulager et pour consoler 
les autres que cela se passe dans un grand 
hôpital moderne ou sur les frontières les 
plus reculées de notre pays, 

Commémoration du souvenir 
de Katherine Brandon 

N ous avons lu avec fierté dans les jour- 
naux un compte rendu de la cérémonie 
impressionnante qui a eu lieu. à la fin d' oc- 
tobre, à la Réserve Indienne de :Morley, en 
Alberta, au pied des Montagnes Rocheuses 
Les enfants indiens des écoles, les chefs 
altiers de même que les dignitaires du 
Gouvernement ant rendu hommage à une 


infinnière canarlienne en honorant la mé- 
moire de Katherine Brandon, ancienne 
directrice des infirmières au Service de 
Santé des Indiens, par Ie dévoilement d'un 
tumulus de pierre édifié par les Indiens à 
leurs propres frais, en souvenir de ses ser- 
vices dhoués. 
)'IIIe Brandon. morte de la polio il y a 
deux ans. a rendu à la population indienne 
d'inappréciables services qui lui ont valu 
I'amour et Ie respect de plus de 700 per- 
sonnes vivant dans ce vallon. Le Chef Indien 
a exprimé du fond de son coeur les senti- 
ments de la bourgade, dans ces mots: "Nos 
coeurs débordent de son souvenir." 

Projets des Provinces de l' Atlantique 

IlIe Pauline Laracy, secrétaire-registraire 
de I' Association des Illfirmières enregistrées 
de Terre-Neuve nous a communiqué des 
renseignements intéressants au sujet de 
changements apportés dans deux de leurs 
écoles d'infirmières. A I'automne 1955, Ie 
programme d'études fut considérablement 
modifié. de façon à permettre que Ie cours 
comprenne désormais deux années d'études 
intensives suivies d'une année d'internat. 
L'on a cru qu'un tel programme aurait une 
plus grande valeur éducative et serait plus 
attrayant aux futures étudiantes en nursing 
puis, qu'il aiderait à stabiliser Ie personnel 
infirmier et cont ribuera, par-dessus tout, à 


l'amélioration du soin des malades. L'éla- 
boratioIJ du nOuveau programme a été basée 
sur l'importance de préparer l' étudiante à 
répondre aux besoins de la population qu'elle 
est appelée à servir puis à s'adapter aux 
exigences changeantes de l'exereiee de la 
profession d'infirmière. 
Du Nouveau-Brunswick nous arrive la 
nouvelle que :MIle E. Kathleen Russell a 
mis a exécution son projet d'évaluation de 
l'enseignement du nursing dans cette pro- 
vince. De cette analyse émergeront des 
recommandations au sujet de la politique 
future. II va sans dire qu'au deuxième mois 
d'e>..écution d'un projet d'une année, il est 
encore trop tôt pour tirer des conclusions; 
On attend cependant avec impatience la 
publication des premiers rapports. A part 
I'influence que ce projet peut exercer sur 
Ie nursing en général, il est intéressant de 
noter que se sont là les premiers travaux 
de recherche sur I'éducation en nursing, 
financés au moyen d'un octroi fédéral-pro- 

Lamp of the Wildel'ness 

C'est. Ie titre d'un ouvrage récemment 
publié par une autre infirmière canadienne, 
sous Ie nom de plume "June Spencer" mais 
dont Ie nom véritable est Mme ]. Osinger, 
R.N., diplômée de Toronto East General 
Hospital. Cet Ot1\Tage déerit les expériences 
variées d'un service de deux années dans 
un hôpital d'avant-poste de Ia Croix-Rouge, 
dans un district isolé de Caribou. 

Les édllcatrices en nursing se rhmissent 

Le second cours sur 'Tintégration du 
nursing de la Défense civile dans Ie cours 
de base" eut lieu au Collège de la Défense 
Civile à Arnprior, auquel assistèrent 64 in- 
firmières engagées dans l'enseignement du 
nursing et venues de toutes les parties du 
Canada. Après une semaine de conférences 
et de démonstrations, l'on consacra une 
journée à la discussion de problèmes se 
rapportant à ce sujet. Cn groupe de quatre 
infirmières traita premièrement des respon- 
sabilités' et les fonctions supplémentaires 
qui incomberaient à l'infirmière dans Ie cas 
d'un désastre massif, les différentes manières 
d'agir, les connaissances pratiflues à acquérir 
et leur introduction dans Ie programme de 
base. Des discussions de groupes suivirent 
la discussion générale. 
On eonclut que les principes fondamen- 
taux d'un bon service de nursing devaient 

UARY. 1956. Vol. 52. NO.1 

être aussi appliqués en cas de désastre ou 
d'urgence. II est done important que toutes 
les infirmières connaissent et comprennent 
les principes de base du nursing et puissent, 
au besoin, les appliquer et les adapter awe 
différentes situations, On fut généralement 
d'avis que I'enseignement des soins en cas 
de défense civile pourrait être intégré au 
programme d'études. Les quelques exem- 
pIes suivants furent présentés: 
Le soin de cas de psychiatrie pouvant 
survenir au cours d'un désastre massif. Cet 
enseignement peut être intégré en aidant 
l'étudiante à reconnaitre, en différentes situa- 
tions. Ie degré de tension nerveuse de 
chaque individu et en la guidant, dans Ie 
domaine des relations humaines, pendant toute 
durée de son cours d'infirmière. 
Le soin des maladies causées par radia- 
tions peut être enseigné dès Ie début du 
cours de sciences en inculquant à l'étudiante 
la connaissance des matières radio-actives; 
cet enseignement pourra ensuite être con- 
tinué lors du soin de malades devant être 
s(Jumis à la radio-thérapie, insistant sur les 
effets de la radiation dans la guerre ato- 
Les principes de la décontamination sont 
les mêmes que ceux que l'on applique au 
soin des contagieux et les techniques parti- 
culières employées dans la défense civile 
peuvent être enseignée
 en même temps. 
Les lourdes responsabilités et les tâches 
supplémentaires qu'une infirmière est forcé 
d'assumer, en temps de désastre. comme 
pourrait par exemple en causer une guerre 
atomique, furent représentées à maintes re- 
prises dans les conférences et les discussions 
qui eurent lieu au cours de la semaine. II 
est important d'appuyer sur la nécessité 
d'aider I'étudiante à devenir une personne 
professionnelle sérieuse qui saura agir cor- 
rectement en face d'une situation urgente. 
On s'efforcera de lui faire acquérir des 
connaissances pratiques utiles, d'employer des 
méthodes d'enseignement qui aideront à 
développer chez l' étudiante I'habileté et la 
dextérité requises dans les relations 11U- 
maines, dans la façon de conduire, d'en- 
seigner et dans la manière d'analyser une 
situation. agir avec discernement et de façon 
pratique, en toute circonstance. 
Les infirmières devraient être au courant 
de l'organisation de la défense civile et y 
participer activement, particulièrement en ce 
qui concerne Ie programme hospitalier. L'on 
souligna aussi la nécessité qui s'impose de 
trouver les mo
 ens d'améliorer nos com- 
munications dans toute, les relations du 


nursing. Les responsahilités de la direction 
du service de nursing en cas de désastre 
furent précisées. Elle doit être au courant 
du programme de la défense civile à l'éche- 
IOn national, provincial et loca]; être prête 
à occuper la place qui ]'attend dans ]e plan 
général: die doit de plus favori
er la tenue 
de conférences à ce sujet. à J'hôpitaI. 
Les devoirs et les res))onsabilités du 
personnel infirmier devront être clairement 
définis et un programme d'enseignement et 
d'organisation maintenu. 

La T élévision à /' A ssemblée annllelle 

Les 19 et 20 octobre ] 955 ont marqué 
]a 39ième assemblée annuelle de l'Associa- 
tion des Infirmières enregistrées du N ou- 
veau-Brunswick. dont ]es séances eurent lieu 

à I'Hôtel-Dieu de I'Assomption, à 1Ioncton. 
Au cours d'une cérémonie imposante, Ie 
titre de membre honoraire fut accordé à 
MIle Alma Law, secrétaire-registraire de 
]' Association des Infirmières enregistrées du 
Nouveau-Brunswick depuis plusieurs années; 
c'était la première fois qu'un tel titre était 
conféré. La citation fut ]ue par Mile Marion 
Myers, directrice des infirmière de J'Hôpita] 
des Tubercu]eux, Saint-Jean. et ]a présenta- 
tion fut faite par M11e Grace Stevens, pré- 
La cérémonie fut télévisée et suivie. par 
]a suite. a\'ec intérêt par tout la population 
du Nouveau-Brunswick. Est-ce ]à un fait 
unique dans ]es annales des réunions pro- 
vincia]es annuelles? Nous ]e croyons. Fé]i- 
citations au 
ouveau-Brunswick pour cette 

Annual Meeting in Prince Edward Island 

NUAJ. :\IEETING of the Asso- 
ciation of Nurses of Prince Edward 
Island was held in September, 1955, in 
Charlottetown. Sister 
Iary Irene. C.S.M., 
president, \\as in the chair. There was an 
attendance of ïó nurses. 
The morning session was devoted to re- 
ception of reports from the chainnen of the 
various committees. Films on the beauties 
of the Canadian \Yest were shown to stim- 
ulate travel to the CN .A. biennia] meeting 
-innipeg next summer. The general 
meeting was opened \\Ïth an invocation 
by Rev. A. Frank 
IacLean, B.A., 
of Trinity Church. Greetings from the city 
were extended by city councillor, Mr. 
Picton McCormac. The Department of 
Health and \ Velfare \\ as represented by 
Health Officer, Dr. B. D. Howatt. 
The theme for the annual meeting was 
Nursing Service. This was highlighted by 
a pane] discussion on "The Team Concept 
in Nursing" under the chairmanship of 
Lois MacDonald. A film strip captioned 
"Team Relationships in Nursing Care" was 
shown to point up particular areas of the 
The president. in her address. reviewed 
the history of the _ \ssociation which began 
Iay. 1921. as the Graduate Nurses' As- 
sociation of Prince Edward Island. In the 
34 years which have elapsed. the membership 

has grown from 12 to 893. There are now 
over 160 nursing students in the three 
schools of nursing in Prince Edward Is]and. 
Sister Mary Irene expressed appreciation 
of the invaluable assistance given by Miss 
Jean Church, Dalhousie t:"niversity, in con- 
ducting a two-day institute last summer 
dealing with curriculum construction. The 
president referred to the resignation of Miss 
Muriel Archiba]d, secretary-registrar and 
her replacement by Mrs. Helen Bo]ger. On 
behalf of the association, she spoke of the 
outstanding contribution Miss Archibald had 
made in helping the organization grow. 
Regret was expressed at losing such a 
valued member. A very pleasing feature of 
the meeting was the conferral of honorary 
membership in the Association of Nurses 
of Prince Edward Island on Miss Archiba]d. 
The only other member so honored in the 
past 34 years was Miss Anna 1Iair, retired 
superintendent of nurses of the Prince 
Edward Island Hospital. 
Mrs. Bo]ger reported on the past years' 
activities of the Association with particular 
reference to the activities of the Council. 
The guest speaker at the annual dinner 
was Dr. ]. A. 
Iac1Iillan. who talked on 
"Some Aspects of Health Insurance in 
Prince Edward Island," 
Exccllti'lJC Secrctary 

To be wiser than other men is to be more 
honest than tht'Y: and strength of mind is 


only courage to set' and speak the truth. 


.........1 p .... .. t . .. 
'OLe OeIn 

· reviews 

 ew Study Shows G ela tine 
Restores Brittle Fingernails to Nonnal 





Brittle, fragile or laminating fingernails 
are the hane of many a woman's exist- 
ence. Now. you can help these patients 
attain suhstantial relief in a large 
percentage of cases. 
In a recent studyl that confirmed 
previous work 2 Knox Gelatine was used 
to treat 36 women with fragile, brittle, 
laminating fingernails. Except for three 
patients who discontinued the therapy, 
three diabetics, and two women who 
had congenital deformities, the splitting 
ceased and all other patients were able 
to manicure their nails to a full poil}-t by 
the time the study ended. 
Optimal dosage proved to be one en- 
velope (7 grams) of Knox Gelatine ad- 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. :52. No.1 

ministered daily for three months. 
Improvement, however, was noted after 
the first month. 

1, Rosenberg. S. and Oster, K. A., "Gelatine in the 
Treatment of Brittle Nails," Conn. State Mf'd,].19: 171- 
179, March 1955. 
2. Tyson, T. L.,]. Invest. Dermst. 14:323, May 1950, 

I\.nox Gf'latine (Canada) Limited 
Dept. CD-13 
[40 St. Paul Strf'et. West 
\lontreal. Quebec. Canada 
Please send me a reprint of the ankle by 
Rosenberg and Oster with illustrated color 




les besoins de I'écolier en matière de santé 

"Les exigences fondamentales de la Santé 
présentent trois aspects nettement différents: 
l'aspect physique, l'aspect social et I'aspect 
psychologique. C'est encore sur Ie plan 
psychologique (celui des relations humaines) 
que les exigences de l'individu sont Ie moins 
bien satisfaitt:s." (o.
I.S, Rapport dlt Co- 
11lité d'cxpcrts des soins illfirl1licrs). 
La vérité de cette assertion semble prou- 
vée par I' étude faite dans une école secon- 
daire sur "Les besoins de l'écolit:r en matière 
de santé." Voici. en résumé, I'opinion de 
chaque membre du personnel. 
Le principal de l'école reconnait quïl est 
de la plus grande importance que l' élève 
soit accepté par son groupe. L'adolescent 
a besoin d'un sentiment dïmportance; les 
succès académiques et les activités extra- 
scolaires - fêtes, réceptions, etc. - de- 
vraient fournir aux WIS et aux autres une 
source de satisfaction. L'apparence physique 
a aussi son importance pour les adolescents. 
Les sports et Ie bricolage favorisent Ie dé- 
veloppement de la force physique et l'intérêt 
qui sont nécessaires à la maturité. 
Lc psych%guc énumère d'abord la sécu- 
rité (acceptation, adhésion à un groupe); 
ensuite la compétence (sentiment d'impor- 
tance, d'impression favorahle). .-\. Ces besoins 
s'ajoute celui qui est plus particulier aux 
adolescents: la liberté d'action ou Ie besoin 
d'indépendance. Les adolescents ont hesoin 
d'une persùnne capahle d'écouter. d'inter- 
préter et de conseiller les jeunes de façon à 
leur faire prendre conscience de leurs pro- 
hlèmes et de leur montrer comment les 
résoudre et aussi comment transformer leurs 
erreurs antérieures en source de satisfaction 
pour I'avenir. 
Le p!ì)'chiatrc - Ce qui caractérise I'âge 
de 1'adolescence, C'ðt l'insécurité qui accom- 
pagne l'attention portée aux sexes. II est 
important de créer chez I'adolescent une 
attitude saine à l'égard des fonctions 
sexuelles et ceci par une éducation adéquate. 
Trois factcurs important" influencent 1'atti- 
tude des jeunes: 
I. L'âge de la maturité et la force de 

Travail préparé par 
Ranger, étudiante à I'Ecole d'Hygiènc 
de I'Cni\"Crsité de 


2. Le degré d'emprise sur soi développée 
par I'individu lui-même ou due à sa 
formation antérieure. 
3. L'existence de ressources personnelles 
et sociales suffisantes qui aident I'in- 
divirlu à s 'adapter à ses émotions sans 
qu'elles n'évoluent en problème. 
Les relations antérieures parents-enfants 
ont sÎ1rement une grande importance dans 
l'étiologie des problèmes de l'adolescent. 
La!ìc socialc - Les jeux de 
groupe sont les favoris de cet åge. Les jeux 
doivent être choisis pour procurer intérêt 
et satisfaction et organisés en collaboration 
avec une personne compréhensive. Cn bon 
programme comprend des activités mixtes 
(danses, réceptions) aussi bien que des ac- 
tivités limitées à un sexe. Le programme a 
pour but de fournir à 1'élève 1'occasion de 
s'exprimer, de décider, ainsi que de parti- 
ciper au succès du groupe. 
Le lIIédeci" - Les problèmcs de I'ado- 
lescence sont liés à la croissance et sont 
som"ent exagérés par l'observation adulte. 
Les jeunes doivent être considérés comme 
des adolescents et non des adultes; ils ont 
besoin d'être éclairés au sujet de leurs pro- 
blèmes qui nous paraissent sans importance 
mais qui sont pourtant sérieux pour eux, 
Le milieu et les expériences du jeune âge 
peuvent aV/lir aidé ou nui à l'orientation 
de I'enfant vers l'indépendance. La compré- 
ht:nsion et la direction pourraient compenser, 
dans plusieurs cas. Les adolescents mani- 
festent de l'intérêt envers leur santé; il est 
bon, cependant, avt'c eUÅ, de ne pas trop ap- 
puyer sur les maladies; leur enseigner les 
principes d'une alimentation rationnelle; la 
propreté méticuleuse nécessaire à la guérison 
de I'acné, manifestation due à la croissance; 
la part qu'ils peuvent prendre dans la pré- 
vention des accidents. Les échecs causent elu 
tort à l'élève. I1s ont diverses causes: l'ab- 
sence prolongée due à une maladie chro- 
. etc, 
Les personnes qui travailknt dans Ie 
domaine de l'hygiène puhlique ont som"ent 
l'nccasion de venir en aide aux jeunes en 
voie de maturité. Elles peuvent Ie faire par 
leur compréhension de la jeunesse, par la 
sympathie manifestée au moment d'un pro- 
hlème. par la surveillance de la santé 
physique et mentale et par les conseils qui 


s'y ratt
chent enfin, par I'éducation des 
parents et des 
dultes qui s 'occupent de 
jeunes au point de \'ue étude, jeu'\: et loisirs 



D o VOl.' FEEL inexplicably tired and 
out of sorts much of the time? Are 
you frequently depressed and gloomy 
without knowing why? [f so, you may 
be one of the lucky people who is 
assured of a long life by reason of the 
fact that YOU are afflicted with 107..\) 
blood pres
Hypotension is said to be present 
in an adult when the systolic pressure 
is around 100 mil1imeters of mercury. 
This may be anything from 10 to 50 
mil1imeters less than the average or 
normal. depending on your age. 
Chronic low hlood pressure. while not 
particularly pleasant, is a form of in- 
surance. for sta tistics show that 
persons so affected almost neyer de- 
velop high hlood pressure later in life. 
Low blood pressure is found much 
less commonly than hypertension. In 
fact, many people are total1y unaware 
that their hlood pressure is low until 
they are examined by their physician. 
usual1v in the course of sume routine 
 examination. These people feel 
perfectly wel1: they have no com- 
plaints hut the feeling of tiredne:-s. 
occasional headaches or weaknös. It is 
noted most frequently in young adults, 
the incidence decreasing steadily with 
age. It is notable that the incidence 
is higher in women of al1 age groups 
than in men. 
Blood pressure usual1y is lower in 
the morning than in the afternoon: 
Im\"('r during warm weather or in a 
warm room. Cold weather or sitting in 
a cold room contracts the hlood vessels 
and increases the blood pressure. Some 
persons w}1(Jse blood pressure is nor- 
mal \\"hen they are lying down may 
feel weak. dizzy or they may even 
faint hecause of a sudden drop in the 

Dr. Sch\\eisheimer resides in Rye, 

JANUARY. 1956. Vol. 52. NO.1 

Ou d'autre facon à I'occasion de VlSlks à 
domicile, des cliniques. à I'industrie et à 

pressure \\-hen they jump up quickly. 
This pustural hypotcnsion has no seri- 
ous significance. 
Blood pressure wil1 be lower after 
seyere hleeding due to a reduction in 
the yolume of fluid in the closed system 
of the circulation. Fo1lowing 
surgery. heat stroke or any condition 
where the power of the heart musclt: 
is diminished. lowering of tIlt' blood 
pressure is a common finding. Similar- 
ly, certain cOlnl11unicahle diseases, 
notahly influenza, may }Jruduce sensa- 
tions of \H:'akness. depression and 
fatigue for l110nths after recoven' is 
apparently complete, because the híood 
pressure remains helow normal. Heavy 
smoking may reduce the pressure alsõ. 
The carotid sinus is a dilatation 
normally present in the frunt of the 
neck at the hifurcation of the common 
carotid artery. It is permeated hy such 
a rich network of nerves that a hi ow 
or unusual pressure on the neck in the 
area of the sinu", (e.g., in a hoxing 
knockout) may cause a sharp fal1 in 
blood pn:ssure. Similarly. wearing a 
tight collar may produce the same 
-\ -t-9-vcar-old \HHnan went to 
see her physfcian hecause of episodes 
uf dizziness, "hlackouts" and frequent 
attacks of fainting. X 0 apparent cause 
for these symptoms could he found 
until it wa
 learned that they a/wavs 
took place when she was sitti;lg at h
dressing tahle. Her actiyities at that 
time consisted of the usual routines 
that women fol1ow of applying creams 
to her face and neck for the rem(n-al 
of make-up. Thi
 informatiun gave her 
physician the necessary clue to a cor- 
rect diagnosis. She \\"a
 massaging the 
carotid sinus \\.ith sufficient yigor to 
cause a marked drop in hlood pressure 
and the resultant fainting. 
Hypotension is a characteristic of 
_-\ddison's flist'ase where there IS 


marked aòrenal cortical hypofunction. 
Since too little adrenal in is produced 
by the diseased glands, this lack results 
in abnormally low blood pressure. 
Sometimes these patients will give a 
reading of only 50 to 60 mm. mercury 
as contrasted with a normal of 120 
or even the lower figure associated 
with essential hypotension. 
"'hat can be done about low blood 
pressure? Drugs such as ephedrine, or 
adrenal extracts by injection or by 
mouth, are not necessarv in most 
cases. Stimulating beyerages such as 

hot tea or coffee, a cold bath, even an 
ample consumption of water or fruit 
juice will raise the blood pressure 
temporarily thus relieving the sensa- 
tions connected with it. If no organic 
cause can bt' demonstrated by the 
examining physician, the individual 
affected should stop worrying and lead 
as normal an existence as possible. 
On Iv occasionally will assistance from 
stin{ulating drugs be necessary when 
some especially heavy demand makes 
an unusual strain on physical endur- 


The Rotunda Textbook of :\lidwifery 
for Nurses, by O'Donel Browne, M.B. 
et al. 302 pages. The Macmillan Co. of 
Canada Ltd., 70 Bond St., Toronto 2, Onto 
1952. Price $4.00. 
Re'v;c'lC'cd by S. 111 onica U'atcrs, Super- 
visor, Obstetrical Floor, Civic Hospital, 
Peterborough, Onto 
This book is written primarily for stu- 
dent midwives. The concise presentation of 
anatomy and physiology of the female pelvis, 
the reproductive organs. and the develop- 
ment of the fetus should prove invaluable 
to the student in a Canadian school of 
nursing as well. It will be a useful reference 
text for the graduate nurse or instructor 
in the obstetrical department. 
Normal labor is described. The care dur- 
ing labor aJ1d the technique of delivery 
differ somewhat from the procedures in 
Canadian hospitals. The treatment of com- 
plications before, during and after labor 
is essentially similar to that prescribed in 
a modern obstetrical unit in this country. 
Diagrams are excellent. 
This is a readable book - interesting 
and helpful to the nurse in the obstetrical 
department. Student and graduate nurses 
should be aware that the obstetrical nurse 
is trained to assist the doctor. Her duties 
are as rewarding but differ from those of 
a midwife 

rniversity Education for Administra- 
tion in Hospitals, A report of the 
Commission on University Education 
in Hospital Administration, by James 
A. Hamilton, Chairman et al. 199 pages. 


George Banta Publishing Co., '!\[enasha, 
\\'isconsin. 1954. 
Re'vie'l.t'ed by .Hiss El/geJlie Stuart, Uni- 
'versity of Toronto, TOrDJlto. 
The study of University Education for 
.-\dministratinn in Hospitals was undertaken 
in March 1952 by an independent commis- 
sion and staff. The purpose was to Question 
the patterns of existing programs in hos- 
pital administration and the direction of 
educational efforts in these programs. 
Criteria for future planning was to be estab- 
This report ,vas presented to the rep- 
resentatives of the Association of L"niversity 
Programs in Hospital Administration in 
December 1953. It was given a divided 
reception. A number of the course represen- 
tatives, while agreeing with the basic phil- 
osophy in the introductory sections of the 
report were in strong disagreement with 
many of the conclusions and recommen- 
dations. It became apparent that there were 
two concepts of hospital administration. One 
view was that it is essentially a business 
operation \ the report refers to "the hos- 
pital industr)"). The other vie,.. was that 
the administrator should b
 concerned with 
the broad health programs of the com- 
munity and the nation. and with making 
the hospital an integral part of the health 
As a prerequisite to training, the report 
places emphasis upon accounting and other 
commerce subjects, with little attention to 
medical sciences, sociology and the welfare 
aspects of patients. The recommendations 
as stated wer
: "the age limits be fixed at 



\ ,- 




'l I 
". I 
, j 


The incidence of colds . . . was reduced among 
the meat-fed infants. . ." 

THE FACT that the infants re- 
ceiving a dietary supplement 
of meat had approximately one half 
as many cold
 as the control sub- 
jects, and that the duration of the 
colds '\as reduced sug
ests that the 
 of meats to infants help
pre\ ent and shorten the duration of 
colds. "-Leverton, Clark, Bancroft & 
Copeman, Jrl. of Pediatrics, 40,761 

JANUARY 1956' Vol. 52. NO.1 

Su:ift'.'; Meats for Babies and for Juniors are 
100% clinically tested. Produced under rif!id 
control and ideal conditions the\' are rrSu:i{t' s 
Most Precious Product". Recommend tilem 
tdth complete confidence. There are set'en 
varieties . . . beef, lamb, real, pork, heart, 
lit'er. lher-and-bacon . . . all 100% meal. 
Also Egf! Yolk
 for Babies, Salmon Se(
for Babies and Chopped .\leats for Juniors. 
Send for copies of clinical studies on the bene- 
fits oj early meat feeding. 

Meats for Babies 


m(}fl þreci(}lIf þroduct 



ñ s_f"- 


twenty-one to t\\"ent
 -seven"; "the e:xperi- 
ence preference of programs be given less 
emphasis" ; "as a condition of admission 
all candidates shall have completed fully 
and satisfactorily the basic pre-professional 
courses stated." The majority group in the 
Association of "Cniversity Programs in Hos- 
pital A,dministration believed that if these 
recommendations were accepted, almost 
automatically professionally qualified appli- 
cants such as doctors and nurses would be 
largely eliminated from the course. 
promising applicants above the age of 
twenty-seven ,,,"ould be 'disqualified. It would 
seem that the adoption of this report would 
be a backward step in the training of hos- 
pital administrators, It focuses; too much 
attention on the limited business aspects 
and makes the adminigtrator less qualified 
to take his rightful plâce in leadership of 
our o,.erall health program development. 
The Association of Cniversity Programs 
in Hospital Administra60n majority vote 
disassociated itself from the publication of 
this report. 

Teaching :\tedical and Surgical Nursing 
by Jane Sherburn Bragdon, RN, and 
Lillian A. Sholtis, RN. 79 pages. J. B. 
Lippincott Company, :Montreal and Phila- 
delphia. 1955. Price $2.00. 
Rcvic'lC'cd by J o}'ce B. Camp/.'in, 3107 
Douglas Road. South Bltrnaba}', B.C. 
The experienced authors of this volume 
have carefully outlined a practical basic 
teaching plan. It stresses the modern con- 
cepts of correlated teaching. 
The broader aspects of medical and 
surgical nursing in the outpatient depart- 
ment and in surgeq are presented with 
many valuable suggestions in teaching tech- 
niques. A timely section on Disaster Nurs- 
ing is included among such other topics 
as "Patient Teaching and Care" and 
lethods and Evaluation." Con- 
sideration is given to pharmacology and 
diet therapy. Visual aid sources and an 
e:xcellem bibliography are also included, 
It would seem that the teacher using 
t his text as a guide in her teaching program, 
would prepare students who have had good 
opnortunity to learn to think of the pa- 
tient as an indi,'iduaI. They ,,"ould kno,v 
the importance of early rehabilitation pro- 
grams and patient as well as famil
ing. They would be adept in providing good 
general nursing care under ,aried circum- 
stances. These students would become more 
familiar with psychosocial prohlems which 


accompany iIlne:.s. They would be familiar 
with community agencies which are avail- 
able to help patients and their families. 

ical Nursing, by E. L. Eliason. M.D.. 
L. K. Ferguson, 
LD., and L. A. Sholtis. 
RN, 754 pages. J. B. Lippincott Company, 
Philadelphia, Montreal. 10th Ed. 1955. 
$4.7 5 
RC'l.,ie'l('ed b}' Ruth Hallam. 
In preparing this text, the authors have 
outlined the nursing care by basing it on 
the principles involved in the underlying 
condition. This is developed to a greater 
extent than in many texts written for stu- 
dent nurses. The nursing care follows logi- 
cally when the surgical condition is uqder- 
A concise account is given of the disease 
and the surgery performed, Numerous dia- 
grams clearly illustrate the material in the 
book. As a text it is easy and interesting 
to read. Junior students should find no 
difficulty in learning new material. Senior 
students \\ ill find it a book of value for 
review purposes. A large bihliography has 
been included at the end of most units. 
This serves as a source of extra informa- 
The text begins \\ith a brief history of 
surgery and the importance of good nursing 
care. Factors relating to surgery such as an- 
tisepsis, asepsis, inflammation, pre-operative 
and post-operative care, fluid balance, spe- 
cial therapy, and cancer nursing are dealt 
with in detail. The main portion of the 
text is given over to surgery and its related 
nursing care. Each unit begins with a list 
of topics contained in that section and a 
general introduction. This gives the reader 
a preliminary view of the subject and its 
rore specific detail follows. 
The surgery of the various systems or areas 
is discussed individually. 
i\ ew ideas and methods have been in- 
cluded. Some of these are freezing anes- 
thesia, cardiac surgery, some aural surgery, 
and body mechanics for both patients and 
nurses, I found this up-to-date book a good 
text and recommend it for student nurses. 

Essentials of :\It'-didne, by Charles Phil- 
lips Emerson, Jr., A.B" 
LD. and Jane 
Sherburn Bragdon. RN" B.S. 922 pages. 
lith ed. 1955. Price $.tï5. 
Rc,!ic'i.('cd bJ' Florcllce 1If. Andcrson, Head 
Xursc, 1If ontrcal Gcncral Hospital. 
This edition much of the ma- 
terial pertaining to pathologic physiology, 


 " ,


, - ' . ...

.... , 
1>. . 6,;"",--,
", F 

 . .,
:'. . 

.....;; .

 . ,<<' 





, . 







...., " 


Our Navy 
Needs Your 
Nursing Skill 









. "'.... 



;"--...4 f.... ..; 


,/ /" 



. " 



J ' 



-- ."" 

A Naval Nurse is an important nurse - caring for the health of 
Canada's fighting sailors, 
She leads an eventful life - with opportunities to engage in special 
fields, both medical and surgical and others - to travel - to serve 
her country - to enjoy the status and privileges of an Officer in 
Canada's senior service. 

Our expanding Navy has openings now in its Nursing 
Service - for provincially-registered graduate nurses who 
are Canadian citizens or British subjects, single an:! under 
35 years of age. 
Apply today! Upon entry you will be offered a permanent or short 
service commission with officer pay, allowance for uniforms, full 
maintenance and other benefits including 30 days annual leave with 
pay and full medical and dental care. 
As a Naval Nurse, you'll find real opportunity to advance in your 
profession! For full information apply to: 




Royal Canadian Navy 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. NO.1 




\ \" 

hU" " 

$"" ...; )
.:, '. 

beCallSe. . . 
Veganin brings 
relief from pain 

Pain upsets a \\ oman's poise and ap- 
pearance, whatever her job. Her work 
becomes much more difficult, adding 
tension that is unnecessary today. 
That's why relief from pain is so im- 
portant, especially to nurses , . . not 
just at specially difficult times, but 
('''-'cr)' time pain occurs, 
V eganin tablets are recommended b, 
physicians and dentists . especial I; 
for "stronger" relief. . . since Veganin 
contains approximately 8 grains of 
anti-pain medication, .-\. vailable in 
handy tubes of lO's and 20's for pocket 
or purse. 

. .<fII'..


Æ .'



" l





course, complications and prognosis of out- 
standing medical cOJlditions included in pre- 
,'ious editions, It introduces new diagnostic 
procedures and drugs. Other sections deal 
with therapeutics and preventati"e medicine. 
The present trend in Jlursing aims to 
acquaint the student nurse with her patient 
as an individual. )'lore emphasis is b
placed on undprstanding the patient's phy
ical. psychological and social needs. The 
authors ha,'e attempted to illustrate the im- 
portance of the entire medical team in 
dealing \\ith such patient needs. 
The text offers the student a suhstantial 
introduction to medical nursing. In some 
instances the principles underlying the out- 
lined nursing care have heen neglected or 
sketchily presented, 
Chapter 29 is confined to tuherculosis, 
its pathology, occurrence, di;:gnosis, and 
nursing care, The material is detailed but 
e,,-plicit. Chapter 34, while short. emphasizes 
the potential rôle of the institutional nurse 
in the community, It deals \\'ith disaster 
nursing applicable in times of national emer- 
gency or natural disaster areas. 
The book is well written and easily read, 
Chapter summaries offer valuable informa- 
tion for both stud
 and practice, The hibli-- 
ography is mainly dra\\n from C.S, sources 
hut is valuable to student nUrses through- 
out the continent. This te:xt is recommended 
for student and graduate nurse reading. 

Report on the Experiment in Nur:iing- 
Educ'aticn of the Atkinscn S('hool of 
. The Toront-o \\Testern Hns- 
pitaI, 1950-19:')5, by \y, Stewart \Yallace. 
24 page,,;, Cni,'ersity of Tnronto Press, 
Toronto, Ont. Price $1.UU, 
\nother interesting and valuahle piece is 
fitted into the mosaic of nursing education 
with the fublication of this report of another 
e,,-periment. It v. ill he of particular help 
to other schools that may he contemplating 
the shift from the regular three-ye
r train- 
ing pattern to a concentrated two-year 
courSe in nursing education follo\\ ed by one 
year of interneship, 
Several prerequisites \\ ere established be- 
fore the Atkinson School of Nursing was 
opened: The school must have complete 
control of the students' time during the 
fìrst t\\O years, Nursing education and 
nursing service direct(Jrs were to he jointly 
responsihle for planning the experience re- 
ceived and supervising the student during 
the third year of interneship, A minimum 
of senior matriculation was set as the pre- 


'y... Ac

Now available 
for Doctors, Nurses and 
clinical use, 
special professional 
samples of all five 
Heinz Baby Cereals 

s. .., 

... w\...;....,) 


"'" 1 ø-t: i 

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for ø- '''J! 
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'i', :_ :71.' 



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tot 5 

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For your convenience in prescribing 
baby cereals for your young patients, 
Heinz offers, without charge, profes- 
sional size samples of all five Heinz 
pre-cooked Baby Cereals. These 
special samples are packaged 100 
to the carton-20 hermetically- 
sealed envelopes of each cereal. 
If you would Ii ke a supply of 
samples for distribution to mothers 
of your young patients, the House of 
Heinz would be pleased to send you 
a free carton. Write to, Professional 
Service Department, H. J. Heinz 
Company of Canada Ltd., 
Leamington, Ontario. 

Cll!}t. eðt 


SANPl.l "M:
 "',,[ . 

Hf/.t ':,: s.t
-. &..qS/t-- 




. " 


\..;../ . 

, --, 


&&&M- . 

JANUARY. 1956. Vol. 
2. No.1 





Handy 5 oz. 
At your 

. . . because you must wt'sh 
your hands frequently 
. Helps to restore skin to normal 
pH after repeated washings. 
. Provides frequent and effective 
. Combats drying and general 
skin irritatiøns. 

Pharmaceutical Division, Montreal, P.Q. 


liminary educational requirement. There 
\\ ould be only one class a year. 
X ow with the experimental periüù behind 
it, the most sanguine hopes of the adminis- 
trators who planned and de\'eloped the new 
pattern haw been amply justified. "There 
was no one I inten'ie\\'ed who \\'as not wil- 
ling to agree that the graùuate of the 
--\,tkinson School of 
ursing today , . , is 
better prepared than her predecessor prior 
to 1950." Enrolment in the school has in- 
creased by approximately 25 per cent. The 
impro\'ed stanùing in R.X. examinations, 
written at the end of the second year. must 
he highly gratifying. 
.-\ section of the report is devoted to costs, 
the key problem in the development of in- 
dependent schools of nursing, 

Canadian Red Cross Society 

The follo\\'ing are staff changes in the 
Uuebec Division of the Canadian Red Cross 

Appointmpnts Jfar.\' U"attsford 
(Hosp. for Sjd. Children, Toronto) and 
.11 ade/eillc Besncr (General Hospital. Yer- 
dun) to Barachois, Gaspe Co. 

Resig-nations - Lcolle SOIlC.\' (Xotre 
Dame Hospital) from Barachois. 


The follo\\ ing are staff changes 111 the 
Ontario Public Health Services: 

Appointments - Jlar.\' Robbills (Kings- 
ton Gen, Hosp" Queen's Univ.) and 
CorlcCIl Delolley (KG.H" B.X,Sc, Queen's 
Cni\'.), to Kingston Dept. of Health. 
.1 [a rgO/'ct Kuntz (St. los, Hosp., London, 
U. of \\" est. Ont.), to the Separate School 
Board, London. Foustillo Faurllicr (RSc., 
C. of Ottawa), Xormo O'Sheo (St. Jos. 
Hosp,. Kingston, C. of Ottawa), Catharilla 
'<'Qlt Sc/w}'k (Roman Catholic Hosp., .\alster 
\\"eg-Eindhoven, Holland, Breda Uni\ersity) 
and lcoll H'i/soll (\Ïctoria Hosp., London, 
C. of \\' est. Ont.) to Ottawa RH. .-1l1ne 
Leslic (T ol"Onto East Hosp. U. of Toronto), 
from the East York-Leaside H.C. to the 
Scarborough Township R H. Kathleen 
Xdson (Northampton Gen. Hosp., England, 
 al Sanitary Institute) to Stormont, 


Dundas and Glengarry H,C. _-J.rlloldilla Petit 
(Binnengasthuis. Amsterdam, Public Health 
Nursing, Tilburg, Holland) to Toronto 
Dept. of P,H. 

Resignations - J()J'ce rCalla/wll) Tm.'Cy 
and Katlzleen (A lexa II del') Dallce from 
Simcoe County H.U. 

Victorian Order of Nurses 

The following are staff changes in the 
Victorian Order of !\ urses for Canada: 

Appointments - Calgary: Alr.'i. E'l'cl')'ll 
Ta},lor (Univ. of Alberta). Campbell ton : 
Jf adclcillc Cormier (Hotel Dieu Hasp., 

Ioncton) as nurse in charge. Darmouth: 
Jean AtI?insoll (Royal Vic. Hasp., Mont- 
real). Fredericton: llrs. J. Bre'll'CY (Fred- 
ericton Yictoria Hasp.) . Korth York: 
Jfrs, Jacqueline Benllett (Toronto \Yestern 
Hasp.) Otta\\'a: Jfichelille Lefort (St. 
Justine's Hosp., 
Iontreal). O,,'en Sound: 
Jo}'ce Gi/lesb)' (Kitchener- \Yaterloo Hasp.). 
Toronto: .If rs. Eli=abeth Collins (Hosp. 
for Sick Children); Phyllis Erskine (Vic- 
toria Hosp.. London); UTiI/o Flook 
(\Vomen's College Hosp.): Betty Jfickle 
(Victoria Hasp" London); Jfrs. Cora 

V orthi1l{Jton (Public Hasp., N,Z.) 
Ont. Jalld Clark alld J1ar,)' Parkinson 
(both Grace Hosp" \\ïndsor). \\ïnnipeg: 
Jfrs. Barbara SiedcrmOlll1 (\'T.G,H.). \Vood- 
stock N,B.: Jfrs, Ka}' Hamiltoll (RV.H., 

lontreal) as nurse in charge. \Voodstock, 
Ont.: Joall R.\'an (St. 
lary's Hasp., 
Ki tchener ) . 

 - 1111's. Franccs Cooper from 
Galt to York Township staff. Stephallie 
J[a,wn from Kitchener to Kingston. Eliza- 
beth JfacK{'1l=ie from Chatham. N.B. to 
Bathurst, N.B. as nurse in charge. Ada 
J[ c Ell'CIl from Orillia to Edmonton as nurse 
in charge, N aIlC}' 1fT oller from \Vindsor to 
:.\fontreal. Donna Jrallace from Hamilton 
to :.\ledicine Hat. 

Duty: what the normal person looks 
forward to with distaste. does with reluc- 
tance, and boasts about forever after. 

* * *. 
The law of nature is that a certain quan- 
tity of work is necessary to produce a 
certain quantity of good of any kind what- 
ever; if you want knowledge, you must toil 
for it. - RVSKIN 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No.1 

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Planning a Gabfest? 

Part of the fun of attending a convention 
is in meeting your friends and former class- 
mates. Alumnae breakfasts and class re- 
union luncheons are the order of the day. 
The Arrangements Committee for the bien- 
nial meeting hope that you are planning 
such special occasions. If so, let your hostess 
association, the 1I.A.R.N., know about them 
now so that the necessary details may be 
attended to and disappointments avoided. 
Last minute reservations can not be made 
as space is too limited, 





A plaque dedicated to the memory of Miss 
Kay Brandon was recently unveiled on the 
Stony Indian reserve. Miss Brandon was 
the first field nurse on the Stony reservation 
and was greatly respected by all with whom 
she worked. The ceremony included ex- 
pressions of appreciation by Dr. W. L. 
Falconer, regional superintendent of Indian 
health services, and Chief Walking Buffalo. 
A supper party in the Blue Room of the 
Calgary General Hospital preceded the 
November meeting of the Chapter. There 
was an attendance of 54 members. The 
guest speaker, Dr. A. A. Dixon chose as 
his topic "Your Skin and You," discussing 
treatment of moles, acne and hypertrichosis. 
During the business session it was reported 
that a request to have a minimum of four 
meetings a year had been approved. The 
next meeting will be held in January. 

:\IFDlCI:-.ìE HAT 

A chapter meeting was held late in the 
fall with an attendance of 25 members. 11rs. 
C. R. McKay, president, was in the chair. 
Suggestions for the program of the 1956 an- 
nual meeting were received and forwarded 
to the A.A.R.
1frs. A. G. 
enner has been appointed 
corresponding member. Miss Bietsch report- 
ed on the plans being made to include 
matrons of small hospitals in the surround- 
ing areas on the Committee of Nursing 
Education. Literature covering nurse re- 
cruitmcnt was to be made available to try 


to interest more young women 10 the pro- 
Following the business session, a most 
informative film was shown on "Rheumatic 



Miss Ada :McEwen was recently appoin- 
ted supervisor of the V.O.N. branch. She 
is a graduate of the 
Iontreal General Hos- 
pital and studied public health nursing at 

fcGill University. 


At a recent meeting of the chapter plans 
were made for a bursary tea. The bursary 
fund is to be awarded to a high school 
graduate entering on a career in nursing. 
A successful telephone bridge has helped 
to augment the fund also. 
:Mrs. I. Ford reported on the district 
meeting held at \\ïlliams Lake. 
1rs. ),1. 
Botsford. assistant registrar RN.A.B.C., 
was the guest speaker and outlined the 
work in provincial administration of the 
nurses' association. District officers for the 
coming year are: pres., 
frs. F. Haggert; 
Iiss G, Gowans; sec., :Mrs. I. 
)'IcColl: treas" )'1rs. 1. Ford; councillor, 
r. Kalleur. 

K '\ :\ILOOl'S 

Looking over the activities for the past 
twelve months the highlight was the annual 
provincial meeting held in Penticton. The 
efforts of the local chapter were duly re- 
warded by a most successful meeting, The 
district executive was proud indeed that 
one of it's chapters acquitted itself so ad- 
The - annual meeting for 1954 was held 
last fall in the regatta town of Kelowna. 
The spring meeting was held in Kamloops 
where a most interesting lecture on Indian 
medicine was given, The northern chapter 
of Re\'elstoke was the .scene of the meeting 
in October, while Vernon is holding the 
spring meeting in 1956. 
The district now has over four hundred 
members from which the local chapters 
draw their ranks. Activities include raising 
funds for several nursing bursaries totalling 
Over a thousand dollars yearly, equipping 
local hospitals and helping in the Red 
Cross hlood donor clinics. In addition to 
this, members attended the travelling insti- 
tute on Rehabilitation Nursing and Body 
Mechanics which toured B.c. in Septemher 
and October. They also heard a series of 
special interest speakers at their own chap- 
ter meetings. In this way professional 
growth is maintained. 

fembers are looking for\\-ard to the an- 
nual pro\'incial meeting at K anaimo in May. 

JANUARY. 1956. Vol. 52. NO.1 

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Twent' -three members were in attendance 
at the X o\'emher chapter meeting. Plans 
were completed for future activities. includ- 
ing a Christmas party and a January ball. 
1Iiss Eidt placed a wreath in the name 
of the chapter on Remembrance Day. :Uiss 
Rivett and her committee reported a success- 
ful rummage sale. A volunteer to assist at 
the \\'dl Baby Clinic ,vas requested by 
Miss \\'hittington. Doctors' lectures, which 
form a part of the educational program 
for memb
rs, have been resumed and have 
been fairlv v. ell attended. 
The gl;est speaker, ),lrs. Frank Jones 
from the Kootenay Society for Handicapped 
Children. gave an interesting address on the 
work and future plans of the society, 

\. AXCOl.'\'ER 

St. Paul's Hospital 
A highlight of one of the recent meet- 
ings of the alumnae association was a con- 
ductt'd tour through the new wing of the 
building. Colored slides of a European trip 
were shown h,- Dr. and )'lrs. E. N. Mc- 
Ammond at at;other meeting. 
The annual home-coming was held late 
in the fall. A presentation of a bust of 
Jeanne )'lance was made to the Sisters of 
Charity and Providence in appreciation of 
the work and vears of service of Sister 
Columkille. Sr. Columkille, former director 
of the school of nursing, is now in 
Battlef01 d, Sask. )'lembers of the classes of 
1919 and 1920 were honored guests. 1Irs. 
R. \Yhitney assisted by )'frs. G, Topping 
and l1iss H. Hull ,,'ere responsible for the 
success of the event. 

:SE\\' BRU


)'1embers of the local chapter of the 
N.B.A.R.N, heard several interesting reports 
at their regular meeting in November. L. 
Colwell, in her report on nursing education, 
announced that S, 11acLeod, 11oncton Hos- 
pital, and Y. Poirier, Hotel Dieu, had 
attended a short coûrse in obstetrical nurs- 
ing at Dalhousie University. Over 30 senior 
high school students accompanied by their 
vocational guidance counsellor were taken 
on a tour of Moncton Hospital. 11embers 
of the preliminary class of the same institu- 
tion were presented with white testaments 
hy the Ladies' :\uxiliary of the Gideon 
Socieh'. Two student nurses of the district 
attended the sessions of the annual provin- 
cial meeting. It was also reported that K. 
Russell of the 
 ursing Research Branch, 
University of X.B. had visited both local 
schools of nursing. 
H. Hayes, president, presented the high- 
lights of the annual meeting. A vote of 
thanks was extended to )'1iss Hayes and her 
committee for their part in assuring the 
success of the convention. Plans were made 


to forward Christmas packages to a rest 
home for retired nurses in Edinburgh. M. 
Connolly \\ as delegated to place a wreath 
at the Cenotaph on Remembrance Day. The 
report of the Local Council of \Vomen 'yas 
given by lIrs. ]. Innes. At the conclusIOn 
of the business session, a program of films 
was enjoyed by the members. 

T JOIl:\" 
A recommendation to the effect that indi- 
vidual nurses' fees be increased has been 
forwarded to the N,B.A.R.N. by the chap- 
liss L. Peters presided at the meeting 
in the General Hospital. 
It was decided to place a wreath in the 
chapter's name to honor veterans on 
Remembrance Day. }'Iiss VV. Hoosier was 
namt'd delegate to the annual provincial 

General "flospital 
)'Iiss C. M. Gleeson, supervIsor of the 
Communicable Diseases Pavilion has retired 
after 33 years of service. She has taken an 
active interest in the work of hospital and 
alumnae associations and community wel- 
fare organizations. The many student nurses 
who trained under her guidance were instil- 
led with her keen interest in a high level 
of accomplishment. 
]. Kimball, ]. Farnham, F. Stephenson, 
]. Breen have enrolled for postgraduate 
study at the University of Toronto. E. 
Corbett, D. Buchanen, A. Mahoney, and 
U. L. Blackford are taking postgraduate 
study in obstetrics at the Royal Victoria 
M0ntreal Maternity Hospital. 
Recent appointements to the staff have in- 
cluded: D. Greive, teaching dept.; N. 
Wedge, S. Wright, ]. Young and M. Frye, 
operating room; B. Nelson, asst. supervisor, 
male surgery. D. 
lcQuarrie and D. Mc- 
Tavish recently resumed their positions as 
supervisors in the neurosurgery dept. 



"N ursing Aspects in Rehabilitation" has 
been chosen as the topic of a three-day 
institute being held in the Arts and Ad- 
ministration Building, Studley Campus, 
Dalhousie University, March 21 - 23. The 
problem of the elderly patient will receive 
special consideration. 
Miss Elizabeth Phillips, A.M., R.N., Exec- 
utive Director, Rochester Visiting Nurse 
Service is to be the conference leader. She 
will be assisted by Mr. F. \Vellard, Coor- 
dinator of Rehabilitation in Nova Scotia. 
Miss Phillips has had extensive experience 
in planning programs of care for the chron- 
ically ill and has participated in many 
projects related to rehabilitation nursing. 
feaning of Rehabilitation" and 
"N ursing Principles and Practices in Re- 
habilitation" are among the subjects to be 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No. 1 


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October 29 was a gala day at Kitchener- 
\Vaterloo Hospital when the Diamond An- 
niversary of the founding of the hospital 
and school of nursing was celebrated. 
Opened in 1895, there was accommodation 
tor 25 patients; today there are 496 beds. 
Old records show that the first public ward 
rate \\'as 40 cmfs a do\'! The third annual 
report gives 14-t patient admissions for the 
year. In comparison, 11.914 patients were 
cared for last vear. 
The uriginaÍ by-laws of the hospital con- 
tain a number of Quaint rules: 
o patient 
was permitted to "retire to bed without un- 
dressing," nor could "any convalescent pa- 
tient lie upon a bed in the day time without 
permission." Visitors required a permit from 
a trustee and \\'ere not allowed "to converse 
with patients concerning their disease or 
Hundreds a,oailed themselves of the oppor- 
tunity to see all the modern features of 
the hospital. The climax of the day's ob- 
servance was the banquet at which the Hon. 
Mackinnon Phillips, :M.D., Minister of 
Health for Ontario was the guest speaker. 

GC1lcral !-Iospital 

The appointment of Miss Helen Lauder 
as assistant director of nursing was an- 
nounced late in 1955. A graduate of Soldiers' 
!\Iemorial Hospital, Orillia, :Miss Lauder 
formerly engaged in staff and private nurs- 
ing. Later she obtained her postgraduate 
certificate in obstetrical nursing from Hague 
>>Iaternity HospItal, Jersey City, No]. 
Lauder joined the staff of the General Hos- 
pital when the institution opened in 1951. 
Prior to accepting her present position, she 
served in the obstetrical department and 
ecently, as the medical and surgical 



Tromen's College Hospital 
The class of '55 took charge of program 
arrangements for the November meeting of 
the alumnae association. Of particular in- 
terest was the address by Dr. Serreira, 
Jamaica, Dr. Serreira has helped organize 
and establish training schools for nurses 
in his own countn-. He came to Canada to 
study the use of Salk vaccine. 
There have been several staff changes. 
C. E. Dixun recently retired. Mrs. Amman, 
L Maurusaitvte and Mrs. Gardiner have 
been appointed to supervisory positions. D, 



Two-year prograrr for graduate nurses holding McGill Senior Matriculation (or 
its equivalent) or three-year program for candidates holding McGill Junior 
Matriculation. Students may elect to do the major part of their work in one of 
the following areas: 
Teaching & Supervision in Hospitals & Schools of Nursing 
Administration in Hospitals & Schools of Nursing 
Supervision & Administration in Public Health Nursing 

Students who elect Teaching and Supervision may specialize in one of the 

Medical-Surgical Nursing, Psychiatric Nursing, 
Teaching of Sciences, Maternal & Child Health (Students 
may choose either Pediatric or Obstetric Nursing as a 
major field of interest). 

Candidates who possess McGill Junior or Senior Matriculation or equivalents 
may be granted a diploma at the completion of one year of study in the 
School. Candidates working for a diploma may elect to study Public Health 
Nursing or Teaching and Supervision in anyone of the above clinical areas. 
for further information write to: 
Director, McGill School for Graduate Nurses, 
1266 Pine Ave. W., Montreal 25, Que. 

Iitobe, S. Good and P. Bryant have also 
joined the staff. 

Iembers of the class of '45 held a re- 
union earlier this year. E. (Speer) Patrick 
and G. (Birchard) Grice were among those 
attending. Mrs. M. Gist visited the hospital 
before her return to Singapore. V. Treacy 
is stationed at a base hospital in Germany. 


OTTA \\"A 
Ciz'ic Jf {)S f'ital 
It is of interest to graduates of her school 
of nur
ing to knnw that Mary J. Cullin has 
enrolled in the Advanced Program in 
Health at Yale University School of Nurs- 
ing, This program is in its seventh year 
and aims to train leaders in the nursing 
field to assist in the fight against mental 
illness. l\Iiss Cullin recently received her 
degree in public health nursing from th
Cni\'ersity of Xorth Carolina, Prior to this 
she \\ as enrolled with the Roll of Midwives 
in Enl2'land, and later scn'ed as an attache 
to the :\m
rican Embassy in Iran. FolIO\\ing 
the completion of her Yale studies, 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, NO.1 

Cullin hopes to work in the field of maternal 
and child health. 



The annual meeting of the local district 
of the Association of Nurses of Prince 
Edward Island was held in October, 1955 
at the Charlottetown Hospital. 
Iiss Ruth 
Ross presided. 
Officers elected for the coming year are: 
Iiss R. Ross; \ïce-Pres., Sister U. 
Patricia; See., 
Iiss F. 
IacLeal1, Executive: 
IacInnis, C. Gordon, D. .:\Iac- 
Innis, I. Dev"ar. 
The program featured the presentation of 
ct play "Random Harvest" under the guest 
direction of Miss H, Hunter. The portrayal 
was that of harsh treatment of a child and 
its effects. The cast was made up entirely 
of nurses. 

\ li\ ely discussion followed the presenta- 
tion of the play, !\Iiss :\Iona Clay. Child 
Guidance Consultant with the Department 
of Health and \\" elfare used questionnaires 
to promote di
sion and later summarized 
the result s. 


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Ro}'al Victoria Hospital 
A most successful bazaar was held by the 
alumnae association in November. Mrs. A. 
B. Hawthorne and Miss R. Ackhurst were 
the conveners. The tables were in charge of 
Mmes. R. :\IcKay, M. Couper, E. Butler, 
D. Greer, K. Dowd, Misses K. Graham, R. 
Ereaux, I. :\IacMillan, H, MacCallum. C. 
Grimson was in charge of the tea room and 
M. Clark, ticket sales. The response from 
the members in Montreal and in the various 
chapters across Canada was most gratifying. 
The proceeds from the bazaar, amounting 
to over $2300, are being used to pay for a 
second edition of Dr. Edith Buchanan's 
textbook "A Study Guide in Nursing Arts." 
This is being done in recognition of the 
distinction which Dr. Buchanan has brought 
to her school of nursing. 
A meeting of the Saint John chapter was 
held in October. L. (Rising) MacDonald 
was elected president and G. (Parlee) 
Sinclair, secretary. 
P. Lawley has joined the Provincial 
Public Health Service, Dartmouth, N.S. A. 
Davies is on the staff of the Hospital for 
Sick Children, Toronto. C. \Valkem, F. 
Dawson, I. Rimstead and P. Walker are 
attending the University of Western On- 
tario. L. Pepper is doing general duty in 
the obstetrical division of Wellesley Hos- 
pital, Toronto. G. Allen has joined the staff 
of the Montreal Children's Hospital. J. 
Henderson who resigned recently from the 
Moncton Hospital, has joined the staff of 
the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Boston. 
There was an attendance of nine members 
at a recent meeting of the Moncton chapter. 
Mary (MacLachlan) Gillis has been elected 


The first fall meeting of the district was 
a joint session of English and French chap- 
ters. A social evening was spent at the St. 
Vincent de Paul Hospital and was ,veil 

Sherbrooke Hospital 
The monthly meetings of the alumnae 
association have shown a good attendance. 
Plans have been made for a fall dance. One 
of the projects being undertaken by the 
members is the landscaping of the grounds 
around the nurses' residence. To raise funds 
for this purpose, a rummage sale was held 
in October. 

SASIí,,\ TCHE\\' AX 

A meeting of tho local chapter, S.R.K,A. 
was held at the General Hospital. Discus- 
sion centered around the bi 
nnial convention 
in \\ïnnipeg. in J un
, at which the S.R.N ,A. 




Nursing Assistants or Practical Nurses 
required for 

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Oshweken, Manitowaning, 'Moose Factory and Sioux Lookout, Ont.; 
Hodgson, Pine Falls and Norway House, :Man.; Fort Qu'Appelle, North 
Battleford, Sask.: Edmonton, Hobbema. Gleichen, Cardston, 
and Brocket, Aha.; Sardis, Prince Rupert and :Kanaimo, B.C. 

Outpost Nursing Stations, II ealth Centres and field positions in Provin- 
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(1) Public Health Staff Nurses: up to $3,300 per year depending upon 
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(2) Hospital Staff Nurses: up to $3.120 per year depending upon quali- 
fications and location. 
(3) Nursing Assistants or Practical Nurses: up to $185 per month, 
depending upon qualifications. 
· Room and board in hospitals - $30 per month. Statutory holidays. 
Three weeks' annual leave with pay. Generous sick leave credits. Hos- 
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provided to help cover cost of transportation. 
· Special compensatory leave for those posted to isolated areas. 
For interesting, challenging, satisfying work, apply to: 
Indian and Northern Health Services at one of the following addresses: 
(1) 4824 Fraser St., Vancouver 10, B.C.; 
(2) Charles Camsell Indian Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta; 
(3) 10 Travellers Building, Regina, Sask.; 
( 4) 522 Dominion Public Building, Winnipeg, Manitoba; 
(5) Box 292, North Bay, Ontario; 
(6) 55 "B" St. Joseph Street, Quebec, P.Q.; 
(7) Moose Factory Indian Hospital, Moosonee, Ontario. 

Chief, Personnel Division, 
Department of National Health and Welfare, 
Ottawa. Ontario. 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No.1 


" 1 

V O 
A -- 
'" ,. S 

"c:ort: of Your Endorsement 





";:;'AIII ..11-;..... 

Zinc Chloride - Menrhol 
Formaldehyde. Saccharine 
Oil Cinnamon. 0.1 Cloves 
Alcohol S '7. 

:.::::' - ;.::.: 


In the sick room, your patients prop- 
erly look to you for information and 
suggestions on mouth care. They will 
appreciate the cleansing, refreshing 
action of lavor1s. 

will be a co-hostess. Delegates to the an- 
nual convention. M. Edwards. E. James, 1. 
Colvin gave very informative accounts of 
the sessions. The officers for the coming 
year are: pres., :\1. Edwards; first vice-pres., 
E. Bedard; sec., I. Colvin; treas., 1lrs. E. 
Parker. Committees: Public health, 
frs. N. 
Kitchen; pri\"ate nursing, .Mrs. C. Storey; 
titutional nursing, V. Ryan; registry, 
:\lrs. lL lIcBra} ne. 

Vllns' if ospital 
Five member
 of the staff and Sr, Papi- 
neau, Sr. Drouin, Sr. Moreau, Sr. LaPorte 
and Sr. Gauthier recently attended the 
Catholic Hospital Conference in Saskatoon. 
The sisters also were present at the annual 
meeting of the Saskatchewan Hospital As- 

Ge1leral Hospital 

Recent appointments to the nursmg staff 
have included: 11iss Lyons, as nursing 
:-;eryice supervisor; D. Ballantine; A. (Read) 
Stewart as clinical instructor in surgical 
nursing; E, (Kembel) Ulrich a-; assistant 
nursing arts instructor. 
Late in the fall of 1954 the new wing 
of the nurses' residence was opened. It con- 
 30 single rooms, a modern teaching 
unit. a comhined auditorium and gymnasium, 
rest rooms. dressing rooms, mezzanine 
areas and storage areas. The teaching area 
is made up of a large classroom with a 

seating capacity of 150 which can be divided 
into two rooms by folding doors. There is 
a nursing arts demonstration room with 
tiered seating to accommodate 50 students, 
a dietetic lalyxatory, a library, a conference 
room and four offices. The entire wing has 
been artistically decorated and furnished. 


City Hospital 

D. Kacsmar and 1. Levorson are enrolled 
in the teaching and supervision course at 
Cniversity of Saskatchewan. L. ""right is 
now supervisor and clinical instructor on 
the children's \\ ard, while 
1. King is as- 
sistant nursing arts instructor. 
S. llacFarlane has been appointed to re- 
place 11rs, S. Paine as J1ursing arts instruc- 
tor. :\1rs. Paine ha
 joined the staff of the 
Children's Hospital, \Yinnipeg. 
Recent graduates who have joined the 
staff are: S. Cherepuschak. F. Clark, B. 
Hayes. A. Hompoth, D. Kindrachuk. J. 
McCuaig, D. l\lorgan. L. llorland, 0, Nagy, 
R. Russell, M. Smith, 1\1. St. John, E. 
The September class of preclinical stu- 
dents were entertained at a tea at which 
their big sisters served. Kineteen overseas 
nurses are receiving their orientation to 
Canadian hospital practices and techniques. 
Hospital building plans are going ahead 
steadih. The late
t move was to the new 
obstetrical section. 

"Stupéfiant!" annonce Ia jeune épouse à 
son. mari. "Je viens de lire dans Ie journal 
que Ies femmes parlent à la cadence de 


10.000 mots par jour." "J'ai toujours pensé," 
dit Ie mari, "que tu étais une femme au- 
dessus de la moyenne !" 


Positions Vacanl 

A..VER.TISING RAms - $5.00 for 3 lines or less; $1.00 for each additional line. 
U.S.A. & Foreign - $7.50 for 3 lines or less; $1.50 for each additional liMo 
Closing date for copy and cancellations: 10th of the month preceding the month of 
publication. All letters should be addressed to: The Canadian Nurse, 1522 Sherbrooke 
St. W., :Montreal 25, Que. 

Director of Nursing &: Nursing Education for 160-bed General Hospital. Postgraduate 
course in administration or equivalent experience required. Salary open. Applications 
should give details of education, qualifications & experience. Apply Administrator, 
The Victoria Public Hospital, Fredericton, N .B. 

Supervisor of Public Health Nursing for generalized program In city ot 43,000, 5-day wk., 
I mo. vacation with extra time at Christmas or Easter. Cumulative sick leave. Pension 
plan, Blue Cross & P.S.I., Workmen's Compensation. Transportation provided or allow- 
ance. For further information please write supplying details of training & experience 
to Dr. J. P. Wells, M.O.H., Peterborough, Ont. 

Supervisor &: Public Health Nurses (qualified) for Porcupine Health Unit, 5-day wk. 
.. wk. vacation. 18 days sick leave annually. Car provided. Good working conditions. 
Apply Secretary, Porcupine Health Unit, 164 Algonquin Blvd. E., Timmins, Onto 

General Supervisors. Operating Room Nurses and General Duty Nurses for new 150-bed 
hospital. Starting salary for Registered General Duty Nurses $230 with annual increases 
to $40. Ph days per mo, cumulative sick leave; 40-hr, wk; 28 days vacation; 10 statu- 
tory holidays. Apply: Supt. of Nurses, Trail- Tadanac Hospital, Trail, B.C. 

Operating Room Supervisor. Dietitian &: Staff Nurses (2). Good salary & personnel policies 
Apply Director of Nurses, General Hospital, Parry Sound, Ont. 

Psychiatric Nurse to assume position as Head Nurse & Clinical Supervisor of new 
38-bed Psychiatric Unit in a 500-bed General Hospital. An excellent opportunity for 
a Psychiatric Nurse who wishes to assume leadership in developing the policies, pro- 
cedures & teaching program of this new Psychiatric Unit. Patients treated only by 
psychiatrists. The most modern facilities & treatment methods. Cooperative administra- 
tion. Bachelor's Degree required plus Psychiatric experience, Salary commensurate with 
experience & abilities. Write Director of Nursing, Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

Asst. Director of Nursing for 200-bed hospital in Niagara Peninsula. Experienced, pref- 
erably with University certificate or postgraduate training. Good salary & personnel 
policies. Please furnish references stating age, qualifications & experience. Apply 
Director of Nursing, County General Hospital, Welland, Onto 

Obstetrical Clinical Instructor for School of Nursing with capacity 195 students attached 
to expanding hospital of 571 beds. B.S. Degree in Nursing Education preferred or at 
least 3 yrs. experience & working towards degree. Located in "all American City" of 
120,000 in North Eastern Ohio with educational. industrial. recreational & agricultural 
primary interests. Salary commensurate with qualifications. Write Director of Nursing, 
Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

Nursing Arts Instructor for School of Nursing, with capacity 195 students, attached to 
expanding hospital of 571 beds. B.S. Degree in Nursing Education preferred or ot least 
3 yrs. experie!1ce & working toward degree. Located in "All American City" of 120,000 
in North Eastern Ohio with educational. industrial. recreational & agricultural primary 
interests. Salary commensurate with qualifications, Write Director of Nursing, Aultman 
Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

Instructor to teach anatomy ar..d physiology, microbiology first term, followed by sur- 
gical nursing lectures and clinical supervision on surgical wards, Starting salary: $255; 
$10 for 2 yrs. experience; $10 yearly increments; Ph days sick leave, cumulative; 
10 statutory holidays; 40-hr. wk; 1 class per yr. in September. Apply to: Director of 
Nurses, Royal Inland Hospital, Kamloops. B,C. 

L'ARY. 1956. Vol. 52. No.1 






In new 300-bed general hospital to be opened soon 

".>,--a> e-< ca--,<... 

For further information apply to 


Head Instructor for Training School to teach Sciences. 86-bed hospital; 30 students. 
Complete maintenance provided in comfortable suite. Apply, stating qualifications & 
salary expected, A. J. Schmied!. Sec. Manager, General Hospital, Dauphin, Man. 

Clinical Instructor for approved School of Nursing with University affiliation for spring 
1956. Completely modern plant. Convenient Buffalo & Rochester. Starting salary: $3,900; 
other conditions liberal. Apply Supt., Wyoming County Community Hospital, Warsaw, 
New York. 

Clinical Instructor in Pediatrics. Modern 450-bed Hospital. Maximum of 90 Students - 
1 class a yr. Excellent personnel policies. Apply Director of Nursing Education, 
Kitchener- Waterloo Hospital, Kitchener, Ont. 

Clinical Instructor in Obstetrical nursing for dept. with 26-beds & Supervisor of Nurseries 
for dept. with 30 bassinettes. Duties to include teaching & supervision of student nurses. 
University postgraàuate course & experience preferred for both positions. Apply Director 
of Nursing, General Hospital, Oshawa, Ont. 

Public Health Nurse Grade 1. British Columbia Civil Service, Dept. of Health & Welfare. 
Starting Salary $255, $260, $266 per mo., depending on experience, rising to $298. per mo. 
Promotional opportunities available. Qualifications: Candidate must be eligible for regis- 
tration in British Columbia & have completed a University degree or Certificate course in 
Public Health Nursing. (Successful candidates may be required to serve in any part of 
the Province.) Cars are provided. 5-day wk. in most districts. Uniform allowance. Candi- 
dates must be British subjects; preference is given to ex-service women. Application forms 
obtainable from all Government Agencies, the Civil Service Commission, 544 Michigan 
S1., Victoria, or 411 Dunsmuir S1., Vancouver 3, to be completed & returned to the Chairman, 
Civil Service Commission, Victoria. Further information may be obtained from the Director, 
Public Health Nursing, Dept. of Health & Welfare, Parliament Bldgs., Victoria, B,C. 

Public Health Nurse. Starting salary: $2,844 with annual increases over 3 yrs. to $3,228 
per yr. Previous experience qualifies for a higher starting salary. Cost of transportation 
to Port Arthur refunded after 3 mo. Car allowance or free transportation while on duty. 
Pension plan after 3 yr. sen'Ïce. Apply stating qualifications & experience to Arthur 
H. Evans, Secretary, Board of Health, Port Arthur, Ont. 

Public Health Nurses for generalized program. City of Ottawa, Health Dept. Salary: 
$2,760-$3,240 plus cost of living bonus. Good personnel policies. Superannuation & Blue 
Cross benefits. Apply Employment & Labor Registry Office, Room 118, Transportation 
Bldg., 48 Rideau St., Ottawa 2, Ont. 

Public Health Nurse for Health Unit in south-western Ontario. Generalized program. 
Salary according to experience. Pension plan. 5-day wk. Generous car allowance. 
Group insurance. Apply Supervisor of Nursing, Elgin, St. Thomas Health Unit, City 
Hall, St. Thomas, Ont. 

Public Health Nurse (Qualified) for generalized program, voluntary agency. Salary: 
$2,940-$3,712 depending on qualifications, annual increment. Student program, retire- 
ment plan, Social Security. 5-day wk., annual vacation & sick leave. Car furnished. 
Apply Director, Visiting Nurse Assoc., City Hall, Concord, New Hampshire. 





Required by The Provincial Government of Newfoundland 
Department of Health 

For General Duty in small 6-32-bed hospitals. Salary COmmences at $2,200 per annum on the 
scale $2,200-100-2,300. 
Accommodation in the hospital $40 per mo. 2
 working day vacation. Sick leave with pay. 
Uniforms & laundry services free. Successful applicants have their transportation paid to the 
Hospitals situated in the coastal regions of the Province & act as the centre of Medical services 
for a group of settlements. 
For further information & application form apply: 
Director of Nurses, Dept. of Health, St. John's, Nfld. 

Stall Nurses for 600-bed General & Tuberculosis Hospitals with School of Nursing. 
Salary: $288-$341. Shift, special service & educational differentials, $10. 40-hr. wk; 3-wk. 
vacation; 1 I holidays; accumulaiive sick leave, Apply Associate Director of Nursing 
Service, County General Hospital. Fresno, Califomia. 

Staff Nurses & Operating Room Scrub Nurses for 22S-bed General Hospital. 20 mi. north 
of New York City. Salary: $240-$280. $20 extra for O.R. duty & permanent evening 
duty; $15 for permanent night duty. Apply Director of Nursing, St. John's Riverside 
Hospital, Yonkers, N.Y. 
Registered Nurses for General Duty (2) for 76-bed fully modern hospital on C.P.R. 
main line & Trans-Canada Highway to Calgary & Banff. Gross Salary: $205 per mo., 
perquisites $30, $5.00 increment every 6 mo. 1 mo. annuaÌ vacation with pay; 8-hr. day; 
44-hr. wk. Sick leave with pay. Apply Matron, Municipal Hospital, Brooks, Alta. 

Registered Staff Nurses, immediate appointments, in 51 I-bed newly enlarged and finely 
equipped general hospital. Duty assignmpnts in medical. surgical, pediatrics, psychi- 
atric, obstetrics, or contagior. units, Northeastern Ohio stable "All-American City" of 
120,000. In centre of area of recreational. industrial. and educational friendly activities. 
Living costs reasonable, Within pleasant driving-distance advantages of metropolitan 
Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio and Pittsburg, Pa. Friendly, cooperative work relations 
and conditions. Progressively advanced personnel policies. Starting salary: $240 per 
mo, with 4 merit increases. Paid vacation, sick leave, recognized holidays, premium 
pay, sickness insurance and hospitalization program, retirement. Contact: Director of 
Personnel, Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio, by letter or collect telephone 4-5673, 
Registered Nurses for General Duty. Initial salary: $200 per mo,; with 6 or more months 
Psychiatric experience, $210 per mo. Salary increase at end of 1 yr. 44-hr. wk.; 8 statu- 
tory holidays, annual vacation with pay. Living accommodation if desired. For further 
information apply Sup!. of Nurses, Homewood Sanitarium, Guelph, Ont. 
Registered General Duty Nurses (2) for 30-bed hospital. Salary: $170 per mo. plus full 
maintenance, Salary subject to increase after 6 mos. with regular annual increase 
thereafter. 30 days vacation after 1 yr. service, Fully modern nurses' residence. Suc- 
cessful applicants reimbursed rail fme after 1 yr. New 60-bed hospital under con- 
struction. Apply, stating age & when available to the Supt. Dist. General Hospital, 
Dryden, Onto 
Registered Nurses for modern GO-bed General Hospital situated 40 mi. south of Montreal. 
Salary: $200 per mo. 8-hr. duty; 44-hr. wk; rotating shifts. Many attractive benefits 
provided. Board & accommodation available at minimum cost in completely new motel- 
style nurses' residence. Apply Supt., Barrie Memorial Hospital. Ormstown, Que. 
Registered &: Non-Registered Nurses, X-Ray &: Lab. Technician br General Hospital. 
Gross salary for nurses registered in Gnt. equivalent to $233.85 per mo. Good personnel 
policies, new facilities. 8-hr. rotating shifts; 44-hr. wk.; I-day off 1 wk. & 2 the next. 
1 1 12 days holiday & sick leave per mo,; 8 legal holidays per year. Up to $40 travelling 
expenses & increase paid after 1 yr. service Semi-private Blue Cross with M.O.S. 
coverage. Full maintenance is provided including room, boa!"d & laundering of uniforms. 
Apply Supt., Lady Minto Hospitcl, Cochrane. Ont. 
Registered Nurses (2) for 2S-bed hospital. Salary: $210 per mo. Full maintenance $30. 
1 mo. vacation & 3 wks" sick leave after 1 yr. service. Located in thriving town with 
good train & mail service. Apply Sec. Manager. Porcupine-Carragana Union Hospital, 
Porcu pine Plain. Sask. 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. No.1 



The Grenfell Mission operates four Hospitals & seven Nursing Stations in 
northern Newfoundland & on the Labrador. Here is a wonderful opportunity 
for valuable experience & an adventurous life. If you are making plans for 
next year, why not consider this splendid service still carried on in the name 
of a great man? 

For full information p/
" writ. 


Registered Nurses (2). Duties to commence as soon as possible. Salary: $175 per mo. 
plus room & board, 6-day wk" 3-wk. annual vacation, statutory holidays. Situated on 
No, 1 Highway & Mainline C.P,R. Friendly sportsminded town, For further information 
apply Sec. Treas., Medical Nursing Unit, Elkhorn, Man. 
Registered Nurses for general duty in busy 60-bed hospital in Eastern Ontario. 3-wk. 
vacation after 1 yr., 2-wk. sick leave. all statutory holidays. Apply Supt., Public Hospital, 
Smiths Falls, Ontario, 
Registered Nurses (2) for new 30-bed hospital. Apply Matron. Creston Valley Hospital. 
Creston, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurses. Salary: $230-270, $10 increment for experience. 40-hr. wk. 1 1 12 days 
sick leave per mo. cumulative; 10 statutory holidays, (1) mo. vacation. Must be eligible 
for B.C. registration. Apply Director of Nurses, Royal Inland Hospital. Kamloops, B.C. 
General Duty Nurses for 65-bed hospital. Gross salary: $185-$210. 44-hr. wk., statutory 
holidays. For further iníormation apply Director of Nursing Services, General & Marine 
Hospital, Collingwood, Ont. 
General Duty Nurse (1) for 18-bed hospital. Duties to commence Feb, 1. Salary: $220 
per mo. with $5,00 increment every 6 mo, Board & lodging in nurses' residence $40 per 
mo" 28-days annual vacation, usual statutory holidays. Apply Administrator, Lady Minto 
Gulf Islands Hospital, Ganges, B.C. 
General Duty Nurse for well equipped 80-bed General Hospital in beautiful inland valley 
adjacent Lake Kathlyn, Boating, fishing, swimming, golfing, curling, skiing. Initial salary: 
$240, full maintenance, $40. 44-hr, wk. vacation with pay. Comfortable, attractive nurses' 
residence on grounds, Rail fare advanced if necessary, refunded following 1 yr, service. 
References required. Apply Bulkley Valley Dist. Hospital. Smithers, B.G. 
General Duty Nurses. O.R. Scrub Nurse. O.B. Supervisor for new 143-bed plus 32-bas- 
sinette hospital. Good salary & personnel policies. Apply Director of Nurses, Plummer 
Memorial Hospital, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. 
General Duty Nurses for large General Hospital in rapidly growing industrial city, Good 
working conditions, modern equipment. Generous personnel policies include paid vaca- 
tion, sick leave & statùtory holidays, Uniforms laundered, Residence facilities available at 
n ominal charge. Apply Dir. of Nursing, General Hospital, Hamilton, Ont. 
General Duty Nurses for 430-bed hospital; 40-hr. wk. Statutory holidays. Salary: $235- 
268. Credit for past experience. Annual increments; cumulative sick leave; 28 days 
annual vacation; B.C. registration required. Apply Director of Nursing, Royal Columbian 
Hospital, New Westminster, B.C. 
General Duty Nurses for Medical. Surgical. Pediatrics. Obstetrics. Good salary & per- 
sonnel policies. Apply Director of Nursing, Victoria Hospital, London, Ont. 
General Duty Nurses for all departments, Gross salary: $210 per mo, if registered in 
Ontario $200 per mo. until registration has been established, $20 per mo. bonus for 
evening or night duty; annual increment of $10 per mo. for 3 yrs. 44-hr. wk., 8 statutory 
holidays, 21 days vacation & 14 days leave for illness with pay after 1 yr. of employ- 
ment. Apply: Director of Nursing. General Hospital, Oshawa, Ont. 
General Duty Graduate Nurses for well equipped 72-bed hospital on B.C. coast. Salary: 
$222 per mo. less $25 full maintenance. Semi-annual increments. 28 days vacation plus 
10 statutory holidays after 1 yr. Transportation advanced if desired. Apply Mrs. Mark, 
Matron, St. George's Hospital, Alert Bay, B.C. 






Applications are being received for 
Operating Room Supervisor for February 1956. 

Postgraduate course & experience required. 

Good personnel policies & salary. 

For further information, write 


General Staff Nurses for 400-bed Medical & Surgical Sanatorium, fully approved student 
affiliation & postgraduate program. Full maintenance. Recreational faciiities. Vacation 
with pay. Sick benefits after 1 yr. Blue Cross coverage. Attractive salary; 40-hr. wk. 
For further particulars apply Supt. of Nurses, Nova Scotia Sanatorium, Kentville, N.S. 
Graduate Nurses for duty on Obstetrical, Medical & Surgical Wards. Personnel policies 
as recommended by the Assoc. of Nurses of the Provo of Quebec, Please apply Director 
of Nursing, Queen Elizabeth Hospital of Montreal, 2100 Marlowe Ave., Montreal 28, QUe. 
Graduate Nurses for 100-bed West Coast General HospitaL Salary: $250 per mo. less 
$40 for board, residence, laundry. 3 annual incremer..ts; $10 per mo. night duty bonus. 
1 mo. vacation with full salary after ! yr. service, 1 1 12 days sick leave per mo. cum- 
ulative to 36 days, Transportation allowance up to $60 refunded after 1 yr, Apply Director 
of Nursing General Hospital, Prince Rupert, B,C. 
Graduate Nurses (3) for 24-bed hospital. Salary: $230 per mo. if B.C. registered; less 
$40 board, lodging, laundry. 1 mo. vacation after 1 yr. on full pay. Piz days sick leave 
per mo. cumulative. Apply, stating experience to Matron, Terrace & District Hospital. 
Terrace, British Columbia. 
Graduate Nurse for 20-bed hospital Salary: $190 plus full maintenance. Usual holidays 
with pay & sick leave. Modern nurses' home, Apply Union Hospital, Vanguard. Sask, 
Baker Memorial Sanatorium. Calgary, Alberta, offers to Graduate Nurses a 6-mo. post- 
graduate course in TuberculosIs. Maintenance & salary as for general staff nurses. 
Opportunity for permanent employment if desired. Spring & Fall Classes. Further 
information on request. 
Maternity Nurses for modern GO-bed General Hospital located 40 mi. south of Montreal. 
Salary: $155 per mo. 8-hr. duty; 44-hr. wk; rotating shifts, Many attractive benefits 
provided. Board & accommodation available at minimum cost in completely new motel- 
style nurses' residence. Apply Supt., Barrie Memorial Hospital, Ormstown, Que. 
Operating Room Nurses, immediate appointments, for 51 I-bed newly enlarged and 
finely equipped hospital; 10 operating rooms now corn.pleted. Northeastern Ohio stable 
"All-American City" of 120,000. In centre of area of recreational, industrial and educa- 
tional friendly activities; living cost reasonable. Withi!1 pleasant driving-distance 
advantages of metropolitan Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, and Pittsburg, Pa. Friendly 

University of Alberta Hospital 
Edmonton, Alberta. 

Requires General Duty Nurses. Salary range: $190-$215 per mo. plus 2 meals 
& laundry. 40-hr. wk. to be instituted not later than March 31 st, 1956. 
Rotating shifts, 21 days vacation, statutory holidays, other benefits. 

For further informafion apply 


JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No.1 


See Quebec With Employment Rather Than A Tourist Visit 

Where? Jeffery Hale's Hospital 
Why Unique? Only English speaking hospital & training school in 
Quebec City 

For information write: 


and considerate working associates and conditions. Progressively advanced personnel 
policies. Starting salary: $240 per mo. with 4 merit increases. Paid vacation, sick leave, 
recognized holidays, premium "'pay, sickness insurance and hospitalization program, 
retirement. Contact Director of Personnel, Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio, by letter or 
collect telephone 4-5673. 

Operating Room Nurses. preferably with experience, for 75-bed hospital. Operating unit 
consists of 2 t.Ì1eatres, emergency treatment & recovery room. Apply Supt., Carleton 
Memorial Hospital, Woodstock, N.B. 

Operating Room 6. General Staff Nurses for 155-bed Acute General Hospital located 
in famed San Joaquin Valley. Starting salary: $285 per mo., $10 mo, additional for O.R., 
regularly scheduled increases. 40-hr., 5-day wk. 2 wk. paid vacation after 1 yr., 3 wk. after 
5 yrs., 1 mo. after 10 yrs. Travel expenses refunded after 1 yr. employment. Apply 
Personnel Manager, Community Hospital, P,O. Box 1232, Fresno, California. 

Experienced Hospital Bookkeeper 6. Receptionist. Excellent on collections. Would also 
consider Housekeeper's position in a hospital. January 1956. Apply Box K, The Canadian 
Nurse, 1522 Sherbrooke S1. W., Montreal 25, Que. 

Dietitian for 65-bed hospital. Good working conditions. Living accommodation available. 
For further information apply Administrator, General & Marine Hospital, Collingwood, Ont. 
Office Nurse with commercial training required for doctor's office January 1956. Must 
have ability to take full responsibility for running large office practice in St. Catharines. 
Apply Box J. The Canadian Nurse, 1522 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal 25, Que. 
General Duty Nurses immediately for new 600-bed hospital expanding to 850-beds. 
Opportunities for promotion to Head Nurse or higher. Located on 128 acres in eastern 
suburb of Cleveland. Starting salary: $3,060 with periodic merit increases to $3,300 per 
yr. Progressive personnel policies include 40-hr. wk" straight shifts, paid vacation, holi- 
days & sick leave. Nominal cost housing available on grounds. Licensure available 
through Ohio State Nurses' Board if desired, providing nurse meets requirements. 
Hospital affiliated with Western Reserve University Medical School. Additional infor- 
mation available upon request. Apply Director, Personnel Relations, Highland View 
Hospital, Harvard Road, Cleveland 22, Ohio. 



General Staff Nurses for Medical, Surgical, Obstetrical and Pediatric 
Services. Forty-four hour week. Salary $210.00 to $260.00 gross per month. 
Differential for evening and night duty. 

Apply to: 





Gross salary commensurate with experience, 28 days vacation after one 
year, 8 statutory holidays, sick leave accumulative to 60 days; Residence 
accommodation available at reasonable rates. Hospital has recently completed 
a well equipped and staffed wing with extensive renovation program pro- 
gressing in the old section. 


Applications are invited for the position of Director of Nursing for 3
-bed General Hos- 
pital. State experience & salary required. Residence accommodation. A building pro- 
gram to replace the present hospital has been scheduled for 1956, Apply Administrator, 
General Hospital, Ladysmith, B.C. 
Graduate Registered Nurses for floor duty for 68-bed hospital, 68 miles from Montreal. 
Excellent bus & train service. Salaries are in accordance with R.N,A.P.Q. Full main- 
tenance. 8-hr. duty, rotating shift, l1h days off per wk., 30 days annual vacation, sick 
leave allowance. Blue Cross hospitalization paid by hospital. Apply Supt., Brome- 
Missisquoi Perkins Hospital, Sweetsburg, Que. 
Matron for very active company Hospital in rapidly expanding community. Position 
requires person experienced in organization & supervision of nursing, clinical & service 
Depts. Postgraduate training in nursing administration desirable. Apply in writing to 
Personnel Dept., Aluminum Co. of Canada, Ltd., Kitimat, B ,C. 
General Duty Staff Nurses for 52-bed General Hospital. Evening & night shift. Beginning 
salary: $300 per mo. 40-hr. wk. Apply Director of Nursing, County General Hospital, 
1375 N. Main St., Lapeer, Michigan. 
General Duty Nurses. Jan. 15-'56 for new air-conditioned 60-bed wing. Salary: $200 per 
mo., after 6-mo. $10 increase. 3-wk. vacation, statutory holidays, sick pay. Benefits in- 
clude free life insurance, pension plan, Blue Cross, free medical & surgical care. 
Residence available. Apply Director of Nurses, Doctor's Hospital, 28 Major St., Toronto. 
General Duty Registered Nurses for modern 18-bed private hospital in iron mining town, 
180 mi. north of Sault Ste. Marie. Starting salary: $235 with annual increase, less $20 
for maintenance. Excellent accommodations & personnel policies. Transportation allow- 
ance after 3 mo. service. .Apply Supt., Lady Dunn Hospital. Jamestown, Ont. 
Registered Nurse for 12-bed hospital. Salary: $250. Duties to commence as soon as pos- 
sible. For full particulars phone or write Mrs. M. Broley, Sec., Community Hospital, 
Beechy, Sask. _ _ _ ___ 
Registered Nurses (2) for Jan. '56. (3) for June '56. for active hospital 10 mi. from Radium 
Hot Springs, B.C. New modern hospital & nurses' residence to be completed June '56. 
Salary according to R.N.A.B.C. Apply Supt. of Nurses, Bruce Memorial Hospital. 
Invermere , B.C. 
Assistant Head Nurses for children's orthopedic hospital. Good personnel policies. Pen- 
sion plan available. Apply Director, Shriner's Hospital for Crippled Children, 1529 
Cedar Ave., Montreal. 




to organize the depart.,ents of Pediatrics and Surgery in new hospital. 
Salary $240.00 to $300.00. Good personnel policies. 

Apply to: 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. No. 1 



invites applications for STAFF and ADMINISTRATIVE positions in HOSPITAL, PUBLIC HEALTH 
· The majority of opportunities are in OUTPOST SERVICES in British Columbia, 
Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. 
· Commensurate salaries for experience and qualifications. Transportation arrange- 
ments under certain circumstances. Bursaries are available for post-graduate 
For further particulars apply: 

Superintendent of Nurses for 3
-bed hospital. Feb. 1 or later. Salary: $275 per mo., $40 
per mo, board & lodging. 40-hr. wk, 4-wk, vacation, 11 statutory holidays, 18 days sick 
leave, Pleasant surroundings. Apply K, Scheer, Administrator, Grand Forks, B.G 

Public Health Nurse Grade L B.C. Civil Service, Child Guidance Clinic-Mental Health 
Services, Vancouver. Salary: $255 rising to $298 per mo, Must have completed degree or 
diploma course in public health nursing, For further information & application forms apply 
Personnel Officer, Civil Service Commission, Essondale, BoG 

General Duty Nurses for 650-bed teaching hospital in central California. Salary: $288-$337 
per mo, 40-hr. wk. Liberal vacation, holiday & sick leave plan. Apply Personnel Office, 
510 E, Market St., Stockton, California. 

Instructor in Nursing. Faculty position in medical area. Accredited integrated diploma 
program, Northern California college community, Liberal personnel policies Excellent 
clinical & teaching facilities. Progressive faculty, 90 students, Immediate opening. For 
details write Personnel Office, 510 E. Market St., Stockton, California, 

General Duty Nurses for small hospital. Salary: $200 per mo, plus maintenance. 8-hr, day, 
44-hr. wk" statutory holidays as outlined by R.N,A.O. Travelling expenses refunded after 
12 mo, service, New nurses' residence under construction. Apply Lady Minto Hospital, 
Chapleau, Ontario, 

Applications are invited from Canadian trained nurses for a 6-mo, postgraduate course 
in Plastic Surgery commencing April 1. Jaw injuries & burns centre St. Lawrence Hospital 
Chepston, Mon. 109 Plastic Surgery, 50 Orthopedic Beds. Posts afford an opportunity of 
gaining experience in Plastic Surgery methods & seeing something of England, Salary 
f387 a year, less fl43 for board residence, Must pay own fare to England. Write, giving 
age & rèferences to T. A. Jones, Group Secretary, 64 Cardiff Rd., Newport, Mon, England. 



General Staff Nurses for General Hospital with a School of Nursing with 200 
students. Salaries starting at $210 depending on qualifications. Increments 
of $5.00 every 6 mo. Bonus for evening & night duty. 44 hr., 5 V2 day wk, 
Good Personnel policies. 

Apply to: 








<.' ...... 



.,.. "'

'\- j\ 
;' .: 


, -..... 



The Ontario Society for Crippled Children requires the services of a number of 
qualified Public Health Nurses to assist them in their work with crippled children in 
the Province of Ontario. 
Our requirements call for experience in Public Health Work, and a willingness to 
travel in Ontario. 

We will provide a salary commensurate with your experience, special training in 
Orthopaedic Nursing, an automobile, five day week and Pension Plan and other 
employee benefits. 

If you are interested or require further information, write to-day to: 


Supervisor 01 Nursing Services 


Toronto 2 

92 ColI
ge Street 

JANUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No.1 


Official Directory 

2ïO Laurier A veo, W 0' Ottawa 

President ................ Miss Gladys J. Sharpe, Western Hospital. Toronto 2B, Onto 
Past President........ ., Miss Helen G. McArthur, 95 Wellesley St. E., Toronto 5, Onto 
First "ice-President ..... Miss Trenna G. Hunter, Metropolitan Health Com., City Hall, Van- 
couver. B.C. 
ond Vict'-President ... Miss Alice Girard, Hópltal St. Luc, Lagauchetlère St., Montreal, Que. 
Third Vict>-J>resident ..... :\Ilss Muriel Hunter, Provincial Health Dept.. Fredericton, N.B. 
General St>('retary ........ Miss M. Pearl Stiver, 270 Laurler Ave. \,y., ottawa. 


p,.esidenh of Prot
;ncial A ssociations- 
Alberta............ . '" ... Miss Elizabeth Bietsch, General Hospital, Medicine Hat. 
British Columbia. Miss Alberta Creasor. 1645 \Vest 10th Ave., Vancouver 9. 
Manitoba... .............. Miss Mary Wilson, Ste. 18, Lenore Apts., Lenore St., Winnipeg. 
New ßrun
wi('k........... Miss Grace Stevens, Box 970, Edmundston. 
Newfoundland ........... Miss Elizabeth Summers, 55 Mllltary Rd.. St. John's. 
No.a Scotia............... Mrs. Dorothy McKeown, 791h Allen St., Halifax, 
Ontario. _ _ _ Miss Alma Reid, McMaster University, Hamilton. 
Prlnct> "
dward Island. . . . . Sister Mary Irene, Charlottetown Hospital, Charlottetown, 
Quebec... .. .. ...... .. .. ... :\Ille E\e Merleau. Apt. 52. 3201 Forest Hill, Montr
al 26, 
BlSskat('ht>wan. . . . . . . . . . . " Miss Mary MacKenzie, St. Paul's Hospital, Saskatoon. 

R f'ligious Sisters (R pg;onal R ep,.øs."tøtion)- 
Maritimes................ Rev. Sister Helen Marie, St. Joseph's Hospital, Saint John, N.B. 
QUt>bt>c ........... 0" o. .., Rev, Sister Denise Lefebvre, Instltut Marguerite d'Youville, 
1185 St. Matthew St., Montreal 25. 
Ontario .................. Rev. Sister M. de Sales, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto 2. 
W..stern Canada ......... Rev. Sister Mary Lucita, St. Josel'h's Hospital, Victeria. B.C. 

ChlJi,.nten of National Committees- 

Nursing St>rvice .......... 
Nursing Education 

Miss Allee Girard, Hópital 51. Luc, Lagauchetlère St., Montreal, Que. 
Miss Evelyn Mallory, School of Nursing, University of British 
Columbia, Vancouver 8, B.C. 

Publicity & I'ublic 
R..lations .......,... Miss Evelyn Pepper, Rm. 726, Jackson Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 
Legislation & By-Laws .,. Miss Helen Carpenter, 50 St. George St.. Toronto 5, Onto 
Finance.......... ........ Miss Trenna G, Hunter, Metropolitan Health Com., City Hall, Van- 
couver, B.C. 


Alberta Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Mrs. Clara Van Dusen, Ste. 5, 10129-102nd St., Edmonton. 
Registered Nurses' Ass'n of British Columbia, Miss Allee L. Wright, 2524 Cypress St., Van- 
couver 9. 
Manitoba Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Miss Lillian E. Pettigrew, 247 Balmoral St.. Winnipeg. 
New Brunswick Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Miss Muriel Archibald, P.O. Box 846, Fredericton. 
Ass'n of Registered Nurses of Newfoundland, Miss Pauline Laracy, Cabot Bldg., Duckworth St., 
St. John's. 
Registered Nurses' Ass'n of 
o\'a Scotia, Miss Nancy H. Watson, 301 Barrington St., Halifax. 
Registered Nurses' Ass'n of Ontario, Miss Florence H. \Valker, 515 Jarvis St., Toronto 5. 
Ass'n of Nurses of Prince Edward Island, Mrs. Helen L. Bolger, 188 Prince St., Charlottetown. 
Association of Nurses of the Pro\'ince of Quebec, Miss Winonah Llnds?y, 506 Medical Arts 
Bldg., Montreal 25. 
SaRkatche,,'an Registered 
urses' Ass'n, Miss Lola Wilson, 401 Northern Crown Bldg., Regina. 


Canadian Nurses' Association: 270 Laurler Ave. West, Ottawa. General Secretar)'-Treasurer. Miss 
M. Pearl Stiver, Secretary of Nursing Education, Miss Frances U. McQuarrie, Secretary of Nursing 
Service, Miss F. Lillian Campion. Assistant Secretary, Miss Rita MacIsaac. 
International Council of :\furscs: 1, Dean Trench St., Westminster, London S. W. 1, England. 
Executive Secretar}', Miss Daisy C. Bridges. 



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PreventÏon of ÐressÏng Tranm.a 

J e10net is a dressing for all wounds - its non-adherent properties 
protect the delicate epithelium and prevent dressing trauma, 
enabling healing to continue undisturbed. It is used extensively 
in the treatment of burns and as a dressing following skin-grafting 
operations. Other uses include: drainage, packing for deep 
granulating wounds, and as an adjuvant in the treatment of 
varicose ulcers by compression bandaging. 

Jelonet is obtainable in tins of 36 pieces, each piece 3%" X 3%". 
A special size tin containing a strip 8 yards long X %" wide, 
folded zig-zag, is available for 
Hospitals and Surgeries. Sterile 
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2285 Papineau Avenue, l'iIONTREAL 24, Que. 

FEBRUARY, 1956. VoL 52, No.2 









93 Too FEW FOR Too IvIANY,....................,..................,....,........A. Girard 

URSES..............,W. H. Cruickshank 

1 01 L'E\'OLLTIO
ET SES PROBLbIES..,.......... .............................................___...P. Daz.'id 

107 COCKTERPAKE LAND..____......___.._....,........................,.....,.,........L. P. Bell 

109 \VHAT ABouT YACATION PLANS?,......,...................E. A. Collins 

111 IN 11DIORIAl\I 

T PREVENTIO)l..........................................T. Greville 

114 SCHIZOPHREKIA.............,.............................,..........................,....A. Stewart 

THRO::\IBOSIS........,.. ..........' ...... ...C. Lawton and lw. Hobin 

122 WITH OUR TR<\IKING 'VI" G<\N HELP,...........E. Groenewald 



Editor and Business Manager 

The views exþressed 
in the various articles 
are the views of 
the authors and 
do not necessarily 
reþresent the þolicy 
or vie'WS of 
nor of the Canadian 
Nurses' Association. 


144 :\EWS NOTES 


Assistant Editor 

Sub.rcriþtWfJ Rates: Canada & Bermuda: 6 months $1.75; one year, $3.00; two years, $5.00. 
Student nurses - one year, $2.00; three years, $5.00. U.S.A. & foreign: one year, $3.50; two years, $6.00. 
In combination with the American Journal of Nursing or Nursing Outlook: one year, $7.00. 
Single copies, 35 cents. 
:Make cheques and money orders payable to Tllc Canadian Nurse. 
Detailed Official Directcr}' appears in June & December. 
Please give one month's notice of Change of Address. 
Authorized as Second-Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 
National Advertising Representatives: W. I;. L. Edwards & Co. Ltd., 34 King St. E., Toronto 1, Onto 
Member of Canadian Circulations Audit Board. 
1522 Sherbrooke Street, West. Montreal 25. Quebec 



The answer to the problem 01 


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FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. NO.2 




Anticipating the theme for the 1956 con- 
vention. Chairman of the Nursing Service 
Committee Alice Girard, as our guest editor, 
poses some very penetrating questions. Miss 
Girard is keenly alert to the problems she 
presents for she is director of nursing at 
HÔpital St. Luc in :\Iontreal. She realizes, 
as do directors of nursing everywhere, that 
there just are not enough pairs of hands 
available to meet the demands for nursing 
service in hospitals and public health organ- 
izations alike. Seeking the answers to these 
questions is the responsibility of every mem- 
ber of the profession. The Committee on 
Nursing Service can and does give superb 
leadership in the quest but 15 or 20 com- 
mittee members or even 1500 or 2000 inter- 
ested nurses are not enough - it is up to all 
of us to give our loyal assistance. 
* * * 
One answer is being furnished by the 
women who are being trained in schools 
similar to the one described by Emily 
Groenewald. Sponsored by the Department 
of Veterans Affairs there are schools for 
nursing assistants in three centres - Tor- 
10ntreal and Halifax. Like the 
schools organized under the provincial health 
departments, these schools follow the pat- 
tern defined by the Canadian Nurses' Asso- 
ciation. Thus opportunity is provided for 
persons who are not able to enter our 
schools of nursing to become qualified so 
that they too may swell the numbers oÍ 
those who can give reality to our conven- 
tion theme "Nursing Serves the Nation." 
* * * 
Last September, Dr. W. H. Cruickshank 
gave a very thoughtful address at the con- 
vention of the Canadian Public Health As- 
sociation. He took as his topic the problems 
of Mental Hygiene in Industry. The paper 
was published, as given, in the Canadian 
Journal of Public Health in December, 1955. 
Permission was given for us to reprint it 
but as we read it through, the thought 
recurred, again and again, of how applicable 
all of the points were to improving the 
mental health of nurses. If only we could 
slant the material directly to our profession! 
Happily, as soon as Dr. Cruickshank was 
approached regarding this possibility he was 

completely willing to cooperate with us in 
this transposition of emphasis. We hope that, 
as and v. hen your tensions may mount, you 
will turn again to Dr. Cruickshank's outline 
of desirable mental health activities to find 
guidance in relieving tension-producing situ- 

* * * 
How can usually active children be kept 
entertained and occupied when accident or 
illness makes it necessary for them to stay 
in bed for a while? Children's hospitals have 
departments of play therapy organized to 
meet this need. Even in small pediatric units 
attention is given to keeping the not-too- 
sick child busy. What happens when he goes 
home? How about the child whose disability 
has not required hospitalization? 
Louise Price Bell, out of her experience 
as a nurse and as a mother, gives some very 
practical answers to these questions in her 
"Counterpane Land." She points out how 
inexpensively the necessary materials can be: 
procured. Every nurse, but particularly those 
who see the children in their homes, will 
find this article a most helpful supply cup- 
board of ideas and suggestions. 
* * * 
How are your plans maturing for attend- 
ance at the CN A convention in Winnipeg 
next June? As noted in "Nursing Across 
the Nation," the number of pre-registrations 
is mounting steadily at National Office. How 
about your post-convention plans? That trip 
to Honolulu described by Ethel Armstrong 
Collins sounds pretty alluring, doesn't it? 
Just south of the Tropic of Cancer, the 
Hawaiian Islands are never too hot yet they 
are warm enough for sea and sun bathing 
at any time of the year. 
If )our heart was set on the Klondyke 
Gold Nugget tour, we are very sorry that 
you will have to be disappointed. Switch 
your plans and explore the eastern parts 
of Canada instead. Aren't you relieved to 
learn that others besides honeymooners do 
go to Niagara Falls? Be sure to visit the 
National Office when you are in Ottawa 
The Journal office is very easy to find when 
you reach Montreal. On the south side of 
Sherbrooke Street, 1522 is just east of Guy 
Street. Come and see us! 

"God must be fond of ordinary people" said Abraham Lincoln, "or he would not have 
made so many of them." 





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VANZA SUPERFATTED SOAP-Those sensitive to 
ordinary toilet soap or detergents, or having dry 
thin skin, benefit through the regular use of 
V ANZA Superfatted Soap. It is invaluable for the 
nursery as a companion product to V ANZA Creme. 

Cake: 25 cents 


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STREET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

CITY, , , , , , , , . , , . . . . . . . . . . . , . , ,PROV.. , , ,. ..'.,.... 

1teeu- 'P

Edited by DEAN F. N. HIJGHES 
PCULISIIED THROCGH COT;RTESY OF Canadian Pharmaceutical] Gurnal 

Manufacturer-Abbott Laboratories, Ltd., Montreal. 
Description-Each tablet contains: Nembutal (pentobarbital) calcium 30 mg.; 
reserpine 0,25 mg. 
Indications-As a sedative and tranquilizer in mild anxiety states, tension, insomnia 
and in mild essential hypertension, 
Administration-In mild anxiety states, etc., 1 tablet at bedtime with additional 
tablets during the day as indicated. Maximum daily dose 4 tablets. In mild hyper- 
tension, 1 or 2 tablets daily. 

Manufacturer-Abbott Laboratories, Ltd., Montreal. 
Description-Each red gelatin capsule contains: Placidyl (B-chlorovinyl ethyl ethynyl 
carbinol) 500 mg, a nonbarbiturate hypnotic with low toxicity which does not produce 
initial excitation or a "hangover" effect. 
Indications-Simple insomnia resulting from tension, mild anxiety, mild excitement 
or agitation. 
Administration-Adults, 500 mg. 15 to 30 minutes before retiring. Duration of effects 
is 4 to 5 hours. Only mild side effects have been reported - mild depression, symp- 
toms of mild excitation and stomach upsets occur rarely. 

Manufacturer-Charles E. Frosst & Co., Montreal. 
Description-Carbazochrome salicylate complex, tablets of 2,5 mg" and ampoules 
of 5 mg, 
Indications-Capillary hemorrhage. 
Administration-Intramuscularly, 1 cc, every 2 to 4 hours until bleeding ceases; 
orally, after bleeding has been controlled, by injection or for initial and maintenance 
therapy, 1 tablet every 4 hours. 

Manufacturer-Eli Lilly and Company (Canada) Limited, Toronto 13, Ontario. 
Description-A short-acting nonbarbiturate sedative having a rapid onset of effect. 
Indications-For the management of simple insomnia caused by mental unrest, 
excitement, fear, worry, apprehension or extreme fatigue. 
Administration-Adults: 1 or 2 tablets 15 to 20 minutes before retiring. May be 
administered to patients who are hypersensitive to barbiturates. 

Manufacturer-Organon Inc., Canadian Branch, Montreal. 
Description-Contain: Ergotamine tartrate 1.0 mg., caffeine 100,0 mg., belladonna 
alkaloids levarotatory 0.1 mg. and acetophenetidin 120,0 mg. 
Indications-For the treatment of migraine headaches. 
Administration-Early recognition of symptoms and proper dosage are of prime 
importance in vascular headache therapy. A dose of 2 tablets should be taken imme- 
diately upon noticing symptoms of migraine (prodromal stage). followed by 1 tablet 
every 20-30 minutes until the attack aborts, No more than 6 tablets should be taken 
per migraine attack, 

Manufacturer-Astra Pharmaceuticals (Canada) Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 
Description-Contains 2/,0 Xylocaine hydrochloride in an aqueous solution adjusted 
to suitable consistency with carboxymethylcellulose. Cherry flavored for palatability. 
Indications-Provides prompt and prolonged topical anesthesia of the proximal 
parts of the digestive tract. Controls hiccup and reflex vomiting, including severe 
vomiting of pregnancy, a:ld relieves the discomfort of laryngoscopy, esophagoscopy 
and gastroscopy. Useful also in the symptomatic management of acute cardiospasm 
and pyloric spasm, stomatitis, pharyngitis and esophagitis. 
Administration-Administered orally. Dosage as follows: A verage dose: 1 table- 
blespoonful administered orally. 
Pyloric spasm: Adults, 1 tablespoonful as necessary, followed by half a glass of 
water, maximum 3 times daily; infants, 1 teaspoonful. 
Gastroscopy and gastric intubation: 1 tablespoonful. 
Esophagoscopy, esophagitis, stomatitis: 2 teaspoonfuls to 1 tablespoonful carefully 
distributed in the mouth and slowly swallowed, not followed by water. 

The Journal prcsents þ/w","aceut;cals for information. Nurscs undcrstand that only a physician may prescribe. 




Medical School and Hospital (Organized 1881) 


The Pioneer Postgraduate Medical Institution in America 


We announce the following Courses (Six Months' Duration) for Qualified 
Graduate Nurses: 
No. 1. Operating-Room Management and Technic. 
No.2. Medical-Surgical Nursing - Supervision and Teaching. 
No.3. Organization and :Management of Out-Patient Department 
(Clinics in all branches of 1Iedicine, Surgery - including Industrial 
Nursing - and Allied Specialties). 
Courses include: lectures by the Faculty of the Medical School and 
Nursing School; principles of teaching ward management; principles of 
supervision; teaching and management of the specialty selected. Positions 
available to graduates of these courses. Full maintenance is provided, 
F or information address: 
The Directress of Nurses, 343 West 50th Street, New York City 19 


Offers to qualified Registered Nurses 
a ]6-week supplementary course in 


with instruction and practice in the 
general surgical, neurosurgical. plastic. 
orthopedic, gynecologic, urologic and 
ear, nose and throat operating room 
servicts. Ma:nkllance and stipend are 

For information tvrite to: 

Director, School of Nursing 
The Johns Hopkins Hospital 
Baltimure 5, Maryland, U.S.A. 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No. 2 

Philadelphia, Penna. 

The largest eye hospital in the 
United States offers a six-month course 
in NUI"sing Cm"e of the Eye to Grad- 
uates of Accredited Nursing Schools. 
Operating Room Training is scheduled 
in the course. 

per month for four months and $]75 
per month for the ne:x.t two months. 
. REGISTRATION FEE is $]5 which 
takes care of pin and certificate. 
. Classes start March 15th and Sept. 
15th. Ophthalmic nurses are in great 
demand for hospital eye departments, 
operating rooms, and ophthalmologists' 
offices. . 

For infonnation w,.;te to 
Director of Nurses, 
\VilIs Eye Hospital, 
1601 Rpring Garden Street 
Philadell)hia 30, Penna. 


Manufacturer-Paul Maney Laboratories of Canada Ltd" Hamilton. Ont. 
Description-Each yellow scored lemon-flavour tablet contains: Ascorbic acid 500 
mg" menadione 10 mg. 
Indications-For protection against hemorrhage in tonsillectomy and other surgery. 
Also in certain hemorrhagic states coexisting with ulcerative colitis. sprue and celiac 
disease, During last month of pregnancy. 
Administration-Adults, one every 24 hours; children, one-half to one every 24 hours. 
To be used only as prescribed by physician. 

Manufacturer-Bristol Laboratories of Canada, Limited. Montreal, P.O, 
Description-Each sugar coated tablet contains: Reserpine 0,05 mg,; phenobarbital 
0.15 mg. (1f4 gr.); and centrine 0.25 mg. Reserpine promotes tranquillity and a sense of 
well-being, Phenobarbital induces sedation. Centrine inhibits gastrointestinal spasms. 
Indications-Spastic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, especially those asso- 
ciated with tension, anxiety and stress. Also as an adjunct in the management of 
spastic colitis, biliary colic, pylorospasm, peptic ulcers and morning sickness. 
Administration-For oral use only, Dosage will depend on the individual patient's 
response as well as on the duration and severity of the condition. Adults: Usual dose 
is 1 or 2 tablets, 3 or 4 times daily. Children: Dosage according to age and weight. 

Manufacturer-Paul Maney Laboratories of Canada Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 
Description-Each teaspoonful contains: Fl. ext. belladonna 1180 min.. fL ext. hyo- 
scyamus 1180 min" potassium bromide 5 gr., sodium bromide 5 gr., ammonium bromide 
5 gr" zinc bromide 1110 gr., ext. of hops 1110 gr., fI. ext. cascara sagrada 1110 min. 
Indications-As an anticonvulsant in epilepsy and petit maL Also as a sedative in 
insomnia, hyperthyroidism, alcoholic excitement, hot flashes anà headaches of the 
menopause, etc. 
Administration-Adults, as a single dose sedative. one to two teaspoonfuls. For 
continued use, one teaspoonful 3 times daily for 5 days. or 2 teaspoonfuls 3 times daily 
for shorter perioàs, 

Manufacturer-Charles R. Will & Co. Ltd., London, Ont. 
Description-Each capsule contains: Dry extract rauwolfia 4 % total alkaloids 10 mg. 
(equivalent to 0.4 mg, total alkaloids), butabarbital 16 mg. 
Indications-Anxiety neuroses, tension states, certain neuropsychiatric conditions 
and essential hypertension. 
Administration-One capsule 3 or 4 times daily as prescribed. 

Manufacturer-G. W, Carnrick Co Ltd" Toronto. Oni. 
Description-Each tablet or coated tablet contains the active principles derived 
from 130 mg of pancreas. 
Indications-For replacement therapy in pancreatic secretory deficiencies. 

Manufacturer-The Wm. S. Merrell Company, St. Thomas. Ont. 
Description-Each tablet contains 20 mg. of Frenquel (azacyclanol) hydrochloride 
(alpha-4-piperidyl benzhydrol hydrochloride). new antihallucinatory, anticonfusion drug. 
Indications-For the treatment of acute schizophrenia. It is specific in this action 
being effective in over half the patients treated. Even in large doses, Frenquel removes 
the hallucinations. delusions ar-d confusion and produces a cooperative state. The 
mechanism of action appears to be localized in the mesodiencephalic activating system 
of the brain. Side effects and drug reaction have not been reported even in doses 
IS times those usually recommended. No ill effects have been observed as measured 
by repeated blood counts. hemoglobin determinations, liver and kidney function tests. 
Clinical reports show no adverse effect on pulse rate, blood pressure or respiration. 
Administration-In acute schizophrenia - One 20 mg. tablet 3 times daily by mouth. 
Onset of action may occur within several hours. Usually 24 or more hours must elapse 
before. clinical improvement takes place. Duration of blocking against hallucinations 
and delusions is relatively long lasting. When discontinued prodromal symptoms may 
recur in about one week, 

Manufacturer-Ingram & Bell Limited, Toronto. 
Description-A cold sterilizing solution for the disinfection of metal instruments. 
Contains 1% w/w of hexachlorophene as the sodium salt in a vehicle containing 9% 
w /w isopropyl alcohol and a suitable antirust agent. 
Indications-For the destruction of common vegetative bacteria. 

The Journal þresents þharmaceuticals for information. Nurses understand that otlly a physician may prescribe. 




Protein Previews 



/ .;; 





for tne 
SICK ond 
witn menUS ond 


. . 
.;- Þ 






Ne,v Booklet Presents 
Latest Factð un Feeding the Sick 

 often must devote much time to 
describing good nutritional practices, 
Jeal Planning for the Sick and. Con- 
valescent" relit'ves 
 uu of the need for 
repeating 0\ er and 0\ er a
ain essential 
dietary facts. This new kno\. hool...let 
presents the latest nutritional applica- 
tion" of protein
, \ itamins and minerals. 
suggeiit::; ways to stimulatt' appetite and 
descrihes .Jiet
 from dear liquid to full 
convalescent. It offers the homemaker 
for the first time detailed daily sug- 
gested menus for each t) pe of diet. plus 
14 pages of tested nourishing recipes. 

FEBRUARY. 1936. Vol. 52. NO.2 




If you would lil...e copies of this new 
timesaving Knox booklet, use the 
coupon below. 


Knox Gelatine (Cana ,'a) Limitf>.I 
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140 St. Paul St. " est. 
Iontrf>al. Quf'lw(' 
Please send me,..,.,.. copies of the 
new Knox "Sick and Convalescent" 




I. Basic Degree Course in Nursing (B.Se.!: 
This course provides study in the 
humanities, basic sciences and nursing'. 
and prepal-es the graduate for com- 
munity and hospital nursing practice. 

II. Degree Course for Graduate Nurses 
(B.Se.! : 
A h'o-y
ar program designed to pre- 
pare the nurse for positions in Nursing 
Education and Public Health I\ursing. 
The program includes courses in the 
humanities, basic sciences, supervision, 
tead1Ïng and public health nursing. 

III. Diploma Courses for Graduate Nurses: 
One year diploma courses are available 
to registered nurses who wish tn pre- 
pare for positions in Kursing Educa- 
tion and Public Health Xursing. 

IV. Certificate Course in Advanced Practi- 
cal Obstetrics: 
A four and one haIf month course of 
study and supervised clinical ex- 
perience in the care of the mother and 
the newborn infant. 

For information aPPly to: 




1. Degree Course leading to 
Opportunity is provided for special- 
ization in final year. 

Z. Diploma Courses: 
(a) Teaching, Supervision In 
Schools of Nursing. 
(b) Public Health Nursing. 

For information appl'J' to: 





qualified Graduate Nurses a .ix. 
month certificate course ia JÞ.,ditllrie 

· Classes in June and Dt:cember, 

· Remuneration and maint

F or further information aþþly to: 

Superintendent of Nurses 
N ova Scotia Hospital 
Drawer 35ð 
Da.rtmouth, N 0"8 SC{)tia 



Offers to Graduate Nurses a Six- 
:Month Course in Tuberculosis Nursing, 
including Immunology, Prevention, 

Iedical & Surgical Treatment. 
1. Full series of lectures by Medical 
and Surgical staff. 

2. Demonstrations and Clinics. 

3. Experience in Thoracic Operating 
Room and Postoperative Unit. 

4. Full maintenance, salary & all staff 
pri vi leges. 

5. Classes start May 1st and Novem- 
ber 1st. 

For information apply to: 





 following one-year certificate 
courses are off
red : 

1. Public Health Nursing. 

2. Teaching and Supervision in 
Schools of Nursing. 

For Ï1rformatiol1 apply to: 

School of Nursing Education 
University of Manitoba 
Winnipeg, Man. 


Offers to qualified Registered Grad- 
uate Nurses the following oppor- 
tunities ior a(h anced preparation: 
1. A six-month Clinical Course in 

2. A six-month Clinical C0I4rse in 
Operating Roo,n p,'inciples and 
Advanced Practice. 
These courses commence in jANUAI<Y 
and SEPTEMBER of each year. Main- 
tenance is provided. A reasonable sti- 
pend is given after the first month. 
Enrolment is limited to a maximum of 
six students in each course. 

For fltrtherÙlformatiOJ
 Please write to: 



The Hospital for Mental Diseases 
Brandon, Manitoba, offers a 6-month 
Diploma Course in Psychiatric Nursing 
to Registered Nurses. 
Applicants accepted in September of 
each year. Salary while taking course: 
$205 per mo. less $25 per mo. for full 

Upon completion of course nurses are 
eligible for positions on Permanent 
Staff . 

For further information apply: 
Superintendent of Nurses, 
Hospital for Mental Diseases. 
Brandon. Manitoba. 

FEBRUARY. 1956. Vol. 52, NO.2 



This course is especially valuable 
to those contemplating Public 
Health, Industrial, or Tuber- 
culosis Nursing. 

For further information øPþly to: 
Director of Nursing, 
Mountain Sanatorium 
Hamilton, Ontario. ' 


When little patients balk at scary, 
disquieting examinations (before you've 
hegun) . . . 
\\ hen they're frightened and tense (and 
growing more fearful by the minute) . . . 
When they need prompt sedation (and 
the oral route isn't feasible) . . . try 


Sodium Suppositories 

With short-acting NDlBuTAL, the dosage 
required is small and the margin of safety 
is wide. And-since the drug is quickly 
and complctely destroyed in the body - 
there is little tendency toward morning-after 
hangover. Keep a supply of all four sizes 
of NEMBUTAL suppositories on hand. He 
rearly for the frightened ones CCI&&ot:D 
before their fears begin. 

....,........ ......... ..., ...;......'.... r...........
U Uiu!nJ 

0.2 Gm. 0.1 2 Gm 60 mg. 30 mg. : 
(3 grsJ (2 grs.) (1 gr.) (Y2 gr.) ; 
: . . . .. 
...... ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . ,. . . . . ... .... . .. ...... . . . .. .... . 

o Pentobarbital Sodium, Abbott 








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Too Few for Too Many 

reading in the busy life of a director 
of nurses, I opened a recently published 
book and glanced at the first chapter 
which was entitled "Too Few for Too 
Many." This punch line, as a radio 
script writer would surely call it, caused 
me to pause and reflect at length on the 
subject, for it dealt with the vexatious 
dilemma of too few workers to care for 
too many patients. This, I thought, was 
surely one of the first problems we must 
solve in order to fulfill adequately our 
motto for the next biennium which is 
"l\'ursing Service for the Kation." To 
what extent can we Canadian nurses 
fulfill our obligation of nursing service 
to the people of this country? Are we 
facing this problem from the angle of 
actual service given or are we speculat- 
ing in figures, complacently thinking in 
terms of ratios that make us feel good. 
for we do have one nurse per 300 of 
population? Do we 
eriously consider 
that our pledge of rendering service 
means that it must be available to the 
rich and the poor; to the city dweller, 

Miss Girard, who is second vice-presi- 
dent of the CN A, is director of nursing 
at Hôpital St-Luc, Montreal. 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. No. 2 

the mine worker and the farmer; in hos- 
pitals and at home; in industries and in 
schools? Are we fully aware that service 
means: performance of lahor for the 
benefit of others or a means of supply- 
ing some general demand? 
If we accept the fact that we have 
too few workers to care for too many 
patients what are we doing about it? 
\Ye are asking for surveys and research 
studies but can we all truly say that 



when these are done we make great 
efforts to study, discuss and apply the 
recommendations? To what extent have 
we used the findings of the Head K urse 
study? This could help us to a more 
effective utilization of the "Too Few". 
Have we exploited to the fullest the 
possibilities at hand in the judicious 
utilization of our auxiliary personnel or 
are we too busy analyzing our fear of 
this group? If we cannot take upon 
ourselves the whole task of caring for 
the nation - and it seems evident that 
we cannot - then why not face the 
problem squarely and accept the fact 
that the auxiliary group is here to stay 
because we need it? Once reconciled to 
this idea the sooner we sincerely work 
on the integration of this group into the 
nursing family through adequate train- 
ing, proper urientation and honest 
recognition of its merit, th(' more ef- 
fective we ,vill be. 
Teamwork, when well organized, has 
helped us to redistribute the nurse's 
load of care and responsibilities and 
thus enhance her efficiency. lIave we 
taken full advantage of this precious 
tool? There are a ,-ariety of ways by 
which we can improve the service we 
give with the resources on hand, but in 
order to do this each one of us must, in 
a way, be her own research worker. It 
is not given to everyone to be a creative 
thinker but everyone can scrutinize, 
analyze and evaluãte her work with the 
object of changing or discarding the 
things that do not seem to fit in the 
complex pattern of our task as we see 
it now rather than continuing to think 
of it as it was twenty years ago. 
Since we defined service as the per- 

formance of labor for the henefit of 
others or as a means of supplying some 
general demand, it seems unwise to 
think that this can be done without the 
help of those who are to henefit from 
this service. The time has passed when 
it was improper to tell of our good deeds 
and to share our problems with the 
public. \Ve ha\"e learned through busi- 
ness organizations that it pays to inform 
the consumer of the quality of a pro- 
duct and its proper utilization. \Vhy 
shouldn't the public be aware of the 
problems the nursing profession faces 
in trying to staff more and more hos- 
pitals and public health nursing or- 
ganizations since these are the result of 
public demand? It will eventually be the 
public who, as the consumer, will in- 
terpret to our various governments our 
legitimate demands as it makes known 
its needs and claims its rights. Yes, we 
do need to build good public relations 
if we want to attain our aims. K ursing 
service for all the nation is the public's 
right and it is the duty of our profession 
to be prepared with the help of the 
proper authorities to give this service 
or to admit failure. Failure is not in our 
\Vhen we convene in \Vinnipeg next 
Tune let us all reexamine our aims and 

nethods in the light of what we wish to 
accomplish. If our goal seems ambitious 

et us remember that a poet once wrote: 
"A man's reach must be beyond his 
goal or what is heaven for?" 

Committee on Nursing Service 
 urses' Association 

Have you ever noticed? 
\\'hen the other fellow acts that way, 
he is "ugly;" when you do it, it is just 
""hen' the other fellow doesn't like your 
friends, he's "prejudiced;" ,...hen you don't 
like his you are simply showing that you 
are "a good judge of human nature." 
\Vhen the other fellow spends a lot, he 
is a "spendthrift;" when you do, you are 
\Vhen the other fellow takes time to do 
things, he is "dead slow;" when you do it, 
you arc "deliberate." 
\\Then the other fellow holds on to his 


money too tightly, he is '"tight;" when you 
do. you are "prudent." 
\Vhen the other fello\\' runs great risks 
in business, he's "foolhardy;" when you 
do, you are a "great financier:' 
\\Then the other fellow says what he 
thinks, he's "spiteful ;" ,,,"hen you do, you 
are "frank." 
\Vhen the other fellow won't get caught 
in a new scheme, he's "back woodsy ;" when 
you won't you are "conservative." 
\Vhen the other fellow goes in for music, 
pictures and literature, he's "effeminate;" 
when you do, you are "artistic." 


Mental Health for Nurses 

I.D., D, PSYCH.) lJ.P.lI. 

II realized that more and more 
symptom complexes, formerly consid- 
ered to be organic in nature, are ex- 
plainable on the basis of reaction to 
emotional tension, fear, frustration and 
insecurity. These fears and frustra- 
tions, in - some instances, lead to actual 
breakdown but nmch more commonly 
result in translation to physical symp- 
toms that may be referable to almost 
any of the body systems and give 
rise to headaches, dizziness, stomach 
trouble, rapid heart and increased 
b!ood pressure, to extreme fatigue or 
even paralysis. 
Emotional responses were designed 
originally to prepare the body for fight 
or flight in the face of danger. In a 
complicated society such as we now 
have, where one can no longer respond 
to emotion by physical fight or flight, 
these responses are expressed in dif- 
ferent ways. They can be very dis- 
turbing at;d the basis of a greát deal 
of ill--health. Thus emotional ills ap- 
pear to be disorders of an increasing 
The problem of emotional or mental 
ill-health within the population is no 
small one. The actual incidence of 
disorders of emotion and morale is 
not accurately known. I t has been 
estimated, however, that such disor- 
ders account for as much as one-third 
of the total disability rate. About 60 
per cent of the patients who attend 
outpatient departments of general hos- 
pitals do not suffer from organic 
In addition to its importance as a 
primary cause of lost time, the effect 
of emotion and attitude On duration 
of organic illness and on rehabilita- 
tion is not inconsiderable. If one adds 
to this the effect of n
unhealthy emotional reactions on effi- 
ciency, morale and cooperation the 
importance of the subject in relation 

Dr. Cruickshank is medical director, 
The Bell Telephone Company of Can- 
ada, Montreal. 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No.2 

to o'"erall nursing efficiency is almost 
\Yhat is our definition of mental 
lental health implies an abil- 
ity to live in harmony with one's en- 
vironment. to survive, to compete and 
to discharge one's responsihility in 
relation to personal capacities, to get 
along with people, to acquire skills that 
are consistent with ability, to obtain 
satisfactions, to accept and to live with 
or overcome personal limitations and 
to accept the consequences of one's 
behavior. Environment must be in- 
cluded in anv definition of mental 
health. There ãre alwa vs the two vari- 
ables, the individual a
d the environ- 
ment. It may he important to point 
out that regardless of the qualities of 
the individual there are some environ- 
ments in which a high level of mental 
health cannot be achieved. 
One of my teachers would greatly 
simplify the definition of mental health 
by equating it to happiness and, in 
turn, to security. He would define 
mental ill-health as unhappiness and a 
feeling of insecurity. Under such a 
definition it can be readily seen that 
mental health is a relative state since 
no human is completely happy or com- 
pletely secure or completely self-suf- 
ficient. This is not to be interpreted 
that few are mentally healthy. Some 
insecurity, and some unhappiness must 
be regardt'd as a normal rather than 
ahnormal state. 
\Yhat are the causes of mental or 
emotional ill-health? Those interested 
in the subject quickly come to realize 
that there is never, in a given case, 
one single causative factor, as was 
once thought. The cause never appears 
as a bolt from the blue, nor as a mys- 
terious entity destined to implant 
itself at a particular period on unpre- 
pared soil. The cause is a process - 
something that moves and shapes itself 
in the passage of time. It doesn't just 
happen. The effects of heredity, child 
guidance and habit training, all the 
environmental influences and experi- 
ences in childhood and yuuth, of phys- 


ical health, culture, etc., all have a 
bearing on ultimate emotional stability. 
Surely this concept of etiology pro- 
vides increasing incentive in our 
urgent rlesire to promote mental health 
and to prevent mental ill-health. That 
we have a long way to go in mental 
hygiene is suggested by the large num- 
ber of people \\"ho achieve chronological 
maturity while still retaining emotion- 
al immaturity to a degree that inter- 
feres with their ability to live in 
harmony in the situation in which they 
find themselves. 
On the bright side, however, we 
have accumulating evidence to suggest 
that bellm,ior can be predicted and 
that the process of personality matura- 
tion can be influcnced. There is now 
good reason to believe that a child 
who is loved will almost invariablv 
be capable of loving others. Ther
is now ample evidence to show that 
a child who has not had love will be 
hostile and wilI lack trust in people; 
that a child who has been over-pro- 
tected, never allowed the opportunity 
to develop independence appropriate 
to his age, will be neurotic and de- 
pendent; that a child who grows up 
in association with people who have 
respect for the rights of others and 
the laws of society, will also have 
respect and consideration for the 
rights of his fellow-men; that a child 
who has been rejected will usually 
be resentful, often delinquent and al- 
ways insecure. 1\1 uch progress has 
been made in the area of child guid- 
ance. Our mental hygiene activities, 
however, must not stop with parent 
education and teacher training but 
must be extended throughout adult 
life. The maturation of personality 
does not stop with the cessation of 
physical grO\vth. Under favorable con- 
ditions it may extend throughout the 
major period of adult life, 
Do these fundamental mental health 
observations just mentioned have any 
bearing on the mental health of 
nurses? Are nurSes susceptihle to the 
effects of love. recognition, rejection, 
over- and under-protection, satisfac- 
tion, rewards and discipline? \Ve 
know that adults on the surface are 
more sophisticated. \Ve know that 
they have been conditioned by all pre- 
vious life experience: In spite of this, 


my observations would lead me to 
believe that the fundamental reSponses 
to love, protection, rejection, recogni- 
tion and other forms of stimuli remain 
relatively unchanged in the nursing 
profession. That nurses like to be rec- 
ognized, like to have at least a measure 
of control over their own affairs, like 
to have the opportunity to develop 
skills appropriate to their individual 
capacity and, through the acquisition 
of skills, to enjoy a measure of in- 
dependent security, unfortunately, is a 
relatively recent discovery. 
Observation would tend to suggest 
that the mental health needs of stu- 
dents in a school of nursing are not 
fundamentally different from what 
they are in the home. Just as parents 
now recognize the importance of par- 
ticipation, responsibility, example and 
discipline in child development, so 
schools of nursing should look at the 
advantages of providing those condi- 
tions of work that foster the develop- 
ment of nurses who are mature and 
are capable of independent thought 
and action. 
Nurses like to be recognized. Nurses 
like a democratic opportunity to ad- 
vance and to acquire independent secu- 
rity consistent with their efforts. That 
work should be a method rather than 
just a mea'1S of living is a new concept 
but fundamental to mental health. 
The mental health needs of nurses 
are intimately related to the work 
situation. The acute emotional reac- 
tion which gives us windy indigestion, 
clammy hands, rapid heart and difficult 
breathing, for example, when one has 
to give a speech, does little or no 
harm to health. Chronic emotional 
response to a grievance, to frustration, 
to continued fear or to lack of job 
satisfaction, undermines health, pro- 
duces inefficiency and brings about a 
desire for a change in the order of 
things. Chronic anxiety undermines 
health. The importance to the career 
worker of a satisfactory job situation 
is such that if she achieves satisfaction 
in her job her private conflicts become 
of secondary importance. There is a 
good deal of evidence to suggest that 
the opportunity to acquire skills 
through vocation and avocation is 
probably the most important single 
factor in mental health in our com- 


pehtlve society. The more skills we 
have the more independently secure 
we are. It is more difficult to take 
away our skills than to take away any 
of our other possessions. Our skills 
are our greatest source of recognition 
and our main hope of immortality. 
People can stand great adversity and 
still be happy if acquiring skills and 
progressing toward a goal. 
\V ork and the work situation, there- 
fore, are important to mental health. 
As would be expected, they are also 
important as causes of mental ill- 
health. Of all the mental health prob- 
lems it is probably true that tensional 
states are by far the most common. 

Iany tensional states arise in the 
work and work situation of the aver- 
age nurse. 


"Tension" is spoken of rather glibly 
and yet it is rather difficult to define. 
Dr. D. E. Cameron defines tension as 
a state of "preparedness for action." 
This' is a very practical definition. The 
physiologists have for years used the 
word "tone" to describe the state of 
a muscle which enables it to act effi- 
ciently and immediately in response 
to the will. Preparedness for action is 
a desirable state and, as would be ex- 




pected, is related to efficiency. A 
muscle that is without tone is clumsy 
and ineffective when called upon to 
undertake precise movement. Likewise 
the person who is not prepared for 
action is ineffective. We all recognize 
the nurse who has a healthy level of 
tension, who is prepared for action. 
She is referred to as a self-starter. 
The head nurse likes to have her on 
her ward. 
Some people have a low tension 
level and require continual prodding. 
They are usually inefficient. 
The accompanying figure shows 
graphically the relationship between 
the efficiency and tension level. As ten- 
sion is raised efficiency increases. As 
tension is increased beyond the op- 
timum efficiency goes down. 
The responsibility of the supervisory 

taff in our hospitals is to maintain 
the tension of nurses at an efficient 
level. Sometimes they fail to realize, 
however, that when the tension level 
is raised too high, efficiency goes 
down. Excessive tension, when pro- 
longed, not only reduces efficiency but 
undermines health. 
The. effective nurse is the one who 
can maintain her tension level at or 
near peak efficiency. She will occasion- 
ally get the wheels going too fast and 
then cut back a bit as she notices that 







FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. No, :2 


she becomes edgy or irritable and not 
quite so effective. To some, however, 
such symptoms are merely a signal 
calling for greater effort or increased 
activitv. \Vhen this occurs. a vicious 
is established with productivity 
going clown and tension going up. 
'Cnder these conditions typical symp- 
tums develop. Concentration begins to 
suffer. Relaxation is impossible. Fa- 
tigue develops. Adrenalin is pumped 
into the blood stream too fast. This 
is the fear reaction. Sleep and appetite 
are disturbed. The heart may start to 
pound. Decisions become inéreasingly 
difficult. \Vith indecisiveness comes 
real anxiety followed by depression, 
a feeling of hopelessness. Agitation 
usually precedes panic. At this stage, 
such a per
on needs positive help. 
Relatively few people go through the 
entire cycle, but, many nurses do get 
over into dangerous tension levels with 
adverse effects both on their work 
and thei r health. 
The abilitv to \vithstand tension 
varies markedly from person to per- 
son. It is important to realize that 
everyone is susceptible to unhealthy 
tension levels under certain conditions. 
Everyone has a breaking point. In 
some, however. the tension tolerance, 
for one reason or another, is very 
low. The mere effort of living, even 
in a protected environment, may pro- 
duce disabling tension levels. At the 
other end of the scale some can ap- 
parently withstand almost endless 
tension-producing stimuli with surpris- 
ingly little in the way of impairment 
to efficiency. 
\Yhat causes the wide variation in 
the susceptibility of people to tension? 
There may he heredity factors. These 
do not seem to be very important. 
lVlost of us \vould agree that environ- 
mental influences are more important 
in determining our personality devel- 
opment and our ability to withstand 
tension. The ability to withstand ten- 
sion depends on all of our past experi- 
ence including our habit training, our 
opportunities to accept and deal with 
responsib.ility, our intellectual capacity, 
our physical health and, undoubtedly, 
on our philosophy of life. 
There are certain groups of people 


who are characteristically more suscep- 
tible to tension than others: 
1. Physically handicapped persons do 
not stand tension well. Nurses with 
hearing defects, fallen arches, arthritic 
involvements. etc" compete unfavorably, 
both social1y and economical1y, and un- 
less they possess unusual personality 
maturity tend to be tension prone. 
2. Ad'Z'Ollcing 'ycars may be a factor. 
Our societ) tends to discard age and 
experience in favor of youth, Older 
nurses are at a disadvantage and they 
tend, for this reason, to be tension 
prone. There are many reasons for this. 
Often older people have not achieved the 
goals they have set for themselves. 
They have become less adaptable. Often 
they have devoted a major portion of 
their lives to one position and they may 
resent new authority. The pre-retire- 
ment group are particularly susceptible 
to tension and require careful and ex- 
tremely considerate leadership. 
3. People with certain personality 
characteristics are tension prone. Those 
who lack confidence, those who are 
hostile and do not trust people, those 
who find it difficult to work with people, 
those who are easily frustrated or are 
highly sensitive are prone to excessive 
4. The t)'pe of motivation in the in- 
dividual has a bearing on susceptibility 
to tension. Those who are over-motiv- 
ated are impatient and tension prone. 
Those who are poorly motivated are 
tension prone if prodded. Those with 
conflicting motives tend to be tension 
prone. Those who are over-motivated 
who also have limited capacity, are 
particularly susceptible to tension. 

So people vary in their abilitv to 
withstand tension. The process of liv- 
ing inevitably produces contact with 
tension-producing stimuli. These may 
he related to prohlems in the home, 
in the communitv or at work. Some 
of the factors that are tension-produc- 
ing may be listed: 
1. Responsibility factor - The amount 
and kind of responsibility have a bear- 
ing. Strangely enough. work with not 
enough responsibility wil1 produce ex- 
cessive levels of tension in aggressive 
people just as readily as work with 


-e>.ccssiye responsibility. Any form of 
supervisory work, from the director of 
nursing down to the most junior 
assistant head nurse, carries a poten- 
tially high tension rating. It is important 
to realize that when responsibility is 
dearly defined it is much less tension- 
producing than indefinite or ill-defined 
responsibility. Responsibility accom- 
panied by authority is less tension- 
producing than responsibility that is 
deyoid of authority. These are important 
considerations in the placement of staff. 
2, PIr:vsical factors - \Vhere the phys- 
Ical demands of the work are beyond 
the ph} sical capacity of the nurse, 
tension is prone to develop. This is 
readily observed in the older nurses 
who return to work, perhaps after years 
of separation from actual nursing care. 
3. Unpredictable flow of work - 
Surges of responsibility and patient-load 
affect the level of tension. The adverse 
effect is exaggerated if there does not 
seem to be justifiable cause for the 
change of pace. 
4. Intellectual requiremellt - \Vork 
requiring either more or less capacity 
than the indiyidual nurse has tends to 
produce insecurity or boredom, with 
resultant unhealthy tension levels. 
5. Pressure - The feeling of being 
pushed either by the volume of work 
to be done or by time in which to do 
it effecti\'ely is typically tension-produc- 
6. Repetiti'i.'e tasks - Doing the same 
routine duties over and over again usu- 
ally demands only a limited range of 
the nurse's skills and thus may be ten- 
sion-producing. This is a major problem 
in considering the mental health of 
7. Creati'lle work - There are fewer 
opportunities for creative or imaginative 
effort in nursing actiyities than in many 
other professions or occupations. In 
some persons, this lack of opportunity 
for recognition may produce tension. 

The working environment has a 
bearing on the tension level. Some of 
the factors that are of importance 
in this connection may be listed: 
1. Sl/per'ioisiou: The administration's 
job is to keep the tension at an effi- 
cient level. If it is too low, \\ork suffers, 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No.2 

If it is too high both work and health 
suffer. The leadership ability of the 
supervisor is important in this regard. 
\Vhen staff nurses lack confidence in 
the supervisor or the head nurse the 
tension level of the entire group is af- 
fected. If the supen'isor is a poor leader, 
if she discriminates, if she fails to rec- 
ognize good work, the tension level is 
affected and poorer work results. Good 
supervision will go a 10llg way to'i.(.'(Jrd 
maintaining healthy levels of tellsion in 
allY situation. 
2. Rigid standards tend to raise ten- 
sion levels. This is particularly so if 
the need for such rigidity is neither 
understood nor considered necessary by 
the staff members. 
3. Non-Acceptance: In group activ- 
ities it is essential to be and feel a part 
of the group. A nurse \\ ho feels that 
she is not accepted by the head nurse, 
by the staff on the ward or even by the 
patients will be inefficient and tension 
prone. A supervisor who is not accepted 
by subordinates will develop unhealthy 
\Ve have reviewed at some length 
factors that influence tension level, in- 
cluding variations in susceptibility to 
tension. \Ve have discussed the ad- 
verse effect of tension on physical and 
mental health and on the level of work. 
\Yhat can be done about it? How can 
we develop working conditions that 
will avoid these undesirable results? 
It is important again to state that 
an optimum level of tension is essen- 
tial. In fact the whole administrative 
staff has an obligation to keep the 
tension of the nursing team at an ef- 
fective level. This is not onlv healthy 
for the work to be done but there i"s 
some indication that it is also healthy 
for the nurses involved. However, tllt' 
prevention of unhealthy or inefficient 
levels of tension is one of the big chal- 
lenges in a mental hygiene program. 

This brings us to a discussion of 
desirable mental health activities: 
1. Hospital Policies: The mental 
health program in any hospital starts 
with its broad policies of administration. 
Those policies that enhance the qualities 
of the individual nurses, both graduate 
and student, by contributing to their 


satisfactions and their recognition, those 
that encourage their participation and 
foster their growth and development 
contribute to their mental health. Those 
policies that degrade the status of the 
individual produce anxiety, feelings of 
tension, insecurity, and inevitably result 
in m
ntal ill-health. 
2, Leadership: Just as the major 
share of responsibility in child guidance 
has fallen on the shoulders of parents 
and teachers, so the burden of mental 
health and morale in hospital work 
must fall on those who are in authority 
- the doctors, the administrative offi- 
cers, the instructors, the supervisors and 
head nurses, All group effort depends 
on organization which demands leader- 
Leadership may be defined as the skill 
in developing cooperatiye effort. Good 
leadership is probably the most impor- 
tant single factor in any mental health 
program. I t is a skill requiring great 
ability and wide experience. Leaders 
are not born. They acquire their skills 
by training and doing. The selection, 
continued training and development of 
leaders is an important challenge. The 
crucial inter-personal relationship on the 
ward takes place between the nurse 
and the first level of management. U n- 
fortunately the first level of manage- 
ment, the head nurse, is usually the least 
experienced. She mayor may not have 
special aptitudes of leadership. She often 
nas not had extensive experience and 
certainly is not likely to have had much 
practice in leading people. 
3. Conditions of 'Work: \V orking con- 
ditions which provide, among other 
things, freedom from discrimination, a 
democratic opportunity to advance, work 
assignments that are meaningful and 
lead to the development of useful skills, 
a healthy degree of security, and re- 
wards that are roughly commensurate 
with effort, are fundamental to morale 
and to mental health. 
4, Placement (vocational guidance): 
Careful placement of nurses in positions 
from which they can gain satisfaction 
is a vital consideration in mental health, 
This is particularly true in the appoint- 
ment of young graduates. \Vhen they 
are placed in positions that are beyond 
their ability, they become insecure and 
unhappy through lack of accomplish- 
ment. On the other hand, a nurse 


obtains little in the way of lasting satis- 
faction from work that requires only a 
limited portion of her ability. The chal- 
lenge in placement, then, is to ascertain 
the interests, abilities and aptitudes of 
applicants and to place them at work 
for which they are physically and men- 
tally suited. 
5. In-service training: An adequate 
orientation program, including introduc- 
tion into the hospital and into new 
assignments, does a good deal to over- 
come the insecurity and tension which 
always results when people find them- 
selves in new situations. In-service 
training is extremely important in facil- 
itating the acquisition of new nursing 
fanagement training, including 
such subjects as human relations, ob- 
servation and study of human behavior, 
conference leadership, communication, 
administration etc., offers tremendous 
opportunities for improving the leader- 
ship skills, of our potential supervisors. 
6. J/ edical services: 
(a) Diagnosis and placement: The 
early recognition and suitable placement 
of the tension prone is important in the 
maintenance of health and good work. 
Ready access to health counselling 
services, the preplacement examination 
and the periodic examination provide 
important opportunities for preventive 
work on an individual basis. 
(b) Treatment: Prevention and 
case-finding are important parts of the 
health job. Emotional first aid measures 
can often prevent breakdowns requiring 
prolonged therapy. In the average hos- 
pital health service, physicians and 
nurses undertake much more counselling 
in relation to mental health problems 
than in relation to organic disease. 
Their work would be relatively ineffec- 
tive unless they were students of human 
( c) Education: You cannot teach 
mental health, Assistance in personality 
development, through counselling, is 
constructive. Those \\-ho like people can 
readily become students of human be- 
havior and with suflicient experience 
can learn to interpret the significance 
of behavior patterns. 
(d) Rehabilitation: The early and 
safe return to work following illness, 
organic or otherwise, is an important 
consideration in the maintenance of 
health. Disabling injury or disease al- 


ways produces insecurity. The mental 
health factors are usually the major 
consideration in rehabilitation programs. 
They are much more difficult to deal 
with than organic factors. Rehabilitation 
following major mental illness is a prob- 
lem requiring a highly coordinated 
That health, morale and efficiency 
are inseparable is a well-established 

fact. That the maintenance of emotional 
health offers the greatest challenge to 
medicine, psychiatry and to public 
health, unfortunately has been recog- 
nized only within recent times. That 
a nurse's job, her relationships to her 
colleagues and to her supervisors are 
crucial factors in determining her 
mental health and morale requires 
much more attention. 

l'Evolution de la Cardiologie 
et ses Problèmes 



I LEST. UNE :\IALADIE de coeur qui p
son Importance et ses ravages pre- 
domine nettement dans cette période 
de vie qui va de 5 ans à 40 ans et c'est 
la maladie cardiaque rhumatismale. Le 
rhumatisme articulaire encore appelé 
inflammatoire ou maladie rhumatis- 
male est responsable d'au moins 90
des lésions acquises: sténose mitrale, 
insuffisance mitrale, sténose aortique, 
insuffisance aortique, maladie mitrale, 
maladie aortique. tricuspidite etc. . . . 11 
est quelques notions qu'il faut retenir, 
sur lesquelles j'insiste chaque fois 
que l'occasion m'en est donnée depuis 
8 ans, notions qui avec Ie temps de- 
vraient être comprises dans notre 
milieu si jamais on organise une lutte 
efficace contre cette maladie. 
l. La maladie rhumatismale frappe 
avec prédilection l'enfance (4 à 18 ans). 
2. L'agent causal ou étiologiQue de 
la maladie n'est pas connu. 
3. On semble avoir établi un rapport 
étroit entre elle et Ie streptocoque hémo- 
lytique. Pour cette raison, elle succède 
presque toujours à des infections respi- 
ratoires de la gorge et particuIièrement 
des amygdales. 
4. La maladie rhumatismale cause des 
lésions endocarditiques particulièrement 

Docteur David est directeur de l'Insti- 
tut de Cardiologie de I'Hôpital Maison- 
neuve de Montréal. 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. NO.2 

des valvules chez au moins 50% des 
sujets malades. 
5. Le rhumatisme articulaire aigu est 
souvent peu tapageur et donne des 
symptômes qui passent malheureusement 
inaperçus pour les parents des victimes 
et il faut Ie dire pour bon nombre de 
médecins qui les traitent. 
6. Un traitement précoce et bien con- 
duit en milieu bien surveillé semble di- 
minuer nettement l'incidence des lésions 
cardiaques consécutives. 
7. N ous constatons avec regret 
qu'aucun effort sérieux n'est fait dans 
la Province de Québec en vue de nous 
aider à éduquer la population et no us 
permettre de mieux soigner cette ma- 
8. Le traitement de la fièvre rhuma- 
tismale s'échelonne sur plusieurs mois 
et repose avant tout sur Ie repos. 
9. II faudrait un petit hôpital spécia- 
lisé où ce traitement pourrait être con- 
tinué aussi longtemps que persistent 
les symptômes d'activité avec programme 
de repos, de distraction et d'étude pour 
les enfants. 
10. II faudrait que la cortisone puisse 
être donnée à chacun dès les premiers 
symptômes sans égard pour son coût 
11. II n'existe pour Ie moment aucun 
moyen certain de diagnostic, aucune 
drogue absolument spécifique. 
12. II semble que la pénécilline don- 
née prophylactiquement et sur de 
longues périodes diminue l'incidence de 


la maladie et empêche les rt::chutt:s. 
Sachant que l'incidence du rhuma- 
tisme articulaire aigu, que les lésions 
cardiaques et de leurs conséquences 
sociales sont infiniment plus meur- 
trières que celles de la poIyol11yélite, 
je ne puis l11'cmpêcher de supplier nos 
services de santé de nous prêter leur 
concours. Peut-être alors pourrions- 
nous, quelque part, découvrir une 
thérapeutique du type "Salk" pour 
accroître Ies défenses naturelles de 
I'organisme contre cette maladie. 
Que faire vis-à-,ois d\me lésion car- 
diaque constituée et ceci en général 
dans les années qui suivent une ou 
plusieurs poussées rhumatisl11ales? Sur 
la lésion elle-même aucunc drogue 
n'agit. Lcs thérapeutiques médicales 
éloignent les complications, Ies adou- 
cissent, les préviennent parfois, rien 
de plus ou de mieux. Elles ne peuvcnt 
modifier l'architecture valvulaire d'une 
sténose ou d'une insuffisance. Force 
est donc de recourir à la chirurgie des 
lésions acquises qu'a mise au monde 
Hailey et son groupe en 1948. Cette 
chirurgie a fait ses preuves dans les 
lésions sténosantes, en particulier la 
sténose mitrale. Cette chirurgie se pra- 
tique aujourd'hui dans tOtlS les ser- 
vices importants de cardiologie du 
monde entier. Notre expérience porte 
sur 185 patients opérés pour sténose 
mitrale; 6 patients pour sténose aor- 
tique; 1 patient pour insuffisancf' 
mitrale et un patient pour sténose 
Notre premier mala de fut opéré par 
Ie Docteur Edouard Gagnon à I'Hôpi- 
tal Xotre-Dame en février 1950. Avec 
cinq années de recul, nous nous som- 
mes persuadés des énormes bienfaits 
de la chirurgie cardiaque, en parti- 
culier de la sténose mitrale où notre 
expérience est la plus grande. 1\Iais 
ici encore nous croyons très impor- 
tant de poser des diagnostics très 
précis et d' éviter à tout prix des opé- 
rations inutiles, Sur les 185 malades 
que nous et nos collauorateurs avons 
présenté aux chirurgiens, nous comp- 
tons deux erreurs, pourcentage extrê- 
mement faible de 1.1 % lorsqu'on con- 
naît les difficultés que constituc par 
cxemple l'interprétation d'un souffle 
systolique de pointe. II faut réaliser 
que malgré une intervention réussie 
la maladie de base persi ste et que pour 


cette raison nOU5 ne prétendons pas 
guérir ces malades. Notre expérience 
et celle de nombreux centres a abon- 
danunent prouvé que ces opérations 
prolongent la vie des l11aIades, les 
sotllage de leurs symptômes et les 
mettent à l'abri des complications 
habituelles de la maladie pour une 
période de temps que seul l'avenir 

Je laisse à chacun de déterminer à 
quelle décade de vie commence la 
vieillesse. Admettons, toujours pour 
les fins pratiques de ce travail, q.le 
l'âge mûr a ses débuts à la quaran- 
tième année. On peut encore excep- 
tionnellel11ent trouver des lésions 
congénitales, assez souvent des lésions 
rhumatisl11ales mais la pathologie car- 
diaque est franchement dominée par 
les maladies dégénératives: maladie 
hypertensive d'une part, coronarienne 
c'est-à-dire angine de poi trine et 
thrombose coronarienne d'autre part. 
Cela ne signifie pas que ces deux pa- 
thologies ne puissent être rencontrées 
avant. J'insiste l11êl11e sur l'impression 
que nous avons de diagnostiquer de
angines et des thromboses chez des 
individus plus jeunes que l'âge habi- 
tuellemcnt cité dans les livres et les 
articles anciens. II n'en demeure pas 
moins qu'après quarante ans la majo- 
rité de nos cardiaques rent rent dans 
Ie cadre de ces deux pathologies. 

Sauf exception, c'est une maladie 
au long cours qui s'échelonne sur une 
vingtaine d'années environ avant de 
donner ses complications cardiaques, 
vasculaires ou rénales habituelles. La 
gravité de l'hypertension se juge par 
Ie chiffre de la pression diastolique 
et par ses répercussions sur Ie coeur 
et les reins. r J'examen du fond de l'oeil 
permet une évaluation de l'attt.-inte ar- 
térielle réelIe. 
La cau...e de cette maladie, en ad- 
l11ettant qu'elle fut unique, est in- 
connue. II serait trop long et en dehors 
du cadre de ce texte d'énumérer même 
brièvement les nombreuses théorie
édifiées sur se
 très nomhreuses C0111- 


Depuis quelques années, cinq au 
maximum, Ie traitement médical donne 
des résultats qui dépassent les espoirs 
des médecins les plus sceptiques. De 
mois en mois s'allonge la liste des 
hypotenseurs efficaces. Cependant Ie 
traitement médical exige des connais- 
sances approfondies car il n'est pas 
sans danger. Des doses trop petites 
ne donnent aucun résultat et des doses 
fortes sont facilement toxiques. De 
plus, ces médicaments sont très coû- 
teux et les vi sites médicales doivent 
être rapprochées. Obstacle sérieux 
pour ceux dont les moyens financiers 
sont limités. lci encore devant la 
masse des hypertendus, maladie ex- 
trêmement répandue, on s'étonne de 
l'apathie d'action de nos groupements 
en quête de nouveaux territoires de 
philanthropie. Evidemment, l'hyperten- 
sion n'est pas contagieuse mais on sait 
qu'un facteur héréditaire joue un rôle 
non négligeable si bien que les hyper- 
tendus de demain Ie seront en large 
partie à cause des hypertendus d'au- 
jourd'hui. Cn traitement chirurgical 
a sa place dans Ie traitement de cer- 
tains cas d'hypertension. 

Le drame coronarien peut se jouer 
en quelques secondes. II peut durer 
plusieurs années. :\Ialaclie courante qui 
frappe partout autour de nous, tue 
subitement les uns, en réduit d'autres 
à une invalidité physique absolue, ra- 
lentit, démoralise toute une masse 
d'homme et cela particulièrement entre 
40 et 65 ans. l\Ialadie dégénérative, 
pas nécessairement de vieillissement, 
dont l'artériosclérose sélective sur 
l"arbre coronarien, diminue Ie débit 
du sang qui nourrit Ie muscle car- 
diaque. 1Ialadie traitresse que rien ne 
peut prévenir et que pcu de chose peut 
efficacement arrêter. Ennemi no 1 du 
male mûr car jusqu'à l'âge de 60 ans 
trois hommes pour une femme en sont 
atteints. Nos bureaux regorgent de 
coronariens et c'est pitié de réaliser 
comme nous pouvons peu pour eux. 
Cela ne veut pas dire que nous ne 
pouvons rien. lci plus qu'ailleurs doit 
être appliqué Ie principe célèbre et vrai 
du "primo non nocere". L'étude de 
la crase sanguine, des phénomènes de 
coagulité et la thérapeutique anticoa- 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. No.2 

gulante sont des apports récents de 
gra!1de val
ur et qui solutionnent en 
petIte partIe cet immense problème. 
J'aimerais ici encore voir nos services 
de santé s'intéresser, comme nous, à 
ce problème dont l'intérêt pratique est 
évident. J'ai un parent, et ce cas est 
loin d'être unique, qui est mort subite- 
ment de thrombose corona rienne à 35 
ans en se rendant à son travail. Père 
de famille comme bien d'autres, il a 
laissé sa femme et trois garçons. A vez- 
vous déjà songé à ce que la société 
faisait pour aider, si besoin est, dans 
de pareilles circonstances? La pension 
est-elle Ie seul apanage des femmes 
et des enfants de soldats morts au 
champ d 'honneur? Chaque homme de 
ce pays ne concourt-il pas, en temps 
de paix, à son épanouissement et sa 
prospérité? On s'occupe des très 
pauvres et c'est bien mais il faut 
songer à l'immensité des fortunes mo- 
yennes qui se refusent en peinant 
comme des dératés à déchoir physique- 
ment, moralement et matériellement. 
La chirurgie tente depuis vingt ans de 
trouver une solution optimiste à ce 
problème. Elle est prometteuse mais 
encore expérimentale. J e mentionne, 
parce que canadiens, les travaux re- 
marquables de ::\Iercier-Fauteux et 
ceux que poursuit actuellement Arthur 
Yineberg dans ce domaine. 


1. Les maladies de coeur tuent à e1les 
seules pratiquement autant d'individus 
que toutes les autres maladies réunies. 
Quelques chiffres pour confirmer cette 
assertion: Etats-Unis 52.3%; Canada 
Iontréal 37.2*. 
Devant ces chiffres pourtant éloquents, 
il est curieux de constater l'esprit de 
fatalisme qui empreint les responsables 
de nos services de santé, comme s'il 
était normal de mourir de son coeur, 
comme si rien ne pouvait être fait. 
2. Les maladies de coeur, nous 
I'ayons VU, ne sont pas I'apanage des 
yieillards, ni d'un sexe plutôt que I'autre. 
A preuve les statistiques que nous avons 
compilées sur les malades hospitalisés à 
I'lnstitut en 1954. 
a) Nombre total de malades 
hospitalisés ..............._...__..__..... 725 
N ombre de femmes 


hospitalisés ._........._._...,..._..._._........ 351 
Nombre d'hommes 
hospi talisés __.........__........._........... 374 
b) Tableau des âges respectifs dans 
les deux groupes: 
Nous constatons que les malades hos- 
pitalisés pour leur coeur I'ont été avec 
la plus grande fréquence - entre 30 et 
SO pour la femme - entre SO et 60 
pour I'homme. Réfléchissons un instant 
sur I'importance économique de ces 
hommes et femmes, rendus plus ou 
moins invalides à des âges particulière- 
ment utiles à la société. Ces chiffres 
démontrent, à mon point de vue, que 
les cardiopathies sont très loin d'être 
l'apanage du vieillard. 
3. Les maladies du coeur imposent, 
quelle que soit leur étiologie, une réduc- 
tion de l'activité physique par I'appari- 
tion de deux symptômes dominant: la 
dyspnée d'effort et la douleur thoracique 
Imagine-t-on l'importance de ce fait 
quand la plus grande partie d'une popu- 
lation vit essentiellement sur sa capacité 
d'effort physique? Pensons à la gros- 
sesse, aux soins des enfants, à l'entretien 
du foyer! Pensons aux conséquences 
sociales de l'ouvrier immobilisé, du tra- 
vailleur manuel qui n'a pas eu la prépa- 
ration ou n'a pas les aptitudes pour. 
devenir du jour au lendemain un collet' 
4. Les maladies du coeur sont essen- 
tiellement chroniques et clles s'étagent 
sur des' années d'évolution. Par leur 
chronicité, elles supposent des soins 
médicaux_ constants, Ia prise quotidienne 
de médicaments, Ie besoin d'hospitalisa- 
tions répétées, des arrêts de travail 
souvent proiongés, des dépenses médi- 
cales constantes. Situations qui crée Ie 
cortège de tous les drames matérieIs, 
psychoIogiques et sociaux de n'importe 
quelle maladie chronique. 
5. Le cardiaque bien compensé est un 
"handicapé" . 
Même Iorsqu'il ne ressent aucun 
symptôme, Ie cardiaque, avant même 
de souffrir physiquement subit les 
ennuis de sa maladie. 
L'assurance dont les opérations 
financières n'ont aucune visée philan- 
thropique refuse systématiquement tout 
individu hypertendu, coronarien ou 
porteur d'une lésion congénitale ou 
. Bon nombre d'assurances- 
maladies exigent au départ une excel- 


lente santé. De plus en plus la grande 
industrie par Ie truchement des unions 
ont créé des fonds de retraite, de pen- 
sion de maladie etc. :Mais, et j'insiste, 
à l'embauchage Ie candidat est examiné 
et seul l'individu sain est admis. 
Cependant Ie cardiaque peut tra- 
vailler lorsqu'on n'exige pas de lui un 
effort physique trop consirlérable. Ne 
pourrait-on pas lui confier ces multi- 
tudes de positions sédentaires qui sont 
souvent occupées par des hommes 
vigoureux et sains. Un immense effort 
est fait dans ce sens par nos amis 
américains. Les lois les phts élémen- 
taires de la charité chrétienne pour- 
raient jouer dans la plus catholique 
des Provinces du Canada! Qui mettra 
sur pied une société ou une association 
d'aide et d'entre-aide aux cardiaques? 
Qui s'intéressera au sort de nos ma- 
Parce que nous sommes convaincus 
que notre senl devoir n'est pas de 
traitcr la maladie seulement, nous 
avons mis sur pied un modeste service 
social à l'Institut. Ivlarlemoise]]e Hen- 
riettc T enaille. en charge de ce service, 
essaie d'amé1iorer les situations les 
plus désespérées. X otre effort est une 
goutte d'eau mais il est un témoin 
de notre préoccupation et de nos pen- 

E l\loDERNE 
N e pas l'avouer c'est vouloir in- 
tentionnellemcnt cacher une vérité. 
L'avouer c'est donner raison aux mil- 
liers de personnes dont tout acte 
médical ou hospitalier cst jugé sur son 
prix. Dans les salons, on discute les 
prix du médecin, du chirurgien, de 
l'hôpital, ò'un test dc lahoratoire, d'un 
exam en radiologique avec la même 
passion que les cours à la bourse, les 
nouvelles créations de la haute couture, 
Ie chauffage, Ie loyer ou les taxes. 
.. J'ai enrichi Ie docteur Untel de 500 
dollars pour me faire faire la grande 
opération et l'Hôpital de 2,000 dollars. 
C'est révoltant, Ie café était froid, j'ai 
attendu 18 minutes une nuit pour la 
bassine, j'ai payé pour des tas d'exa- 
mens inutiles, on m'a fait voir par 
tout un groupe de spécialistes pour 
rien." Elle est pourtant bien cette 
femme aujourd'hui, elle ne souffre plus 


et eHe ignore peut-être que ces 2,500 
dullars ront guérie d'un cancer au 
début. Pour ce prix, elle viyra dix ans 
de plus, 250 dollars par année, moins 
que Ie prix de deux paquets de ciga- 
rettes par jour! Le médecin n'est pas 
un être humain. II a perdu aux yeux 
du monde Ie droit d'avoir une vie de 
famille, de se reposer, de prendre des 
vacances et surtout de charger des 
honoraires. Les hôpitaux sont des 
asiles de charité qui emploient un per- 
sonnel formidable et qui devraient 
boucler leur budget avec les prières des 
honnêtes gens. 
1Ialgré les exagérations, les jalou- 
sies mesquines, lcs interprétations mal- 
veillantes, les connaissances inadé- 
quates des saboteurs du médecin et de 
l'Hôpital un fait surnage, indéniable: 
la médecine, surtout hospitalière, coûte 

ous sa,'ons qu'un séjour hospita- 
lier pour opération cardiaque coûte au 
malade qui peut payer un minimum 
de 2,500 dollars. l\Iais nous savons 
également que la même opération ne 
coÚte obsolument rien au patient d'as- 
sistance publique qui en plus de ne pas 
payer Ie chirurgien, Ie méclecin, l'anes- 
thésie, Ie radiologiste, rhomme de 
laboratoire, les gardes-malades des 
soins post-opératoires contribuera pour 
un déficit d'au moins 1,000 dollars 
dans Ie budget de l'institution. Le 
calcul est simple. Admettant que ce 
malade est hospitalisé 30 jours, nous 
recevons très exactemcnt 30 x $7.50 
de l'assistance publique - $225,00. 
Evidenunent, il v a dix ans. on 
n'opérait pas sur Ie 
oeur et pour cette 
raison, moins de depense. II fut un 
temps où les rayons X n'existaient 
pas, où l'électrocardiographie n'avait 
pas été inventée. It fut un temps où 
il n'y avait ni médecin, ni hôpitaux. 
II fut un temps où la médecine ne 
coûtait rien et où on mourrait en mo- 
yenne à 30 ans! Ce ne sont pas les 
hôpitaux, ce ne sont pas les médecins 
qui coûtent cher, c'est la médecine avec 
ses progrès, ses raffinements, ses exi- 
gences, son désir de poser des dia- 
gnostic certains ahoutissant à des 
thérapeutiques sûres. Et la médecine 
c'est l'étude de rêtre humain si com- 
plexe qu'il n 'a et ne pourra jamais 
être reproduit sans des cellules mâles 
et femelles. L'être humain si complexe 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. No, 2 

que malgré des siècles de recherche 
il demeure "l'homme cet inconnu" de 
Carrel. Et puur Ie guérir des innom- 
brables maladies dont il peut être 
atteint, on critique ces minutieux 
examens que Ie médecin, à savoir li- 
mité, doit utiliser dans Ie seul but 
d'aider un autre être vivant comme 
lui. La médecine coÎ1te cher. Et l'auto- 
mobile, le confort de la vie moclerne, 
un avion à réaction, une pile atomique, 
une seule expérience de destruction 
clans les déserts du 1\ evada! l\Iais 
j'admets qu'avec les taxes, avec la 
vie. a,.ec les loyers, Ie chauffage, les 
enfants et tout Ie reste, la médecine 
coûte cher au gagne petit et à l'indi- 
viclu de classe moyenne, d'autant plus 
que la maladie est une malécliction 
jamais l11éritée et rarement prévue. 
K ous nous orientons inexorable- 
ment vers une médecine sociale, 
souhaitable d'ailleurs pour les petits 
et pour les institutions. Des expé- 
riences ont été faites ailleurs, en 
Angleterre, dans les pays scandinaves, 
en France pour ne citer que celles 
que je connais. II faut admettre qu'en 
France, en particulier, les sécurités 
sociales ont gran clement aidé Ie malade 
sans nuire au médecin. N ous n'avons 
personnellel11ent aucune objection à 
une médecine socialisée en autant que 
soit respectée la liberté clu médecin, 
du malacle et de l'institution hospi- 
talière. X ous croyons même que Ie 
peuple dont Ie principal souci est l'in- 
sécurité y trouvera réconfort, joie et 
paix, J'acll11ets voluntiers Ie principe 
de l'être bien portant payant en taxes 
pour son frère malade. J e suis de ceux 
qui croient que la santé est la richesse 
la plus enviable de chaque être humain. 
l\Iais ne nous faisons aucune illusion, 
la mJdecine sociale continuera à coûter 
cher, peut-être elavantage même parce 
qu'elle nécessitera une armée de 
fonctionnaires. Elle coÚtera moins à 
chacun et davantage à tout Ie moncle. 
L 'homl11e continuera à se plaindre 
mais moins des méclecins et des hô- 
pitaux et davantage des taxes. l\1ais 
pendant Ct' temps, Ie malade lui, sera 
traité sans avoir un oeil sur la méde- 
cine et l'autre sur la portefeuille. 

En m'écuutant vous avez déjà com- 


pris nos buts et saisi quelques-unes 
de nos réalisations. Kous essayons de 
faire mieux sans prétendre faire plus 
qu'ailleurs. Nous n'espérons pas tout 
découvrir et rayer les maladies du 
coeur du tableau des maux dont 
I homme aura toujours à souffrir. 
Kous essayons avec Ie plus de com- 
pétence, Ie plus de lucidité, d'honnê- 
teté et de dévouement possibles d'aider 
la cause des maladies du coeur. Notre 
programme comprend: 

Le diagnostic et Ie traitement des 
maladies du coeur. 
L'enseignement de notre spécialité aux 
médecins praticiens. 
Le désir de prouver l'importance mo- 
rale et matérielle des maladies du coeur. 
Le développement de moyens d'aide 
et de réhabilitation aux cardiaques. 
Le souci de donner à notre population 
du Québec Ie profit immédiat des dé- 
couvertes Qui concernent la cardiologie. 
Le besoin de posséder toute I'instru- 
mentation nécessaire à la meilleure pra- 
tique possible de la cardiologie. 
L'obligation de faire de la recherche 
pratique et basale. 

L'essai d'intéresser les services de 
santé de la Ville, de la Province et du 
Canada à collaborer avec nous et à nous 
aider matériellement. J e dois malheureu- 
st::ment souligner un échec complet vis- 
à-vis des autorités Municipales et 
Provinciales. Nous pensons un jour 
réussir en prouvant davantage nos be- 
soins et en expliquant mieux nos buts 
véritablement, sincèrement et uniquement 
Puis-je, mesdemoiselles infirmières, 
compter sur votre appui moral dans 
l'édification d'une oeuvre imparfaite 
mais dont Ie seul but est d'aider, de 
soulager les misères de notre frère, 
Ie malade du coeur. Compris ainsi, 
vous réalisez que nous osons dépasser 
et de beaucoup Ie seul cadre d'une 
cardiologie scientifif)ue où seule a de 
l'importance Ja maladie. )J ous croyons 
au contraire que Ie malade et chaque 
malade seul est important. 
J'aurai moins de remords d'avoir 
lsé de votre très bienveillante atten- 
tion si ce trop long travail peut avoir 
contribué à YOUS mieux faire compren- 
dre quelques-uns des probJèmes de la 
cardiologiC' moderne. 

In the Good Old Days 

(The Canadian Sllyse - FEBRt:'ARY, 1916) 

Breast feeding for the first six months 
is desirable because: (a) The mother's milk 
furnishes some little known substances 
which act in a protective way against in- 
fections of various kinds; (b) because after 
a child is six months old artificial feeding 
is much easier, It has been found that rickets 
is fairly common among infants that are 
taken off the breast feedings too soon. 
Scurvy is also seen though less frequently. 
* * * 
Quinton, in 1910, advocated the use of sea 
water plasma to offset dehydration in acutely 
ill patients. McKenzie, in 1912, went further 
and used normal saline solution made with 
sterile distilled water. In thus raising the 
quantity of fluid in the tissues there is an 
increased secretion of urine and a resultant 
increase in the elimination of toxins. 
* * * 
The training school for nurses represents 
one of the most important departments of a 
hospital both because of its function in nursing 
the patients and because of the public de- 


mand for trained nurses. It is an interesting 
fact that those who organized some of the 
early schools had a much better conception 
of the need of nurse training schools as 
educational institutions than those who are 
sponsible for the majority of the schools 
Practically every hospital has its trammg 
school. In most instances the hospital has 
established the school, not with any deep- 
rooted desire to train nurses for the purpose 
of serving the public generally Or because 
of any particular interest in education along 
this Or any other line, but with one idea 
paramount - to get the nursing work of 
the hospital done in the simplest and cheap- 
est possible manner. 
* * * 
In connection with every large hospital 
there should be a convalescent home, under 
public or private auspices, where patients 
may recei\"e n
cessary care ",,'hile conva- 
lescing thus relieving the hospital and mini- 
mizing expense. 


Counterpane land 


DS are as in- 
evitable as taxes when there are 
youngsters in the family. Parents of 
today are usually pretty intelligent 
about the care of their children, make 
sure that they have proper foods to 
give them well-balanced diets, that 
they get a maximum of rest and fresh 
air. But even with advanced medical 
knowledge, "sniffles" will occur, the 
"children's diseases" descend upon the 
family, and in most families some 
Tarzan-minded lad is sure to fracture 
an arm or leg! All these things mean 
that the child, or children, will be 
forced to spend some time in bed. For 
an active smallster this can be a bor- 
ing, tedious, unhappy period. Or it 
can make the "Land of Counterpane" 
a delightful place. The difference rests 
with the parents, most of all with the 
It is more difficult to keep tiny 
chilrlren happy than it is their older 
brothers and sisters. Tiny tots can 
look at pictures, and the dime stores 
are full of interesting - and at the 
same time instructive - picture books. 
Little children always enjoy juvenile 
records and a new one will often keep 
them quiet for a long time. These are 
now inexpensive, and will fit on any 
record player. In our family - where 
the numher of juvenile illnesses has 
been lengthy and numerous - we 
have always felt that the little (or 
middle-sized) inyalid had a priority 
on both radio and record player if 
there wasn't one already in the room, 
\Vhen one of our children faced a six- 
months' period in bed, her grand- 
parents presented her with a record 
player and one or two records. As 
time went on and others knew about 
the gift. a record appeared in the mail 
from time to time. I mention this as 
a suggestion that is well worth con- 
sidering, for \\ hen a little sick-a-bed 
is uneasy a quiet musical number - 
such as Brahms Lulleiby - will often 
turn a neat trick at eliminating tension. 

frs, Bell resides in Tucson, .\riz. 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No.2 

For spry young children, a canary, 
parakeet, or bowl of goldfish will be 
eye and ear catching, help to make 
the sickroom cheery, and keep the 
child happy. In homes where a bird 
is a part of the domestic scene, it is 
an easy matter to move it to the child's 
room. Goldfish and globes are inex- 
pensive and when placed on a table 
at eye-level for the flat-on-his-back 
child will keep him alert to the golden 
flashings through the clear water. Even 
fish-feeding time will be a diversion! 
The triangular glass prisms that make 
up the old-fashioned candelabra that 
most of our grandmothers had, are 
fascinating to a child. Carefully remove 
one from its hook and hang it by a 
stout thread in the window that gets 
the most sunshine. As the prism gently 
sways back and forth in the sunlight, 
the colorful and elusive "light-birds" 
will dart here and there on the wall, 
across the bed, sometimes on the 
child's eager hands. 
Quite small children can handle the 
wooden beads used in kindergartens 
and made in the seven standard colors. 
One of our children learned his colors 
very quickly through these beads while 
having the fun of stringing them for 
his sister to wear. There are colorful 
design-blocks, too, which also teach 
color while the child is creating his 
own designs. 
\nd every mother knows 
how much little children like to "make 
things" from plasticine. For this task, 
be sure to cover the bed-table with a 
piece of plastic or oilcloth to avoid 
soiling the counterpane, for children 
can have just as much fun being neat 
while doing interesting things as they 
can making more work for mother! 
No matter what the age of the child 
who is ill, some sort of bed table is 
necessary and if you don't have a 
bOlla fide one, suhstitute a card tahle. 
Stand two of the table legs on the 
floor close to the bed, leaye the other 
two folded under the table and rest 
the opposite side on a firm pillow or 
blanket. If the table is a Formica-top- 
ped one you won't need to cü\"er it; 


if not, buy a square of "unny-yellow 
oilcloth and thumb-tack it on the under 
side to prokct the table. It wipes off 
Slightly older girls will adore paper 
doll cutting and dressing. again ma- 
terials that are ohtainable at the dime 
store. Boys will have as much fun \vith 
the book
 that involve cutting out and 
asst'mhling planes, jets, motors and 
the like. Scraps may he dropped into 
a waste hasket heside the hed or into a 
laundry or large paper-hag pinned to 
the side. Tinker-toys are simple huild- 
ing pieces that both hoys and girls 
enjoy, and scrapbooks are always 
popular. For the latter it is ,,-ise to 
give the little sick-a-bed an objective. 
Every town has a hospital or orphan- 
age to which the finished hook can go. 

Iaking a scrapbook as pretty and neat 
as possihle, to he given one \vho is ill, 
has a sound psychological effect. The 
child thinks of someone else and ceases 
to he sorry for himself, if that has been 
his attitude. 
Simple jigsav.; puzzles are fun for all 
children. For the younger ones. the 
pieces should he large and the puzzle 
easy, to avoid frustration. Older chil- 
dren will enjoy tile challt'nge of fitting 
map puzzles together, placing the 
countries, states, and provinces in the 
correct spots. A pleasant way to study 
"Picture stories" are fun to make. 
Give the child a pile of magazines of 
the type that are filled with colored 
aclvt'rtisements and pictures of all 
kinds. By looking through them he will 
soon get ideas for making stories from 
the pictnres, filling in a word here and 
there to make complde st'ntences. For 
ü..ample, many milk ads have a cow 
included, so: "A co'w gives milk and 
eats grass. Children drink milk.}} (The 
italicized words indicate t'asily found 
pictures. ) 
Older children enjoy making decor- 
ative stationery by cutting out flowers, 
fruit, a plane. a girl-or hoy-head, then 
carefully pasting them to the top of 
dime-store note paper. This might 
serve as a future hirthday gift for an 
older brother or sister. Then he can 
make some for himself upon ,,-hich 
to write the important "thank you 
notes" to friends and relatives who 
have been nice to him while ill. 


r f the child has never had a diary, 
this is a good time to give him one 
for he will enjoy making entries each 
day, or night, and doing so will make 
him realize how fortunate he is to have 
a home, famil\' and frit'nds who are 
so kind to hin{. If he is at all good at 
making verses, suggest the entries he 
made in rhnne: this will take extra 
time since -he will want to practice 
on paper before entering tht' verses 
in the "hrand-new" diary. 
Carving figures from purl' white 
soap is a good idea if the invalid can 
actually do carving and won't simply 
"mess up" the bed, thus making extra 
work. Bv the trial and error svstem 
I know - that children can do -many 
things to keep them happy without 
causing mother extra work - a thing 
that shouldn't he allo\\-ed since illness 
itself causes l'xtra \H)rk. In fact many 
children will take pricle in trying t
save mother from extra steps by using 
a ,,-h15tle. or mouth organ, to call her 
whl'n shl' is needed. One blow. or toot, 
can mean "Come when you can." two 
"Please C01ne now." 
Growing things add to the attrac- 
tiveness of a child's sickroom and the 
little sick-a-bt'd can plant a carrot, or 
sweet potato, in a vase, then watch 
it grow. One child I know planted 
six sweet {>otatot's in cheap vases and 
when tl1l'Y were at a pretty, green- 
ll'afecl stage, asked her older hrother 
to de1in'r them to six peuple she knew 
who would enjoy them. Two were 
other children who happened to be in 
hed with the mumps and a bad cold, 
three \\-ere older people on the same 
street, an(l one was her 1)e1ovecl grand- 

r others should rememher that long 
illnesses call hring out selfishness in a 
child. For that reason the more things 
that can he done to divert the interest 
to others the hetter the therapy. Other 
family memhers will naturally play 
Scrahhle, ()ld :\Iaid, Canasta, Par- 
chesi, or whatever the age-level and 
interest of the child is. But he must 
not he allowed to feel that he should 
always accept their offers or he may 
get to expect too nutch attention. This 
is sometimes difficult for a parent to 
do, hut the child will be thankful for 
this treatment later - you may he 
sure of that! 


What about Vacation Plans? 


vourself a holidav! Post-conven- 
tion Jtrip
 are hecoming increasingly 
popula r. and desen'ecll y so. X urses, of 
all persons. realize that a vacation is 
not an expense but an investment, 
paying dividends in health. happiness. 
new fnendships and memories. Go 
East or \ Y est. north to the rim of the 
Arctic Circle. to the land beyond the 
sunset. or down to the Soutli. Pacific. 
See the majestic Canadian Rockies, 
Banff Springs; incomparahle Lake 
Louise; Jasper Park: 
Iount Edith 
Cavell: the Pacific Coast. Sail across 
the Straits of Georgia to \Tictoria, stop 
at the lovely, old, ivy-covered Empress 
H ote!. See the famous Butchart 
Gardens and go over the l\Ialahat 
Drive. Cruise to _'\laska or fly tu the 
southern paradise of Hawaii. 'Or visit 
the hig cities of the East - Ottawa, 
the X at ion "s capital: Toronto, Xiagara 

r rs. Collin" is Com'ention Coordinator 
of the Canadian Xurses' Association. 
Ottawa, Ontario. 




....,.,.,....... . . 

......, ""c- 


'I J 
:: 1 






Fe.db, Ouehec and :\lontrea!. Take 
an in!al;('! cruise down the mighty St. 
Lawrence and up the Saguenay River. 
The choice is your o\\'n. :\Iake it a 
happy one and have a nen'r-to-he-for- 
gotten holiday. This is nut just ,,'ish- 
ful thinking - all of these trips have 
been planned and ,\'orked out for your 
pleasure and comfort and at reasonable 
cost! The\ can all he done within the 
thirtv da,: return limit on Hmr conven- 
tion - faré to \ \ïnnipeg. . 
Fairly complete information about 
these trip
 was pl1hli
hed in the Oc- 
toher issue of TIl/
 Calladian Xurse, 
but it has heen necessarv to make some 
changes. The Canadia;l Pacific Air- 
lines have ad,'ised us with regrd that 
they ,viII not he opaating the Klon- 
dyke Gold Xugget Tour in lY56. The 
Canadian Xational Railwavs have 
made some changes in thé _ \Iaska 
Cruise. It is 11()\\, proposed that the 
T.S.S. PriJlce Georgc will lea\'e \"an- 
couver \rednesday. July 4 at 9 :00 p.m., 
sail up the J nsicle Passage. make the 
usual caBs at Prince Rupert, Ketch- 











" ;

I! I 









(C. p, R. Photo) 

.ld1lli}listrutioll HllildillY, ('llivcrsity of Jfcmitoba. 
FEBRUARY 1956. Vol. 52. No.2 


ikan and Juneau. and arrive in Skag- 
way Sunday morning at eight o'clock. 
Instead of remaining in port for 36 
hours, as formerly, it will stay only 12, 
therefore hoth the \Vest Taku Arm 
and the \ Vhitehorse Trips must be 
cancelled. A scenic tour will leave 
Skagway at 8 :30 a.m. for Carcross, 
over the historic Trail of '98. There 
will be a stopover at Bennett, and 
return to the ship at 4 :15 p,m. in time 
for the 7 :00 p.m. sailing. Arrive back 
in \Yancouver July 13 at 9 :00 a.m. 
Those taking the Hawaiian Tour 
may leave \Vinnipeg Saturday after- 
noon, June 30, on a T.C.A. tourist 
flight, arriving at Vancouver that same 
evening. The Canadian Pacific Em- 
press Airliner takes off at two o'clock 
Sunday afternoon for Honolulu, where 
it arrives at 11 :30 p,m. Instead of the 
Moana Hotel as previously planned, 
our party will stay at the Halekulani 
(meaning "House befitting Heaven"). 
Located in a four-acre cocoanut grove 
on the beach at \Vaikiki, it is one of 
the beauty spots of the Island, where 
one may enjoy all the comforts of a 
modern hotel in a delightful setting, 
typical of old Hawaii. Guests are 
welcomed with the traditional leis of 
orchids, ginger flowers or frangipani, 
and a friendly holiday atmosphere pre- 
vails. There is Hawaiian entertainment 
- dances, music and native feasts - 
once a week thcre is a special festival 
of ancient and modern hula at a color- 
ful buffet luncheon on the Ocean Ter- 
race. The swimming is unsurpassed 
anywhere in the world, Average water 
mpcrature in July is 810: average 
aIr temperature 76 0 . Step right off the 
terrace on to the Beach. to sun or 
swim - to try the thrill of surfing 
(with an expert instructor). or the 
excitcment of riding the waves in a 
catamaran or outrigger canoe. 

Four sightseeing tours are included 
in the cost of your trip to Hawaii. 
Limousines are used and the drivers 
are friendly hosts as wen as informed 
guides. The Cit
v Tour takes you into 
the palace oi former kings, with the 
Throne Room still intact, also to the 
residence of the late Oueen Lilioukal- 
ani and to lVtoanalau Park. The Circle 
Island TOllr, through pineapple planta- 
tions, sugar cane fields and acres of 
orchicls, includes visits to a Buddhist 
Temple, a :\Tormon Temple, the Oahu 
Country Club. Upside Down Falls, 
and a poi factory. to mention a few 
point" of interest. The Koko Head 
T Ollr follows a winding drive along 
the sea coast, past the Amelia Earhart 
:rvlemorial, Diamond Head, Koko 
crater. an extinct volcano, and the 
Blow Hole, The lvlount Tantalus Tour 
gives a breath-taking panoramic view 
of Honolulu. Pearl Harbor and miles 
of surrounding countryside. This trip 
includes tea at the old \Vaiola Tea- 
room and a visit to Robert Louis 
Stevenson's Grass Shack. There are 
many other sightseeing trips that can 
be takcn if one desires, also there 
are daily flights across to other islands. 
Certainly it provides a wonderful 
holiday with never a dull moment. As 
one member of our party expresscd it 
in 1954, "No matter what happens 
now, 1 have been in Paradise." \Year- 
ing many leis, we will say a sad 
"Aloha" to the Friendly Islands, and 
board our plane on Thursday evening 
July 12, arriving back in Y'ancouver 
Friday morning. 
BeCall$e the
e tours come at the 
height of the busy summer season, may 
we urge yon to please get your reserv- 
ations in em'ly. Also, from recent ex- 
perience we are reminderl that PRICES 

People whose way of living has not 
changed for many centuries are free of 
certain diseases that take many lives in 
modern countries. For example, of 80,000 
Jews who emigrated from the ancient land 
of Yemen to Israel, researchers found that 
not one had diabetes, Or other degenerative 
diseases. The scientists were struck by the 
fact that there was no hardening of the 
arteries even among those over 45 - the 
age when other peoples begin to suffer 


heavily from this disease. 
A special study was made of 30n im- 
migrants, all over 45. Their bodies were 
free of cholesterol, a chemical regarded as 
the primary cause of hardening of the ar- 
teries. After two years in Israel, the choles- 
terol levels in their bodies rose but remained 
lower than those found in western peoples. 
And there was still no sign of degeneration 
of their arteries or other organs. 
- (ISPS) 


1Jn :ßIIemoríam 

Elizabeth Jane BO\\'ie, a graduate of 
Lady Stanley Institute, Ottawa, died sud- 
denly October 26, 1955. Miss Bowie served 
with the C.A.M.C. during World War 1. 
Following her release from the service she 
worked in Kingston, and later was on the 
staff of Ste. Anne's 1Iilitary Hospital, Ste. 
Anne de Bellevue, Que. 
* * * 

Edith Grace (Bishop) Clark who grad- 
uated from Prince Edward Island Hospital, 
Charlottetown, in 1926, died at her home in 
Tarryburn, N .B., on October 28, 1955, after 
a lengthy illness. For many years she 
worked at the New Rochelle and Wick- 
ersham Hospitals, N,y', before engaging in 
private nursing at the Saint John General 
Hospital, N.B. 

* * * 

Jean Cormie, a graduate of Oshawa 
General Hospital, passed away at her home 
in Fergus, Ont., on October 12, 1955. 
* * * 
Patricia (Bazanet) Farrell who gradu- 
ated in 1946 from St. :Michael's H'ospital, 
Toronto, died there On June 24, 1955. 
* * * 
Ella Forbes, formerly a resident of Nova 
Scotia, died in October, 1955, at Gimli, 

* * * 

Evelyn Elizabeth (Gouldie) Hawke 
who graduated from \Vomen's College Hos- 
pital. Toronto in 1939, died in November, 
Irs. Hawke was with the Sangamo 
Co. Ltd. as plant nurse for ten years. 
* * * 
Cynthia Pauline Horsnell, a graduate 
of Victoria General Hospital, Halifax, died 
at Berwick, N.S. in November, 1955. 
Horsnell served on the staffs of Fraser 
Memorial Hospital, Kentville and Highland 
View Hospital, Amherst. Later she was 
supervisor of the nursery at Grace Hospital, 
Ottawa. Prior to her illness Miss Horsnell 
was on the staff of Stratford Hospital, Onto 
* * * 
Lucille Laura (Ross) 
formerly of Sea forth, Delaware, died in Van- 
COuver, November 16, 1955. During World 

Tar I, 
frs. Stanley-Jones served as a 
nursing sister with the French Red Cross 

Jemina Leckie, a graduate of Mount 
Clair General Hospital, New Jersey, died 
at London, Ont., on October 29, 1955. She 
worked a number of years at the Delaware 
\Vater Gap Sanitarium and later nursed in 
Detroit, Toronto, Goderich and London. At 
the time of her retirement she was matron 
of the Belleville nurses' home in New Jersey. 
She was 90 years of age. 
* * * 
Daisy (Grant) MacIntosh, a graduate 
of an American Hospital died suddenly at 
Stellarton, N.S. on November 13, 1955. 
* * * 
Margaret l\-Ic Dermid died on October 
31, 1955, at London, Ont. Miss McDermid 
helped to organize the first public health 
nursing course at the University of Western 

* * * 

Bernadette (\Valsh) 
lcDermott, who 
graduated from St. Michael's Hospital, To- 
ronto, in 1919, died there on October 4, 
1955. For some time she engaged in public 
health work and private nursing, 
* * * 

Rose (Kemmet) 
lcDonald, who gradu- 
ated from St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto 
in 1905, died in that city on July 28, 1955. 
Prior to her marriage she was engaged in 
public health nursing. 
* * * 
Margaret Elizabeth (Hunter) Pedlow, 
who graduated from the Royal Victoria 
Hospital, Montreal, in 1947, died in Van- 
couver on November 9, 1955. She was 32 
years old. 

* * * 

Kathleen H. 'Valker, who graduated 
from St. Joseph's Hospital, Toronto in 1930, 
died suddenly at her home in Islington, Ont., 
ovember 1, 1955. Miss \Valker had 
done staff nursing for 10 years before as- 
suming the position of supervisor of public 
health nurses in York Township. 
* * * 

Caroline (Kennedy) "Tatts, who grad- 
uated from a Winnipeg hospital in 1897, 
died in Nelson, B.c., at the age of 94. At 
one time she served as matron of Kootenay 
Lake General Hospital and performed out- 
standing nursing work during the influenza 
epidemic of 1918. 

L'éducation consiste dans la croissance, Ie 
déveloIJpement de l'être humain jusqu'à l'état 

FEBRüARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No.2 

parfait d'homme comme tel, qui est l'état de 
vertu - ST. THmfAS D' AQUIN 



The Role of the Industrial Nurse In 
Accident Prevention 


11 L RSING, IK GENERAL, tends to be 
it associated in the minds of most 
people with a smiling patient in a nice, 
neat hed with an attractive nurse 
(preferably red-haired) standing by . . . 
or, the more dramatic shots of men 
and women in white, gowned and 
masked, cheating death in an operating 
The industrial age and the tempo 
of our times. combined with increased 
knowledge of disease prevention, have 
brought medical and nursing teams 
into every aspect of living and work- 
ing. In addition to all of the work 
done in hospitals we have public health 
nurses, nurses in every branch of the 
Armed Services, nurses in the sky and 
more recently parachute reSCue teams 
with Para X urses. 
Occupational nursing, a branch of 
puhlic health nursing, "is the applica- 
tion of nursing skill to groups of men 
and women at their place of work for 
the purpose of helping them build and 
maintain their best health and to 
render prompt, efficient nursing as- 
sistance when they are ill or injured 
at work." (:\IcGrath) 
The ideal nurse for this work is one 
who has a willingness to continue her 
education throughout her working life. 
She should have a mature personality 
with a knowledge of psychology and a 
liking for working people. She should 
knmv or learn something about com- 
pensation laws, union agreements, 
hospitalization and medical plans as 

Miss Greville is chief of nursing staff, 
Canada Packers Ltd" \\ïnnipeg, ),fani- 


they affect the place where she works. 
She should he aware of communi tv 
reSources available in matters of health 
anò welfare. She needs to be prepared 
to render first aid and have special 
ability, judgment and knowledge so 
that she will route patients to the hos- 
pital, clinic or doctor, when necessary. 
She needs to know her role in disease 
prevention and the correct mainte- 
nance of records. 
The first known literature on oc- 
cupational diseases was published 
about 1703 hy an Italian doctor, Ber- 
nardine Romanizi. Since that time and 
particularly since about 1890, occupa- 
tional health has been of prime concern 
to governments, medical men, nurses, 
employers and employees, :-.J urses in 
industry have ferreted out the needs 
and with the assistance of the groups 
concerned. the "sanitation of the en- 
vironment" has heen improved. 

Accident prevention has become in- 
creasingly important to the nurse. In 
the J ollrl/al of Chartered I nSUYGnce 
111stitutr, puhlished in England, there 
is a report hy T. A. 
I. Pirrie in which 
he says: 
There are t\\-o main reasons why 
accidents should be prevented: They 
cause suffering; they cause material 
v. aste. 
The amount paid to the injured person 
is only part of the financial loss. The 
services of the man have been lost 
which often means that a new man has 
to be engaged and trained. If the injured 
man was skilled, it may be difhcult to 


replace him, It may be necessary to 
shut do\\ n machinery so that an inves- 
tigation may be held. Men in other 
parts of the plant lose time discussing 
the accident. Employees who saw it 
may be shocked and their work suffers 
accordiflgly. In short, the effects of an 
accident on production can go on being 
felt for a long time after it happens, 
::\lanagement is not hard to con,"ince 
of the importance of accident preven- 
tion. It is often the foreman and charge 
hand who have come up through the 
ranks who fail to grasp the importance 
of safety work. Those in charge of 
departments must he made to realize 
the responsibility that rests on them, 
and clearly understand that they are 
judged not only on the output of work 
but also on freedom from accidents. 
The foreman in turn need the coopera- 
tion of all the employees in working 
safely and pointing up danger areas. 
An operator can become so familiar 
with his machine that he sees no 
danger in its working parts. Yet there 
are avoidahle accidents that have re- 
sulted in heavy financial loss to the 
finn and worse than financial loss to 
the victims, for who can put a price 
on human life and limb? Koone has 
yet discovered how to grow a new ann 
or hand and plastic surgery cannot 
completely cover up the scars. Surely 
it is up to us to protect industry's 
most valuable asset - the man on the 
How does the nurse assist in the 
accident prevention program? 
By an awareness of the goals of safety 
cummittees, and by cooperating with 
them to bring hazards and job com- 
plaints, as they relate to safety, to their 
By the day by day instruction of pa- 
tients reporting to her, teaching each 
one the importance of preventing infec- 
tion and disablility by prompt attention 
to and follow-up care of minor injuries 
and illnesses. Other forms of instruction 
include reaching people through the 
plant magazine, bulletin boards and 
health literature racks. 
By allaying apprehension. Rehabilita- 
tion starts with the first treatment. The 
nurse's attitude, while being realistic, 
must allay all fears as far as possible. 
By recognizing emotional or physical 
disabilities that may lead to accidents 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No. 2 

unless corrected: by realizing that cer- 
tain conditions and diseases, such as 
those caused by alcohol, poisons, virus 
or bacterial infection, dietary deficiency. 
Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, 
are fairly common. People suffering 
from them do not have proper physical 
control of themselves and are liable to 
mOre accidents than physically normal 
people. The employee suffering from 
such disorders should be referred for 
medical care and, with as little mental 
disturbance as possible, be made to 
realize that because of his handicap he 
must exercise more caution. 
By realizing the effects of fatigue, 
whether caused by sleeplessness - T.V.. 
broadcasts of games, the noise of planes 
or diesel engines - by the second job, 
skylarking, or the emotional strain due 
to sickness, discord or financial difficul- 
ties in the home. 
She should work towards good per- 
sonnel relationships. Dr. P. ]. 1Ioorad. 
U.S. Consultant in Psychiatry, writing 
in Industrial H t!alth, about Human 
Factors in Accident Liability, states that 
"A new employee is often introduced 
to his job and department by unfavor- 
able comments and fearful stories about 
his work. He is, therefore, psycholog- 
ically predisposed to accidents. There is 
too much fooling around in industry, 
too much picking on the weak. There 
are more practical jokesters than super- 
visors and management realize. These 
are not healthy situations. The sen- 
sitive are constantly ill at ease, tense 
and anxious as to what will be dune 
to them next. \\ïth a man's mind so 
taken up with irritation and annoyance 
by men around him, he cannot be a safe 
worker." The doctor recommends that 
practical jokesters, bullies and wise guys 
be exposed and dealt with as a plant 
responsibility in the interest of health 
and safety. 
The nurse should probably not head 
up the Safety Committee because par- 
ticipation in safety work brings educa- 
tion to a greater number of workers 
either at the supervisory or unskilled 
le,"el, but, she should participate in all 
ways possible to further the work of 
such committees and so create a happy 
and health," \,'ork situation for all 
workers fr
m the executive of the 
company to every member of the work 





J UDY ARRIVED at the Allan J\Iemorial 
Institute one Sunday evening, es- 
corted by two policemen. She was an 
attractiye fifteen-year old, neatly dres- 
sed in slacks and a raincoat. She had 
applied her make-up with a generous 
if slightly unskilled hand. She showed 
no outward sign of her recent bizarre 
\\'hen she was shown to her room 
on the ward, she quickly lay down on 
the bed assigned to her. Her eyes were 
wide and staring, her face devoid of 
expression. Although she appeared 
mute, she seemed to be well aware 
of her immediate surroundings. She 
lay with her head extended in an 
awkward, seemingly painful position 
and soon became irritable and moder- 
ately negativistic to the doctor's insist- 
ent questioning. That evening, she 
appeared ill at ease in the company 
of the other patients in the room and 
remained unresponsive to their friend- 
ly approaches. 
It is of interest to note that, al- 
though she had seemed, to her parents, 
to be behaving in a very peculiar man- 
ner for the previous week, they had 
left her in the company of an older 
sister for the week-end. It was while 
they were absent that she was found 
wandering about the streets by the 


1\1y patient, the seventh youngest of 
eight siblings, had been a premature 
baby. Her mother, a plump, middle- 
aged woman did not have a difficult 
delivery. Before the age of one, the 
patient had struggled through four 

Miss Stewart, who graduated in 1955 
from Royal Victoria Hospital, Mont- 
real, prepared this study while on 
affiliation at the Allan Memorial In- 


consecutive bouts of pneumonia, but 
she seemed to progress fairly well after 
her first year and measles was her 
only other chiIrlhood disease. Excepting 
for removal of tonsils she harl never 
had any operation, accidents or pecul- 
iar habits. 
Judy was a slight but wiry adoles- 
cent who weighed 90 pounds on ad- 
mission and stood five feet. three 
inches tall. She had been known to 
complain of her flat-chested condition 
to her mother and sisters, and was 
quite indignant that her clothes did 
not fit so weIl as other girls. She 
frequently complained of headache 
during the year prior to coming to 
hospital. Although there was no def- 
inite evidence of hallucinations or 
delusions, she was quite openly apath- 
etic, listless and displayed indifference 
that passed into mute catatonic states 
fairly readily. As previously mentioned 
she was often irritable and negativistic. 
About a week following her admis- 
sion, she complained of pain just below 
her right ear and was seen by the 
doctor who assured her that there 
was nothing there to worry ahout. 
During visiting hours, she was very 
demanding of attention from her par- 
ents and later while sitting at the 
supper tahle suddenly began to cry 
"Oh my head !" and to extend her 
head in an awkward, crooked position. 
She rushed to her room, insisted on 
seeing her doctor again and attempted 
to leave the building when he didn't 
arrive immediately. \Vhen he came she 
appeared mute and hostile, but seemed 
slightly reassured. Eventually she was 
persuaded to eat her supper and to 
participate in the ward's evening ac- 
tivities to a small degree. Although 
no further mention was made of this 
particular discomfort, there ha,'e been 
other episodes when the complaints 
have heen headache, constipation, ear- 
ache or abdominal cramps. Each time 

he was carefully examined by the 
doctor, but nothi
g was discovered. 



Judy recently entered high school. 
Bilingual and generally first in her 
class. she had not been allowed as a 
small child to play with her friends 
anywhere excepting on the balcony 
of her own home. "Vhen these restric- 
tions were relaxed my patient formed 
many nt'''" friendships. Her mother 
described Judy as enjoying the com- 
pany of her many schoolmates and 
she seemed to socialize easily. 
Her father was a slightly-built man 
of medium height. Superficially he 
seemed meek and timid, acting sheep- 
ishly in the company of strangers, 
\Yhen he was visiting his daughter he 
never spoke ,,"hile the nurse was in 
the room. This unfortunate man has 
an intense fear of dying or even suf- 
fering the slightest physical injury. 
In contrast her mother wa
 an anx- 
ious, concerned, middle-aged woman. 
Due to her unhappy, impoverished 
home life, she has suffered several 
mild depressions, but she constantly 
tried to hring about peace in the dis- 
traught household. One brother, 18 
years old, has recently come under 
psychiatric treatment. 
Her mother described Judy's be- 
havior, particularly in the past year, 
as erratic, irritable and highlighted 
by frequent outbursts of temper, She 
would suddenly demand something - 
very frequently new clothes - and 
would fly into a fit of anger if her 
whim was not indulged immediately. 
Intensely jealous of her now happily 
married older sister, throughout the 
sister's courtship, Judy would become 
violent and throw articles about the 
room. She insisted she wanted the 
living room to herself whenever her 
sister was visited by her fiance. Ac- 
tually. Judy was quite shy and ill at 
ease with boys and said she has an 
aversion towards them. 
Judy had always shown a fanatical 
desire for new clothes and was jealous 
of her older, working sister who was 
able to have a larger wardrobe. She 
spent considerable time getting dressed 
 applying make-up, gazing all the 
whIle at her reflection in the mirror. 
She felt she was built more like her 
father, would han> liked to appear older 
than her age and wondered why she 

FZBRl."ARY. 1956. Vol. 52. Ko. 2 

did not look like her young friends 
who were better proportioned than 
she. This feeling of awk\vardness and 
self-consciousness might easily be due 
to her age. Fifteen is a time for per- 
sonal misgivings on the part of any 
This family was Roman Catholic 
but my patie
1t did not seem partic- 
ularly devout. There were no medals 
or prayer books in her belongings 
at the hospital and she never, to mv 
knowledge. asked to see her priest o
her own initiative. 
It became evident that Judy was 
having difficulty in school, where pre- 
viously she had done well. Feeling 
that her teacher and the students were 
laughing at her, she tended to isolate 
and seclude herself. Finally she ab- 
solutelv refused to attend school stat- 
ing sh
 wanted to punish her p
Cntil the time of her admission her 
behavior ,vent steaclilv downhill. 1
,,'as open withdrawaf of interest in her 
schoolmates, loss of ambition in her 
school work and indication of obvious 
feeling, thinking and behavior disor- 
ders. Frequently she would insult her 
mother and sisters with coarse, vulgar 
expressions then suddenly turn and 
kiss them, begging their pardon. These 
outbursts were most apparent pre- 
ceding and during her menstrual 
periods which had been fairly regular 
since their onset several years before. 
Inconsistently, she would refuse what 
was given to her, although she had 
previously asked for it. She would 
take what was not hers, threatening 
suicide if her wishes were not granted. 
The Thursday prior to her admis- 
sion, Judy stayed in bed, refusing to 
eat. At four o'clock in the morning 
she attempted to leave the house, cry- 
ing "Nobody loves me, nobody wants 
me." She hit and kicked her mother, 
who tried to calm her. Eventually she 
returned to bed where she slept all 
through the next day. 


lVutrition: This ,vas a major prob- 
lem with Judy. particularly when she 
was put on coma insulin and it was 
imperative that she have a well-bal- 


anced did. Constant encouragement 
and persuasion were required to hring 
her to the dining room, ,,"here she 
woulcl sit and stare disdainfulh" at her 
food. She enjoyed fluids, particularly 
tea, hut her appetite after her treat- 
ment was exceptionally poor. The 
family, with ohviously good intentions, 
brought her fruit, cane1\- and cookies, 
but these \\"ert" put a
ide and soon 

How We Attempted 
to Overcome This Problem: 

a, Throughout the earlier part of the 
day, after the coma insulin therapy, we 
offered frequent small meals. Thi
10 :30 a.m, - (or at the time of com- 
pletion of treatment) fruit juice, toast 
and j am. tea, 
12 :00 a.m, - a meat sandwich and 
2 :30 p.m. - ice cream, fruit juice. 
S :00 pool, - supper with the other 
8 :30 p.m, - milk and sandwiches, 
b. The confections brought hy her 
mother were kept in Judy's refrigerator 
and offered to her after a meal so that 
they would not spoil her appetite. 
c. \\' e tried to avoid hurrying Judy 
either tu come to meals or to eat, in an 
attempt to overcome the tension which 
inhibits the appetite and delays diges- 
tion. To do this, I would approach her 
about 15 minutes before the meal was 
to be served. giving her ample time tu 
apply make-up and care for her hair, 
then walk in a leisurely manner to the 
dining room. 
d. Frequently the nurse On duty would 
use power of suggestion - for example, 
the sight and odor of food: leaving 
the food in an accessible place without 
comment after placing a spoon in her 
e. If possible, we placed Judy at a 
table where her companions ate at a 
leisurely pace and it was unnecessan 
tor her to compete with faster-eatin
1. \Ve tried not to fuss over her tou 
much, at the same time we did not 
allow her to da
 die over her meals long 
after everyone else had finished 

Sleep: The difficulty here was 


Judy's desire to withdraw from the 
environment. She would remain in bed 
all day if left to herself. \\T e encour- 
aged i1t'r to be ahout during the day 
so that she would sleep well at night. 
She seldom required evening sedation, 

How IVe IVent A bout 
This Problem: 

a, \\T e tried to keep her out of her 
room as much as possible. As soon as 
she had finished her meal, we asked 
her to join us while we \yatched T.V. 
ur participated in some ward activity. 
The suggestion of occupational therapy 
sometimes was effective. She sometimes 
spent the afternuun sewing. 
b. A \\ alk out of doors proved to be 
refreshing and im'igorating. 
c. It was essential that the nurses 
\\orked as a team, encouraging her and 
preventing her from slipping away from 
being with others. 

Personal H Yr!iene: 
ly patient, 
unahle to always Sense her physical 
needs due to her slowed-dO\vn mental 
state, depended in part on the nurse 
for personal cleanliness and appear- 
ance. Such particulars had to be cared 
for without making her feel conspicu- 
ous. If the results drew some ex- 
pression of approval from the other 
patients and nurses, it was a good 
tonic for her. 

How IVe Attempted 
to A pproach This Allltter: 

a, After her treatment in the mor- 
ning, we prepared a bath or shower to 
freshen and brighten her. Brisk rubbing 
\\ith coarse bath towels aided in stim- 
ulating circulation. Having been gen- 
erously supplied with bath powder and 
deodorant by her family, these articles 
were laid out for her and she applied 
them daily, 
b, Laying out her tooth paste and 
brush gcnerally was sufficient reminder 
to care for her teeth; if not. putting 
the tooth paste on her brush served to 
guide her. I usually left a plastic glass 
by the sink and offered a glass of water 
to her whenever I was in the room. A 
glass of mouthwash, offered before her 
meal, relieved any sour taste present 
in her mouth, 


c. \\'e tried to encourage her to go to 
the bathroom at regular intervals. She 
generally had a bowel movement about 
every second day.. but was inclined to be 
negligent about her regularity. Offering 
fruits throughout the day, as well as 
"orne sort of daily exercise. helped her 
overcome this problem. 
d. As an adolescent. she had the usual 
troubles \\ ith her complexion. Her skin 
was Quite oily so it was important to 
remind her to wash her face with soap 
and water frequently. Applying cold 
cream to her lips, which were often 
cracked or chapped, softened them con- 
siderably. Reminding her at bedtime to 
remove her cosmetics and wash her face 
\\-as helpful. Although she loved to look 
at herself in the mirror, she frequently 
forgot to care for herself. 
e, \Ye tried to encourage her to keep 
her comb and brush clean, Since she 
washed her hair every weekend while 
she was at home, it was a simple matter 
to care for it during the wee\.... She 
arranged the short, naturally curly hair 
very attractively with some assistance. 
f. Laying out her emor
 board and 
nail file on her dresser after her mor- 
ning bath taught her to care for her 
g. \Ye noted the duration and flow of 
her menses. \\' e offered her the sanitary 
pads on the ward and assisted her in 
local cleanliness and sanitation if she 
required help. 
h. Since she loved clothes. particular- 
ly new ones, we guided her in the care 
of her personal articles, It was impor- 
tant for the nurses to cooperate with 
each other in developing Judy's interest 
in her personal hygiene and teaching 
her hygienic procedures whenever the 
opportunity arose. \Ye helped raise her 
self-respect by a well-placed compli- 
ment, our ('wn personal eJo..ample and 
eXI)ressing admiration of the good 
hygiene carried out by other patients 
or nurses. 

Suicide: .-\lthough I realize that 
d.nyone emotionally upset is potentially 
suicidal and that my patient had 
threatened on seyeral occa
ions before 

he came to hospital to end her life, 
I believe that it was done to attract 
attention and to punish her parents. 

FEBRUARY. 1956. Vol. 52. No, 2 

During her hospital stay it was more 
of a problem to prevent her leaving 
without permission. She did not 
threaten or attempt suicide, to my 
knowledge, while here. The precau- 
tions that we took to avoid injury 
to the patient were the same as for 
pren'ntion of suicide. 
It is to be noted that the physical 
environment of the hospital offers the 
security that is une of the patient's 
greate;t need
. Security that can he 
depended upon. a routine that is 
onahk the 
anw from day to day, 
contact ,,:ith a limited number of per- 
sons, remO\"al from significant persons 
who have he en the cau
e of some of 
their difficulties. relieye patients of the 
 of making dpcisions and of 
the many demands of usual existence. 

I njury to Herself and to Others: 
Several day
 after admission. Judy 
while taking a shower turned on the 
hot water faucet too swiftIv and as a 
result recei\'ed a had sca;e. Luckily 

he wa
 not hurned. I t was a blunt 
reminder to the staff that thi!' little girl 
needed keener 

Precautionary ItJ etllOds 
to Prevent InjuYJ,I: 

a, On admission we routinely check 
through all the patient's belongings. Any 
sharp things are kept in the office, to be 
g-i\ en to the patient if required for a 
short period of time and then returned 
to the oflì.ce. 
[atches are kept only b) 
the nurses and the patients are not al- 
lo\\ed to smoke in their rooms, It is 
helpful to remind the relatives that the 
patients are not allowed to retain these 
articles while in hospital. 
b. A fter coma insulin treatment. Judy 
\\ as unsteady on her feet, requiring staff 
assistance to prevent her from bumping 
into furniture or tripping oyer objects, 
\Ye ran her hath or shO\\cr for her and 
were nearby in case she required help, 
c. Ha
ards such as waxed or wet 
floors can be treacherous to a preoc- 
cupied patient. so \\ e guided her around 
those obstacles, 
d, Laundry chutes, kitchens, bath- 
rooms except in the morning were kept 
locked as well as the utility room. linen 


room an<:! nur
es' office with all the 
medical supplies. .The doors at either 
end of the ward were kept locked at 
o cutlery or glassware was al- 
lowed in the rooms. The windows open 
only a few inches from the bottom. 
e. If Judy was too strongly antago- 
nized by some well-meaning, but 
thoughtless patient, she might easily 
have acted impulsively and hurt this 
person. She also needed protection, both 
physically and psychologically, from 
other more aggressive patients. It was 
wise for the nurse to anticipate such 
occurrence and to be on the alert for 
any impulsive and un-self-disciplined 

Leaving JV ithollt Permission: 
Judy made several attempts to run 
away. 'Yhen her hostile, negativistic 
manner was more emphasized than 
usual it was a danger signal to the 

How JVe Prevented These 
Incidents from Occurring: 

a. By being alert to recognize her 
increased hostility, thus anticipating her 
desire to leave. 
b. Judy was both insecure and un- 
certain so that one of the most effective 
measures to promote a sense of security 
was consistency in the nurse's attitude. 
A routine was offered that gave her 
something to depend upon. Thus we 
avoided making promises to her that 
we knew could not be carried out - 
e.g. a promised visit home that did not 
c. On her admission to hospital, the 
various privileges and limitations were 
explained to her. At the patients' group 
meetings the head nurse frequently gave 
a reminder of the precautionary rules 
of the hospital - e.g. boundaries of the 
hospital grounds. 
d. Reporting accurately and promptly 
to the head nurse or interne, both oralIy 
and on the chart, any unwarranted 
change in the patient's conduct. 

Socialization: The tendency of pa- 
tients to withdraw into a world of 
phantasy from situations where they 
must socialize is very persistent. Per- 


haps Judy felt that her contacts with 
other people had been fruitless, her 
family and friends had let her down 
or just dirl not understand her. Ob- 
viously she was so preoccupied at 
times, we knew she was not giving 
us her attention. ""\Then we spoke to 
her she might or might not respond. 

Ho'if.' to Counteract This Problem: 

a. The nurse must be consistent in her 
attitude - friendly, but firm, realizing 
that it is her responsibility to bring her 
patient into contact with everyday 
b. Since in her preoccupation, J ud} 
might respond to Our approach with 
irritation, we must realize that we have 
probably diwrted her attention from 
something that was pleasant to some- 
thing that was annoying. I tried to cir- 
cumvent Judy's irritation by appealing 
to her suggestibility. For example, lay- 
ing her clothes out on her bed so she 
would dress and be prepared for the day 
at the same time as the other patients. 
\Ve also avoided her antagonism by 
seldom touching and never pushing her 
c, Since most people like to be warned 
about what to expect in a new situation, 
it was important to explain new pro- 
cedures to her as well as to introduce 
her to a new roommate. 
d. My seeking out of this patient at 
every opportunity conveyed my interest 
to her. Just sitting Quietly beside her 
for brief, but consistent periods con- 
veyed this message. There were many 
one-sided conversations, generalizations 
that did not require answers. Eventually 
one could feel her warming to sympathy 
and she would offer a comment of her 
e. Due to the coma insulin therapy 
she received, she was only able to be at 
occupational therapy in the afternoon. 
After strong persuasion from the staff 
and friendly patients she started and 
took obvious delight in making a pink 
felt elephant. Later the staff was unable 
to encourage her to attempt something 
Judy seldom conversed with other 
patients. Her uneasiness on the night 
of her admission had been reduced to 
a mere apathetic interest. Generally it 


was onl" after a weekend at home that 
we might see her coming to watch 
television on her uwn initiative, or 
perhaps share a few words with some- 

Observation: The extent of the 
patient's progress is often shown by 
the nurse's observations, carried out 
in a manner that will cause the pa- 
tient no discomfort or concern. 

Direct Observation: 

a. :r-; otice the patient's facial expres- 
sion, this may often correspond to her 
b. Note whether her mood is appro- 
priate to tbe situation or is consistent 
with her behavior. 
c. Observe her movements and choice 
of activity. 
ote how she adapts to the en- 
\.ironment - is her manner indifferent? 
Does she identify others accurately and 
indicate that she knows what day, time 
and place it is? 
e. Describe her daily habits - per- 
sonal hygiene, care of personal property, 
appearance, industry. Note any bizarre, 
unusual behavior. If she has been mute 
for a long period, then relate the cir- 
cumstances that lead up to her breaking 
her silence. 
f. Descrihe her speech, the expression 
of feeling, any memory defect. 
g. :Note her choice of companions. 
Does she frequently demand to see the 
doctor, refusing the nurse's assistance? 

Observatinn b.v Participation: 
Frequently I dropped by the oc- 
cupational therapy department and 
chatted with the patients and ther- 
apists, at the same time, observing my 
patient for: 
a. Extent of pleasure and enthusiasm 
in work. 
b, Expressinn on her face - did she 
seem engrossed in her work? Did she 
seem contented or bored? 
c. Her ability to do the work - did 
she seem tn take pride in her handiwork? 
d. Did she concentrate well? 
e. \ Yas she there of her own accord? 
Did she soon show signs of fatigue? 
f. Had her ability improved since her 
last \,isit to occupational therapy? 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. No.2 

g. In order to observe my patient's 
appetite, I could assist in the dining 
room without making the patients feel 
uncomfortable - helping to seat them, 
pouring milk and tea, passing cream and 
sugar and anticipating special requests. I 
noted my patient's manners and her 
consideration for others at the same 
table. Did she eat her food in the 
regular order? Did she socialize at all 
Or concentrate all her efforts on eating? 
h. By playing a card game or work- 
ing a jigsaw puzzle with my patient, I 
would note: her ability to play fair - 
was she a good sport Or a poor loser? 
\Vhat of her ability to learn new games 
- her confidence in herself? 
i. How did she behave when her 
family visited her? "\\That were her feel- 
ings before and after their visit? Did 
she seem to enjoy their company? 
j. Her b
havior throughout any trca'- 

R ellllbilitation: 
It is rather unusual to note that ac- 
cording to her parent's description, 
when Judy was aIlO\\'ed to go home 
she socialized quite readily and en- 
tered with enthusiasm into the home 
duties such as baking or sewing. While 
she was at hospital her seclusiveness 
and negativism continued to be quite 
evident. It appeared that her condition 
improved considerably when she was 
in the home atmosphere. 
As a nurse, I tried to adopt a teach- 
ing pattern for heJping my patient 
prepare for her eventual return home. 
I carried out this plan by: 
a. Offering a stimulating environmO'nt 
for the learning of new skills. Associa- 
tion of the patient with her roommates 
who were on the same treatment as 
herself, offering n
w recipes for cooking 
which she enjoyed doing at home, and 
reading fashion magazines, were ways 
to interest her. 
b. By my example my patient might 
learn a great deal. I had to keep in mind 
that my appearance, manner and attitude 
might be beneficial or harmful. 
c. Repetition of new ideas and skills 
until they were firmly fixed in her mind. 
d. Above all the reassurance of an 
understanding nurse, interest in her as 
a person, attention to matters that are 
important to her helped her attain her 


goal. Attention was focussed on the 
value of day-to-day experience, acquire- 
ment of good health habits, including 
a balanced program of work and play. 
It must be remembered that she v. as a 
young girl who became ill during her 
adolescence, never a very easy time for 
anyone. She will require the guidance 
and counsel of her parents, doctors, 
nurses and teachers to prepare her to 
lead a normal life. 

Although J udy's improvement was 
not very startling, her parents felt 
that while she was at home she was 
perfectly normal and quite able to 
resume her normal acti,"ities without 
hesitation, They believed that our doc- 

tors ""ere being fooled by her attitude 
in hospital. In the doctor's words, 
"she was suffering from a yery serious 
illnes::;, coming on at a critical time in 
her life and that unless she had the 
full course of therapy, it was unlikely 
she would remain out of hospital for 
prolonged periods of her life." 

Through this study of Judy and by 
the nursing care I gave her, I have 
gained insight into psychiatric nurs- 
ing. Xow I realize what the words 
"persuasion" and "patience" mean in 
relation to a preoccupied and hostile 
adolescent. Perhaps it has helped me 
understand myself a little better, my 
limitations, and my way of solving 

Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis 


T HE PATIENT WAS 20 years of age, 
and had been a normal, healthy girl 
until one day she developed a sore, 
infected spot in her nose. ::Nothing 
was done about this as it appeared 
only a mild ailment. 
The following day the girl com- 
plained of dizziness, nausea and gen- 
eral malaise. She was found to have 
a temperature of 102 0 F. She \-vent to 
bed and was given an injection of 

au. .r 


Cross-section of the base of the skull 
shO'l('Ìng sinuses 


penicillin by a relative who was a 
graduate nurse. Her condition gradu- 
ally became worse so the following 
day a doctor was called and she was 
admitted to hospital. 
On admission the patient was vague 
and drowsy, but extremely restless and 
showed definite signs of profound 
toxemia. Her face was discolored with 
proptosis in both eyes. 
A complete blood count revealed: 
\Vhitc blood cells 30,800 
Hemoglobin 72% 
Red blood cells 3,800,000 
A spinal tap shO\ved: 
\\11Íte blood cells 912 
Rcd blood cells 22 
Pandy's positive 
Cultures sterile. 
A nose culture showed: 
Gram positive cocci, moderate growth 
Staphylococcus aureus 
Coagulase p0sitive. 
She was sensitive to Chloromycetin, 
less sensitive to Penicillin. 
By 8 :00 p.m. the patient was semi- 
conscious - temperature 105 0 , pulse 

This material was presented by the 
authors, as a clinic at the Sarnia Gen- 
eral Hospital. 


100, respirat
ons 20. A cold water 
enema was gIven and cold packs ap- 
plied continuously. These succeeded 
only in reducing the temperature tem- 
porarily, and were discontinued two 
hours later when the patient'
ture 'returned to 103 0 and she com- 
menced to have chills. 
10 :30 p.m.: She was very cyanosed 
anJ. was placed in an oxygen tent. The 
pulse was rapid and of \veak volume, 
respirations shallow, and her face now 
appeared more 
m.ollen and red. She 
did not respond tu stimuli. A,n airway 
was inserted and suctioned as neces- 
6 :30 a.m.: The patient was com- 
pletely unconscious. 
9 :30 a.m.: A tracheotomy was per- 
formed as a precautionary measure 
against tracheal edema, respirations 
appeared a little easier on return to 
her room. Very little change was noted 
during the next fe\\" hours, although 
the temperatu re dropped to 100 0 , pulse 
112, respirations 28. 
6 :00 p.m.: The patient's pulse be- 
came n1t1ch weaker, co1or extremely 
poor and respirations shallow, 
Despite a rigorous course of anti- 
biotics, which we will now outline for 
you, the patient dieel at 7 :35 p,m. 
three days after the infection first ap- 
peared in her nose. 

Immediatelv on admission an intra- 
venous of glucose Sjf was commenced 
and kept running continuously. The 
following were given by means of the 
intravenous: . 
Sulphadiazine gm.4.0 stat. and gm.2.0 
Q. 6 h. 
Aureomycin 500 mgm. Q. 4 h. 
Chloromycetin gm. 0.5 for 2 doses 
Ilotycin gm. 1. 

Heparin was also given and doses 
adjusted according to the clotting time 
which ",.;as taken Q. 3 h. 
Three spinal taps were performed 
and each time one million units of 
penicillin and streptomycin 900 mgm. 
were injected intrathecally. 
Penicillin 1 million units wa:-: given 
q. 2 h. intramuscularly and strepto- 
mycin 500 mgm. q. 6 h. 
It was suggested that Cor tone might 
help to relieve cerebral edema and so 
100 mgm. was given intramuscularly 
into each hip. 
\ \'hen the condition of the patient 
worsened cúramine 5 cc. was injected 
intravenou:--Iy every 15 minutes, with 
only temporary response. 

The findings are those of infection 
of the nose, and edema of the nose, 
eyelids, and upper lids, with throm- 
bosis of the left cavernous sinus, in- 
volving the circular sinus and the 
right cavernous sinus, with extension 
to the middle cerebral veins, superior 
petrosal veins, and the pterygoid yeins, 
with infection. compression, and 
edema of the upper part of the mid- 
brain, and the extension of the infec- 
tion into the basi-sphenoid and the 
embolic spread down to the jugular 
veins to the lungs where there were 
numerous ahscesses. 
The cultures taken prior to death, 
and the areas examined after death 
have all grown coagulase positive 
staphylococci in pure culture. 

Brain stem damage, due to throm- 
bosis of both cavernous sinuses fol- 
lowing an infection of the nose with 
subsequent pyemia to the lungs. 

Check Points for Canned Food Buyers 

Government supervised grade marks on 
all canned goods are the fi rst thing to watch 
for \V hen making a selection. Buy nationally 
advertised brands unless you are familiar 
with particular smaller companies. Other 
check points are: 
1. Avoid containers that show dampness, 
drippings. rust and bulging ends. 
2. Listen for sizzling sounds of escaping 

FEBRUARY, 1956. VoL 52, No.2 

air when first puncturing the can. 
3. Take a deep smell for characteristic 
aroma immediately on opening container. 
4. Drain contents and observe inside of 
container for color. Darkened can indicates 
long storage. 
5. Taste for characteristic flavor and 
added ingredients. 
- C alladian Hot c/ Review and Restaurant 



With our Training We can Help 


 \YARD X, all of 
them ambulatory, were neg!e
their customary morning actlntIes. 
Usually one or two would be ponder- 
ing over an unfinished jigsaw puzzle. 
Another might be putting the fin- 
ishing touches on a leather \-vallet, 
inwardly glowing at the thought of the 
pleased surprise of the occupational 
therapist when she savç his neat and 
even stitching. One could almost al- 
ways guess with accuracy that the 
patient reading with apparent ahsorp- 
tion or concentrating on the \-vriting 
of a letter was a recent admission 
to the ward. Conversation among the 
patients, as a rule, included the cur- 
rent athletic sport, their experiences 
on active service, or their ear, nose or 
throat ailments, 
This morning they were unusually 
silent but most observant and alert. 
There was a new centre of interest on 
the ward. Finally, courage overcame 
mere curiosity. Addressing one of the 
three girls, who were making their beds 
and tidying their bedside lockers, one 
of the patients said: "That outfit you 
are wearing is a new one on me. Now 
just who and what are you?" 
"I am l\Iiss \Vhite," was the timid 
answer. "and we are the first class to 
take the nursing course now being 
given at this hospita1. This is our first 
day on the wards and," gaining more 
confidence as she sensed the friendly 
interest of the patient, "I feel - 50;t 
of funny inside." 
ow, never you mimi., l\'Iiss \\
hefore you know it you'll be through 

1i::,s Groenc\\ aId is director of the 

Iontreal Central School for Nursing 
Assistants, Queen 
Iary Veterans Hos- 
pital, Montreal. 


your training and become a head nurse 
or a top-shot of some kind." 
"Oh, no 1\1r--? Jones? 1\1r. Jones 
- you have to be a graduate nurse 
to become a head nurse." 
"But did'nt you say you are taking 
a nursing course?" 
"Yes,"- replied :\Iiss \Vhite, "But we 
are training to be nursing assistants." 
At this stage two of the other pa- 
tients had drawn closer and the 
trainee, finding it difficult to cope with 
her audience and to concentrate on her 
work as \-vell, released the tension she 
was applying to a drawsheet and òe- 
voted her attention entirely to the con- 
versation. "\Ve do not learn nearly 
all that a graduate nurSe learns and 
our course is not as long either, but 
with our training we can help on the 
wards. \Ve can do some of the treat- 
ments for some of the patients under 
the supervision of the registered nurse 
or, under the direction of the doctor, 
give nursing care to some patients in 
their homes." 
It \-vas on a morJ1ing in October, 
1952 that the above conversation took 
place on one of our wards selected 
for preliminary ward experience for 
our trainees. The first class was en- 
rolled in the Department of Veterans 
t\ffairs' School for Xursing Assistants 
at the Queen lV1ary Veterans Hospital 
in l\IontreaI. in late September of that 
vear. Two other such schools are lo- 
cated at the Sunnybrook Hospital, 
Toronto and at the Camp Hill Hos- 
pitaL Halifax. The D.V.À. Schools 
for 1\ ursing 
 \ssistants were organized 
h,' J.\Iiss A. T. :\facleod. director of 
Xursing Ser;ices, D.\,'.A. and 1\liss 
:\Iarjorie Russell. nursing consultant 
to the D.V.A, Each school has a full- 
time teaching staff uf three graduate 


nurses with special preparation in 
teaching and supervision. Part-time 
instructors, who are specialists in their 
field, give instruction in the care of 
children and in elementary nutrition. 
Our original teaching unit, here at 
the Queen :Mary \T eterans Hospital, 
was in a temporary building known 
as "Hut 10," \Yith regret, almost, 
we must explain that the walls of our 
hut were not of clay, nor did it have 
a thatched roof. 
On December 15, 1954 \ve moved 
into our spacious and elegant quarters 
in the new wing of the hospital. 
Reader, have vou ever moved? If so, 
you will be smiling sympathetically. 
Not only do all those packing cases 
and boxes so carefullv marked and 
labelled lose their distinguishing fea- 
tures en route but there seem to be 
hvice as many of them when they 
are fmallv unloaded at their destina- 
tion. \YhÜe striving to appear cheerful- 
and briskly competent in the midst 
of aforementioned unfamiliar packing 
cases, dismantled beds, unassembled 
bookshelves, etc., two snow-covered 
trees were draggeJ. in! But of course, 
the school always has a gala Christ- 
mas party complete with a tree under 


=S. ; 
. .. : 

. >.'. # 


"-,:,: " 

. \ 
I ;, 





which are placed the gifts, brought 
in under "the-draw-a-name-buy a- 
seventy-five-cent-gift" system, which 
Santa Claus jovially gives out to the 
surprised recipients. 
We are proud of our well equip- 
ped teaching unit consisting of a lec- 
ture room, library, demonstration 
room, diet laboratory, sitting rOOl11, 
locker room, and offices. Visitors as- 
sure us that our color scheme is most 
attractive. Against the backgrounds 
of various pastel shades the trainee in 
her distinctive short-slee,"ed yellow 
uniform, (with the D.V.A. insignia 
on the arm band) worn with a white 
bib and apron, organdy tic-back cap, 
and brown shoes and stocking makes 
a pleasing picture. Patients often refer 
to th.em as buttercups. daffodils or 
Classes are enrolled twice a vear. 
Trainees range in age from 18 t
and must have completed at least one 
year of high school. Creed. race, color 
or marital status does not bar an ap- 
plicant though we emphasize the fact 
that home or other responsibilities 
must not interfere with attendance 
during the ten months of the course. 
Language difficulties? Yes, indeed - 



\ ;



,. ".\ f".. 
I .,
:. ,.... 







. .. 

t Ii t 

.. ;,'iiS'. 
"." \.. 


FEBRUARY. 1956. Vol. 52. No. 2 

Qualified to Help. 


but in coping with these difficulties 
both instructor and trainee hecome 
quite resourceful. During the early 
weeks of the course one might have 
to demonstrate a hiccough to explain 
the meaning of the word. \\l1t'n one 
is informed that the COCCYX is in the 
"downstairs region of thë' spine" one 
is definitely not disheartened! 
The cu
riculum is hased on the 
recommendation of the special com- 
mittee of the Canadian X urses' Asso- 
ciation, and meets the requirements 
for certification in Ontario. Subjects 
taught in the school are elementary 
nursing, hygienic housekeeping, ele- 
mentary biology. personal and com- 
munity health and hygiene, elementary 
nutrition, adjustments and interper- 
sonal relationships, care of mother and 
baby, care of children. first aid and 
ban-daging, ciyil defence. In accordance 
with a resolution passed by the Com- 
mittee on Educational Policy of the 
Canadian K urses' Association, the 
basic course has recently heen 
strengthened oy empha
izing'" psychi- 
atric aspects of nursing wIthin the 
present outline. 
The first four months of the course 
consist of theory, demonstration and 
practice in the classroom, and orienta- 
tion to clinical areas and special de- 
partments in the hospital. As soon as 
a new procedure has been satisfactor- 
ily performed hy the trainee in the 
demonstration room she is taken to a 
ward where she carries out this pro- 
cedure under the supervision uf an 
instructor from the school. \ \' anls are 
selected and the trainees are given 
additional assignments as they pro- 
gress. By the fourth month of their 
training they spend ahout three hours 
on the wards daily. 
At the beginning of the fifth month 
the trainee starts her full-time ward 
experience. In addition to the Queen 

Iary Veterans Hospital the following 
hospitals participate in our training 
program: The 
Iontrt'al (;eneral, 
Royal Victoria, St. 
Iary's. Queen 
Elizaheth and Jewish General. Each 
trainee spends fuur weeks at the :\:lont- 
real Children's 1 [ospital. two weeks in 
a nursery, two weeks on a maternity 
wanl and approximately twelve weeks 
on medical and surgical wards in one 
of the abO\ e-mentioned hospitals. The 
trainee is under the supervision of a 


memher of the teaching staff of the 
hospital involved and of the head nurse 
of the ward to which she is assigned. 
An instructor from the school acts 
in the capacity of visiting clinical co- 
ordinator. Evening and/or night duty 
is limited to three \yeeks as super- 
vision, individual and group clinical 
instructiun and proper evaluation of 
trainees present prohlems, in most 
cases, during these huurs of duty. 
Trainees are required to do "observa- 
tiun " studies on two or more patients 
 their term of full-time ward 
Directors of nursing in the partici- 
pating huspitals act 11l an advisory 
capacity to the director of the school. 
Their interest and suppurt is deeply 
appreciated and is most encouraging. 
Graduation, which follows on the 
heels of final examinations, is for us 
the great day just as it is every\vhere 
for anyone in any way involved with 
students. Sixty-hvo nursing assistants 
have successfully completed the course 
at the Qw:en 
rary Vderans Hospital. 
\Vith pride, though, we speak of 210 
graduate nursing assistants. In April 
19':;-+, the 
Iontreal School for Kursing 
_ '\ssistants, established in 1
-+8 under 
the direction of l\Ir". F. Fisher, amal- 
gamated with our school and thus 
came into existence "The ,Montreal 
Central School for Nursing _\ssist- 
ants" as we are nO\\ officiall v known. 
And after graduation? -Excerpts 
from letters received from, and from 
c<m\TersatÎons with, graduate nursing 
assistants teU their own storv: 
"This is a lV-bed hospital i
 a 500- 
peopled town. Most of the people are of 
Ukrainian origin and I have already 
learned seven words in that language. 
The work is rewarding and interesting. 
\Ve have so many opportunities to do 
the things we were trained to do." 
"\Vhen Mrs. S. goes to hospital I am 
going to look after :\Ir. S. and the two 
small children and I shall be staying 
on for one week longer when 1\1" rs. S. 
comes home with the new baby." 
"There are four graduate nurses and 
the three of us at this Camp for Crip- 
pled Children. Cuder the direction of the 
nurses we take care of the more severely 
handicapped children and also take part 
in the recreational activities of the camp 
We are having an interesting and en- 
joyable summer." 


"I am learning so much about the 
care of the patient with tuberculosis and 
have gone up the coast by plane on 
'escort duty'." 
1) patient's husband seemed so help- 
less and lost when I first came here. 
He is 74 and she is 70 - the cancer 
is quite advanced. I let him help me 
with the housekeeping duties and even 
with some of the nursing duties, and 
now he does not seem quite so sad." 
In the home. in small hospitals, in 
outlying communities, and in our hos- 
pitals in the city. the trained nursing 

New Autoclave Tape 

_-\ Toronto nurse is credited with assistin
greatly in the commercial development of 
a ne\\- autoclave tape that provides im- 
mediate identification of sterilized bundles 
and items in hospitals, The tape is employed 
for closing and sealing bundles prior to 
placing them in the autoclave or steam 
oven for sterilization. It is now in use in 
major Toronto and .Montreal hospitals as 
well as in a number of hospitals across 
A Query by Phyllis Norton, supervisor 
of the Central Supply Room in the Toronto 
Hospital for Sick Children started months 
of research. She was looking for a new 
method of sealing wrapped items and a 
simple means of identifying them after pro- 
cessing, The product had to meet the quali- 
fications of hospital sterilizing. The tape 
used had to withstand prolonged exposure 
to steam without losing its body and com- 
ing loose. It had to peel off readily without 
leaving a sticky residue. It had to adhere 
to all types of dry, clean surfaces such as 
linen, muslin, plastic, glass and metal. It had 
to have a backing that would take and hold 
markings through prolonged heat exposure. 
After months of developing tapes that 
were passed on for testing, a product was 
devised which not only stood up under the 
steam and heat exposure, but adhered firmly 
 after processing. It could be stamped, 
written on \vith ink, pencil or crayon. The 
identification neither ran into the tape or 
material nor showed any sign of fadin
The problem of indicating whether or not 

assistant is taking her place on the 
nursing team and is proving her value. 
\ Vith a feeling of the worthiness of 
work well done in her o,,'n field, she 
shares in and relieves the professional 
nurse of some of the duties required 
of the nursing profession as a whole. 
In the words of Miss \Vhite "\Vith 
our training we can help..." Under 
the direction of doctors and nurses 
they are helping to assure total nursing 
care of the patient and helping to 
maintain and promote the standards 
of the nursing profession. 

--._C '._._ 

'. ....; '^;' \i: t' t 
, , 






 ' '' . 




, ....... - 
...- -



a bundle had been sterilized still remained. 
The final result is a marking that will be- 
come visible only after processing under 
the proper combination of heat and steam. 
N either heat nor steam alone nor direct 
exposure to sunlight will register. 
The autoclaye tape is economical to use, 
because only short strips are needed to seal 
sizeable bundles. One 60-yard roll will seal 
approximately no bundles at an average 
sealing cost of six bundles for one cent. 
Because the packages are neater and more 
compact, they require less shelf space. A 
hazard of handling bundles is eliminated 
because there is less danger of accidental 

He listens to good purpose who takes 
, - DANTE 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, NO.2 

The most unhappy of all men IS he who 
helieves himself to be so 



'_ çt [
prepared by your national office (onødián Nurses' Association, Ottawa 



IVursing Education 


1 direction in regard to curriculum 
development? Are the various exper- 
imental programs under way in dif- 
ferent parts of Canada really meeting 
the needs of nursing? These are some 
of the questions heing asked by nurs- 
ing educators. At its meeting in J anu- 
ary, 1955, the CNA Committee on 
X ursing Education began a discussion 
on curriculum, but it "'as soon evident 
that constructive, far-sighted work 
could not he attempted until certain 
information \-vas available. For, to ad- 
,'ise on such matters, one must have 
a knowledge of the kind of \vorker 
which it is proposed v\.ill result from 
the educational program. Objectives 
must be clarified before curricula can 
be planned. 
\Vith this in mind, each provincial 
nursing education committee was 
,asked to prepare a statement of its 
beliefs in regard to the "Philosophy, 
Aims and Objectives of the Basic 
Nursing Education Program." This 
was not an easy assignment. V,r e think 
we know the goal towards which our 
teaching is directed, but when we 
attempt to put these thoughts into 
words they become very elusive. 
The provincial committees have 
worked long and hard to prepare their 
statements. One province arranged a 
full day's conference for this purpose 
and produced a most comprehensive 
summary. Their approach was first to 
consider the general philosophy of cur- 
riculum development and, then, through 
small groups to consider the philoso- 
phy. aims and objectives of cur- 
riculum as it relates particularly to 
nursing education. Although at the 
time of writing, the CNA N'ursing 
Education Committee has not studied 
the statements, it is possible to say 
that the theme ,,'hich runs throughout 
them all is the importance of the 


 ..." j 
... I 

.....: + 

human element - to the s
ud'-nt her- 
se:f. to her patients. to the community, 
to her co-workers. \ Ve seem to be 
unanimous in realizing that, in order 
to meet her re:,ponsihilities. the nurse 
must have an opportunity for personal 
as well as professional growth. 

IVinth IF HO Assembly 
The K"inth \\Torld Health Assemblv 
wh!ch will be held in 1956 has selected 
as the topic of the technical discussions 
"X urses: Their Education and Their 
 in Health Programs." 
The International Council of X urses 
and the International Committee of 
Catholic K urses and l\Iedico-Social 
\Vorkers have been invited to attend 
these sessions as international non- 
governmental organizations in official 
relationship with the \ Y orlel Hea!th 
The I.C.
. has in,"ited the affiliated 
national nurses' associations to pro- 
mote discussion of the topic and to 
forward a summary of statement based 
on three broad questions: 
I. What is the present role of nurses 
in meeting the health needs of 
II. "That do nurses see as their future 
role in ( or contribution to) the 
total health program? 
III. What conditions, attitudes or edu- 
cational facilities should be changed 
or developed so that nurses may 
successfully play the role envisaged? 
It is our hope that the summary 
statement prepared by the CNA will 
appear within the pages of The Cana- 
dian 'Nurse at a later date. 

Pre-registrntion for 28th Biennial 
Almost daily now pre-registrations 
are being received in National Office. 
Student forms are arriving minus 
names. The lucky girls who will be 
COl111l1g aren't named yet. but none- 


s everyone is entering into the 
spirit of the Convention. The regis- 
trants from Quebec seem to be in the 
majority. RememLer, early registrants 
will naturallv have a better choice of 
accommodatï"on and the opportunity to 
choose the post-com ention tour of 
their liking. 

The Executive IJJeeting 

February is a busy month at your 
X ational Office. \Vith its arrival come 
the numerous committee meetings 
which are a prelude to a Biennial Con- 
F ebruan' 2. 3. and 4 find the Exec- 
utive Coi11lnittee meeting at the 
Chateau Laurier in Ottawa. Some 35 
memhers of the Executive will be in 
attendance, These members are your 
elected representatives from all parts 
of Canada. 
Here the reports of the five national 
committees will be presented and im- 
portant developments discussed and 
voted upon. As an example, the Pub- 
licitv and Public Relations Committee 
Report will ask the Executive to vote 
upon the recommendation that the 
Public Relations Guide prepared dur- 
ing this biennium be printed in both 
French and English. If this is agreed 
upon, the Guide will be ready for dis- 
tribution during the Biennial :l\Ieeting 
in \Yinnipeg. This Guide is designed 
to give each nurse helpful suggestions 
in communicating with other profes- 
sional personnel and with the puhlic 
in general. The development of good 
chapter meetings is discussed within 

its pages for it is here that the nurse 
develops her understanding of the pro- 
fession and what it is trying to accom- 
 in terms of improved nursing 
The Program Committee will have 
much to report as plans are finalized 
for the 28th Biennial 1\Ieeting. Details 
will be outlined concerning the various 
sessions, speakers announced and en- 
tertainment activities finalized bv the 
A.rrangements Committee whiéh is 
composed of representatives from our 
hostess provinces, :ì\Ianitoba and Sas- 

Have any of you who are reading 
this been hospitalized lately? Have you 
been the patient instead of the nurse? 
\\'e know of a nurse who recently 
became a patient for a few days, 

-\mazed by the number of people who 
came popping in and out uf her room, 
she hegan to keep count. 
\Yithin the first twenty huurs of her 
stay in hospital no less than 14 rep- 
resentatives of the nursing team ap- 
proached her bedside - the supervisor, 
seven registered nurses, three nursing 
assistants, three ward aides. Add to 
this the patient's doctor, two internes, 
a cleaning woman and a handy man 
who came in to do a few repairs, it 
was rather confusing even to a nurse, 
to say nothing of a person unfamiliar 
to hospital ways. Do you know that 
not one of these members of the 1lltrs- 
ing personnel offered to introduce her- 
srlf f Better communications are defi- 
nitely needed within our profession, 

 à t'Uu.teu te fuuI4 

L' édllcation en N ",.sing 

-\ssociation des Infirmières Canadiennes 
dcvrait-elle donner plus de directives con- 
cernant Ie programme d' étude ? Les pro- 
grammes actuellement à ressai dans diverses 
parties du Canada répondent-ils vraiment 
aux besoins de la profession ? Voilà des 
Questions Que se posent les éducatrices en 
nursing. Lors de la réunion de janvier 1955, 
les membres du Comité de rEducation en 

FEBRUARY. 1956. Vol. 52. No.2 

Nursing amorcèrent une discussion sur Ie 
programme d'enseignement mais on se rendit 
bientôt compte Qu'il était impossible de tra- 
vailler d'une manière constructive et pré- 
voyante à moins de posséder certains ren- 
seignements. Avant de pouvoir donner des 
conseils sur la préparation d'un programme 
d'enseignement, il faut savoir d'abord Quelle 
formation l' on vise à dúImer et Quels sont 
les objectifs à attC'indre. Tenant compte de 
ce fait, ron a prié chaque. comité provincial 


d'éducation en nursing de rédiger un exposé 
de la philosophie, des buts et objectifs du 
cours de base en nursing. La tâche assignée 
n' étai t pas facile. K ous croyons connaÎ tre 
Ie but vers lequel nous dirigeons notre en- 
scignement mais lorsqu'il s'llgit de concré- 
tiser notre pensée par des mots, c'est bien 
moins simple. 
Les comités prO\'inciaux ont travailIé fer- 
me et longuement à la préparation de cet 
exposé. Dans une province, l' on a organisé, 
à cet effet, une journée d'étUlle et on a 
présenté un résumé très au point. On a 
d'abord considéré la philosophie générale de 
l'élaboration d'un programme d'enseigne- 
ment après quoi. des petits groupes se sont 
formés pour étudier la philosophie, les buts 
et objectifs d'un programme d'étude relati- 
vement à la formation de l'infirmière. Bien 
que Ie Comité national de l'Education en 
Nursing n'aie pas encore étudié tous les 
rapports présentés par les prO\ inces, I'on 
peut déjà déduire que Ie facteur humain en 
est I'élément fondamental considéré par 
rapport à l'étudiante d'abord, puis à ses 
malades. à la société et aux personnes qui 
travaillent avec elks. Toutes semblent una- 
nimes à réaliser que pour pouvoir assumer 
des responsabilités, l'infirmière devrait avoir 
autant I'occasion de développer sa personna- 
lité que d'acquérir des connaissances pro- 

La 9ième A ssemblée de [,OMS 

La nem.ième asscmblée de l'O
f S, qui aura 
lieu en 1956, a choisi comme sujet de òis- 
cussion: "Les inhrmières, leur formation et 
leur rÔle dans les programmes de santé." 
Le Conseil International des Infirmières 
et Ie Comité catholique international des 
infirmières et des assistantes sociales ont 
été il1\'ités à cette réunion, à titre d'organi- 
sations officielles non-gouvernementales. 
Le Conseil International des Infirmières a 
invité toutes les associations nationales à 
faire connaÎtre leur point de vue en les 
priant de répondre à ces trois questions: 
1. Quel est Ie rôle actuel des infirmières 
en ce qui concerne les besoins de la collec- 
tivité, en matière de santé? 
II. Quelle sera la contribution des infir- 
mières de l'avenir dans Ie progrénmne sani- 
III. Uudles conditions, attitudes au formes 
d'enseignement devront être modifiées ou 
développées pour permettre à l'infirmière de 
remplir avantageusC'ment Ie rôle que I'on 
attend d'elle? 
Nous espérons que Ie résumé préparé par 


l'A.I.C. paraÎtra prochainement dans I'In- 
firmière Canadienne. 

Assemblée d'l Comité Exécutif de 
/'Association des Infirmiè,.es Canadinmes 

Février est un mois bien rempli au secré- 
tariat national; dès les premiers jours, se 
tiendront les réunions des divers comités, en 
vue de la préparation du congrès biennal. 
Les 2, 3 et 4 février aura lieu au Château 
Laurier, à Ottawa, l'assemblée du Comité 
Exécutif qui réunira 35 membres venant des. 
s provinces et étant le
que vous avez élues. 
Les rapports Que présenteront alors les 
cinq comités nationaux feront l'objet de- 
discussions et les membres seront appelés 
à voter pour ou contre la recommandation 
Qui sera faite par Ie Comité des Relations 
extérieures à savoir: Que Ie guide préparé- 
par ce comité soit publié en anglais et en 
francais. Si cette recommandation est accep- 
tée, Ie guide pourra être distribué lors du 
congrès de \\Tinnipeg. Ce guide servira à 
apporter à l'infirmière des suggestions Qui 
lui seront utiles dans ses relations avec les 
autres membres de la profession et Ie public. 
Un chapitre est consacré aux assemblées de 
districts car c'est là que I'infinnière apprend 
à connaitre la profession et la valeur de ses 
services pour Ie plus grand bien de tous. 
Le Comi té du programme présentera un 
rapport intéressant sur l'organisation de la 
28ième assemblée biennale. Des détails seront 
donnés sur les diverses séances, les confé- 
renciers et les réunions sociales, par Ie 
comité d'organisation comprenant des repré- 
sentantes des provinces hôtesses, la Saskat- 
chewan et Ie 

InscriPtion p,'éliminai,"e 
28ième Cong,.ès Biennal 

Presque tous les j<.JUrs rece'- ons-nous au 
secrétariat national des inscriptions pour Ie 
Congrès; les formules des étudiantC's-infir- 
mières ne portent pas de noms; celles qui 
auront la chance d'assister au congrès ne 
sont pas encore nommées; toutes ont I'espoir 
d'être choisies et ont déjà I'esprit du congrès, 
Les inscriptions reçues du Québec sont les 
plus nombreuses. Rappelez-vous Que les pre- 
mières inscrites auront un meilleur choix de- 
logement et de participation aux voyages et 
excursions organisées après Ie congrès. 

II os pita/isation 
Y en a-t-il. parmi nos lectrices, QUI ont 


For the well
of your patients 




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intravaginal protection 
during menstruation. 
Three absorbencies. 


Brampton, Ontario 

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FEBRUARY. 1956. Vol. 52. No.2 


été hospitalisées, dernièrement? V ous est-il 
arrivé d'être la patiente au iieu de l'infir- 
mière? Nous connaissons une infirmière Qui 
a. récemment, été hospitalisée pendant 
Quelques jours. Etonnée par Ie nombre de 
personnes Qui entraient et sortaient de sa 
chamhre, elle se mit à les compter. Durant 
les premi
res 24 heures, pas moins de 14 
personnes du personnel hospitalier sont 
venues dans sa chambre - la surveillante, 
sept infirmières, trois auxiliaires et trois filles 
de salles. En plus, Son médecin, deux inter- 
nes, une fcmme de ménage et un ouvrier qui 
vint faire quelque réparation. Si c'était un 
peu embrouillant mème pour une infirmière 

que dire d'une personne qui n'est pas familiè- 
re avec ce milieu? Savez-vous Qu'aucune de 
ces personnes ne s'est présentée 
 II n'y a pas 
à dire, nos relations professionnelles ont 
besoin d'être améliorées. 

Chez les nôtres 

La rédactrice de I'Infirmière Canadienne 
et sa col1aboratrice Mlle S. Giroux off rent 
à tous nos lecteurs leurs meilleurs voeux 
de Bonne et Heureuse Année. Elles remer- 
cient très sincèrement tous ceux et celles Qui 
ont collaboré aux pages françaises de cette 

Annual Meeting In New Brunswick 

T HE MEMBERS OF THE New Brunswick As- 
sociation of Registered Nurses were guests 
of the :Moncton Chapter at their 39th annual 
meeting on Octobé:r 19 and 20. The two-day 
meeting, held in the auditorium of the Hôtel- 
Dieu de I' Assomption, ,\ as attended by 165. 
The first day's meeting opened with the 
fiss Grace Stevens, in the chair. 
The second day's meetings were chaired by 
the first vice-president, 1fiss Lois Smith. The 
highlight of the morning was the presentation 
of the first association life membership to 
11iss Alma F. Law, past secretary-registrar, 
who on her retir.:m
nt had held office for 13 
years. The citation was given by 11iss 11arion 
In her presidential address, Miss Stevens 
spoke of the progress made in nursing educa- 
tion in 
ew Brunswick through the appoint- 
ment of 11iss E. Kathleen Russell to study 
ways and means of organizing nursing educa- 
tion to give more adequate nursing service. 
Following the report of the Committee on 
Finance, a motion that the annual active 
rship fee be increased from $10,00 to 
$12.00 was passed unanimously. The I'\ursing 
Service Committee presented some changes 
in Recomm
nded Personnel Policies which 
were accepted. 
The educational program of the meeting 
centred on public relations and follo'f\-ing the 
report of the Committee on Publicity and 
Public Relations, a rôle-playing presentation 
of various situations met with in hospitals 
was given under th
 direction of Miss H. 
Jean Lynds. 
\Ye were fortunate in having as our guest 
frc:l1 K ational Office, 
liss Rita MacIsaac 
\dlO spoke on internal communications. Her 


topic "It' s C p to C s" served to round out the 
program on public relations and gave a wealth 
of information on the relationship of the in- 
dividual nurse to her provincial, national and 
international nursing organizations. with 
guidance for successful public relations. 
The report of the Committee on :N' ursing 
E1ucatÏon noted that some projects which 
need to be studied will remain pending until 
the results of the nursing sun-ey are made 
public in the fall 0 f 1956. A recommendation 
that the New Brunswick A
sociation of 
Registered X urses set aside the sum of 
$2,000 for the purpose of student loans was 

1iss E. Kathleen Russell was in
to the m(;mb::rs and spoke of the research 
being conducted as a cooperative effort. She 
said that there was need for a firmer recog- 
nition of the depth and breadth of nursing 
services demanded today; that the aim of the 
research was to find recommendations in 
order to produce more nursing sen'ice, more 
adequate nursing service, and nursing service 
to meet all the demands of nursing. 
The Committee on Legislation and By- 
Laws recommended that legislation for the 
auxiliary nurse be delayed until after the re- 
search project on nursing education is com- 
pleted. Provincial office v.. as aut horized to 
charge $1.00 for an cndorsement and $2.00 for 
a complete transcript in completing registra- 
tion credentials. 
Other committee reports of provincial in- 
terest were given. Reports from the eight 
chapters showed a range of activities and 
interests. '" i th many vital topics and active 
participation in educational programs by the 
members themselves. 












Meat....nlay be fed at any age" 

 AND )1.ARRIOTT'S statement in 
1947 in their book ffInfant Nutri- 
tion" that ffMeat appropriately pre- 
pared may be fed at any age" has been 
reinterpreted many times since in the 
light of clinical evidence. 

Liverton & Clark (J.A.l\I.A. 134,1215 
(1947) show that infants of six weeks 
readily accept and benefit in terms of 
hemoglobin concentration and 
erythrocyte count, from a formula 
which increases their protein intake 
by 25% by the addition of Swift's 
Meats for Babies. 

FEBRUARY. 1956. Vol. 52. No.2 

Meats for Babies 


/nost preciolls prodtlct 



At the annual dinner held at the Brun
Hotel, John Fisher was guest speaker and 
delighted his audience with his wit and 
general Canadiana philosophy. 
Prominence was given to the coming CN A 
biennial at v\Ïnnipeg through the showing of 
a film, anrl a pep talk by 


L'en/ant à tI,ôpital 

Observons J'enfant à I'hópital, dans eel 
entourage étrange pour lui, calme, propre, 
blanc, tout en ordre; dans cette ambiance 
tellement opposée à son caractère d'enfant, 
lui qui a besoin de mouvement, de vie, 
de hruit, d'un peu et parfois de beaucoup de 
désordre. II subira des trai tements divers, 
piqÚres, la\'ements, soins de plaies opératoires, 
sans parler de l'intervention elle-même. II 
risquera d'i-tre seul pendant de longues 
heures. II aura mal parfois, et personne ne 
sera près de lui pour J'aider à mieux sup- 
porter ce mal. Oui, assurément, 1'hospitali- 
sat ion est une épreuve réelle pour l'enfant. 
Et surtout pour Ie petit de mnins de 5 ans, 
alors que souvent. malgré les e....plications 
fournies, il ne réalise pas pourQuoi on l'a 
abandonné en ce lieu inconnu et apparem- 
ment hostile. 
II en est ainsi surtout pour la raison 
suivante: I'enfant - et surtout Ie petit d'ãge 
préscolaire - vit essentiellement dans Ie 
þréscnt, II est incapable d'anticiper et d'en- 
vi sager ce séjour en cliniQue ('omme un 
événement passager. Et son désespoir en est 
d'autant plus gran(1. Ainsi, lorsque sa mère 
l'a quitté, pour lui, c'est comme si elle 
n'existait plus. L'enfant de 6 ans et plus 
acquiert progressivement la notion du futur; 
J'épreuve lui en est facilitée. II sait Qu'il 
rentrera che7 lui. Toutefois, pour les grands 
enfants aussi, J'épreuve est réelle et il faut 
les aider à la supporter, 
L'intervention, si elle a lieu, est évidem- 
ment Ie point crucial du séjour à la cliniQue, 
11 est souhaitable que les parents restent 
près de I'enfant avant et après l'upératiun. 
II se sentira ainsi un peu plus en sécurité. 
Cette journée-là est pour I'enfant, comme 
pour les parents, une épreuve. L'enfant a 

Extrait de la revue CEnfallt éditée 
par L'Oeuvre 1\; ationale de I'Enfance de 


The oBicers of the Association remain 
unchanged, and are: President, Miss Grace 
Stevens; first vice-president, 
fiss Lois 
Smith; second vice-president, 
Bujold; honorary secretary, Sister Mac- 
S caetary-Registrar 

besuin de la présence d'un de ses parents, 
de sa simple présence. II ne demande pas à 
jouer. II ne demande pas de bruit. :\fais il 
n'aime pas être seu!. La proximité d'un 
être familier - calme et qui Ie réconforte 
- lui est une aide cunsidérable. 


Faut-il rendre visite à l'enfant? 1\on, nous 
a dit une mère de famille, "cela ne sert à 
rien et ca J'énerve. Quand nous ne sommes 
pas là, il est calme, et dès Que nous arrivons, 
ce sont des hurlements. .. En fait, la mère 
sait cela parce Que les hurlements en 
Question J'indisposaient très fort, et Qu'elle 
ne réfléchissait pas au nai motif de ces 
pleurs. "Non" vous diront également cer- 
taines infirmières, en employant les mêmes 
arguments. "Dès Que les parents arrivent, 
ma salle d'habitude calme, s'emplit de pleurs 
et de cris. C'est affreux!" 
Eh! oui, c'est affreux... Souvent les en- 
fants pleurent! 
1ais pourquoi? lis pleurent 
pour se libérer de toute rangoisse accumulée 
penrlant les heures de solitude. Et s'ils de- 
man dent encore et toujours à leurs parents 
de les emmener, c'est parce qu'ils n'aiment 
pas vivre dans ceUe salle d'hôpital. II semble 
certain, alt contraire, qlt'il faut rcndre visite 
à ['enfant hospitalisé, ct altssi SOUVCllt que 
þossible. Que faire s'il pleure? II faut laisser 
passer Ie flot de larmes, et Quand J' enfant 
se calme peu à peu, jouer avec lui, lui 
donner un petit cadeau Qui lui dira Que 
I'on a pensé à lui. même en son absence. 
Que les parents lui parlent de la maison, 
de I'école, qu'ils lui disent qu'on pense à 
lui, Qu'on sera heureux de Ie retrouver 
au foyer.. Ainsi I'enfant sentira Que les 
liens avec sa vie habituelle ne sont pas 
rompus, Qu'on I'aime et qu'on ne I'oublie pas. 
II faudra éYidemment observer les règle- 
ment" en vigueur à la clinique. Si les visites 


:..... . 

," . 








A picture of 
atisfaC'tion -and why not? Thi
baby lo\"(:>s its Farmer's \\'ife. and mother 
 that thc formula milk recomrrwlldcd 
for her bab
. was prepared e:;pecially for infant 
feeding and infant fc('ùillg alone. 

El'((]Jor((led J J rhole 111 ilk 
Cnnccnlrflled Partly 
"kinl1ned J[ ilk 
C once nlraled SkÍ1nmed J.\1 ilk 

Farmer's Wife 

COW AND GATE (CANADA) LIMITED, Brockville, Ontario 

(( Specialists in tll,. /n"(JC('SS1'ng of milJ. fouds for infa nt feedl:ng" 

FEBRUARY. 1956. Vol. 52 No.2 


sont autorisées pendant toute la journée, il 
est possible d'organiser des vi sites répétées 
par différents membres, bien choisis, de la 
famille: parents, grands-parents, frères et 
soeurs . '. II est très important de ne pas 
tromper l'enfant Quant à la fréQuence des 
visites, de ne pas Ie faire attendre en vain. 
Son sentiment de sécurité serait encore 
ébranlé. Quelle est la durée optimum des 
visites à un enfant malade? Eh! bien, ICI 
cela dépend de nombreux facteurs: âge de 

Portrait Unveiled 

At a ceremony on November 15, 1955, a 
posthumous portrait of Miss Mary S. 




. , 

Posthumous portrait of Mary S. Afathew- 
son, B.Sc.. by Robin TVatt, M,C., A.R.C.A., 
unveiled in Livingston Hall, The Montreal 
General Hospital. 

New Spectacles Aid the Deaf 

Spectacles \\-ith built-in hearing aids have 
been developed as the result of recent ad- 
vances in the making of miniature electronic 
components. The battery for the new aid is 
the size of a clime. Known as the "Specta- 
phone," the new hearing aid uses a transis- 
tor. It marks 30 years progress in the search 
for an efficient and unobtrusive hearing 
aid. To solve the problem of coordinating 
the production of the aid with the older 


I'enfant, personnalité des parents, gravité de 
l'affection, occuf)ations ménagères ou autres, 
de la mère,. It semble cependant Que la 
présence de sa mère ou de QuelQu'un de bien 
connu soit pour I'enfant un élément fa- 

N.B. Nous regrettons ne pouvoir citer Que 
ces Quelques lignes de cet intéressant article 
écrit par Ie Docteur E. Alfred Sand de 
l'Cniversité de Bruxelles. 


fathewson, assistant director, School for 
Graduate Nurses, McGill University, 1936-46 
and director of nursing of The Montreal 
General Hospital, 1946-53, was unveiled by 
Miss N orena S. Mackenzie, president of the 
Alumnae Associatioñ of the School of Nurs- 
Iackenzie, who was a close friend 
and professional a
sociate of Miss l\fathewson, 
paid tribute to the unique Qualities which re- 
sulted in her outstanding contribution to the 
fields of nursing education and public health. 
:Miss Ann Peverley, who acted as chairman, 
stated that the portrait was undertaken in 
response to requests from friends and col- 
leagues in many parts of the world, and has 
been made possible by their contributions, 

fr. \V. S. M. MacTier, prðident of the hos- 
pital, in accepting the portrait, expressed his 
appreciation on behalf of the Board of Man- 

.\t a receptìon following the unveiling 
ceremony, ÜJe coffee table was presided over 
by Miss Rae Chittick, director, School for 
Graduate Nurses, l\[cGill Cniversity, and 

1iss Mary Ritchie, Assistant Chief Nurse 
Department of Health. City of Montreal. 

craft of spectacle-making and fitting, selec- 
ted agents will carry stocks of partially 
completed frames in a range of sizes, and 
assemble them when the eye. prescription 
is filled. I\Iany styles will be available to 
suit wearers in different regions, and the 
range will be adjusted to meet average sizes 
and shapes of heads. The Spectaphone is 
manufactured hy Fortiphone Ltd., 247 
Regent Street, London, \V.1., England. 


 studies 1 
affirm clinical reports 2 - 12 of 

safe relief 

in teething distress. 
constipation, gastro- 
intestinal discomfort 



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Baby's Own Tablets 

in infants corroborate extensive use 
in everyday practice regarding the 
notable safety and efficiency of 
Baby's Own Tablets. 
SYMPTOMS - amelioration of ma- 
laise, crankiness, fretfulness, colic 
and moderate fever - in 47 of 48 
"no evidence of side reactions," no 
cutaneous eruptions, petechiae, rise 
in temperature, change in cardiac or 
respiratory function; no oliguria Or 

albuminuria. . . after several months 
of giving Baby's Own Tablets. 
PleaEant, convenient Baby's Own 
Tablets provide Phenolphthalein 
3/16 gr., mildly buffered with Pre- 
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proven 2 - 12 - with even 130 grains 
causing no untoward effects - that 
should a child swallow all the tablets 
in a package of Baby's Own (contain- 
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would be no cause for alarm. 
Send for a sample 'Oupply and litera- 
ture citing references l - 12 . 

G. T. FULFORD CO., LIMITED, Brock.ville, Ontario 

FEBRUARY. 1956. Vol. 52. No.2 



Textbook of Ph
'siology, by Caroline E. 
Stackpole, A.lI., and Lutie Clemson Lea- 
vell, 1I.S. 418 pages. The 2\Iacmillan Co. 
of Canada Ltd" 70 Bond S1., Toronto 2. 
1 Q53. Price $5.00. 
RC'i.'ic'il'cd b}' Irelle Feel}', Science Instruc- 
tor, General H nspital, Brantford, Onto 
This book has evoh'ed irom the authors' 
appreciation of "certain fundamental prob- 
lems that confront students of physiology, 
regardless of their primary interests." 
The eight problems, which provide the 
titles for the sections that comprise the 
book. are: 1. 
faintaining a balance between 
rest and exercise, work and play. 2. Main- 
taining an awareness to the environ.ment. 
3. 2\f aintaining circulation. 4, 
Iaintaining a 
constant oxygen supply. 5. 
Iaintaining the 
protective mechanisms of the body. 6. Main- 
taining the nutrition of the body. 7. 
taining the fluid and electrolyte balance of 
the body. 8. Perpetuating the human race. 
These sections are subdivided into con- 
venient lengths for teaching purposes. 
The information is laid down in a direct 
manner. It is aided frequently by compre- 
hensive tables as well as diagrams, some 
of which should encourage students to de- 
velop this useful way of retaining or ex- 
pressing knowledge. The terms used are 
familiar to students using anatomy and 
physiology texts of which these writers 
were co-authors. 
Consciousness of the "problem-solving ap- 
proach" was noted in the preface, and iv 
the Questions following some chapters. The 
customary introduction of "examples" lends 
reality to the subject. To appreciate this 
book of physiology the student nurse needs 
a basic core of anatomy. There is sufficient 
anatomy provided for recall to make it an 
interesting and worthwhile study or refer- 
ence source for nurses, and. in topics of 
general interest, to orient a reader with 
a particular interest. 

A Manual of Psychiatry, by K. R. Stall- 
LB., Ch.B. 314 pages. N. M. 
Pcryer Ltd., Christchurch. K ew Zealand, 
2nd Ed. 1953. 
Re'i.,iC'i.r..'ed b).' Miss Pcarl Grahum, Super- 
intendent of X /lrses, Olltario Hospital, 
N e'w Toronto, Ollt, 
This manual has three definite objectives: 
(1) To provide valuable information for 
the general practitioner regarding psychiat- 


ric patients; (2) as a guide to students of 
psychiatry; (3) to disprove the belief that 
psychiatry is a specialty rather than a neces- 
sary part of medicine. All objectives are 
accomplished fairly well. Since technical 
terminology is at a minimum, the book is 
of value to laymen also. 
It is divided into 28 chapters. Eight of 
the earlier chapters deal with etiology, rou- 
tines, classifications and mental hygiene. 
Chapters 9 - 16 cover types of illnesses, 
neuroses, deficiency, epilepsy, psychopaths 
and psychosomatic medicine. The last three 
chapters deal with treatment and nursing 
measures, Definitions are simple but excel- 
lent. "Intelligence is the ability to profit by 
experience, to grasp essential meanings of 
past experience and apply them to the 
The author stresses the fact of "contagion" 
in dealing with heredity and environment. 
The chapter on mental hygiene has valu- 
able suggestions for the preventive side of 
psychiatry. Treatment data is clear although 
methods vary in different centres. However, 
the explanations given will allay the fears 
of the general public. 
This text would be a worthwhile addition 
to a nursing library, particularly as an in- 
troduction to psychiatry. More detail would 
seem desirable for those who wish advanced 

Smoking and Cancer, a Doctor's Report, 
by Alton Ochsner, M.D. 86 pages. The 
Copp Clark Co. Ltd., Toronto. 1954. 
Price $2,25. 
Re'l,iewed by Jlargaret N esbift, Cancer 
Clinic, Victoria Gcncral H ospital, Halifax, 
Dr. Ochsner is well Qualified for the task 
of pointing out the hazards of smoking, 
which he has undertaken in this book. By 
the use of ample references to authoritative 
research studies and his own findings, he 
leaves little doubt of these dangers. 
Smokers in particular should read this 
simple, straightforward account of what 
happens in their systems in relation to their 
nicotine intake. The statement that "heavy 
cigarette smoking more than doubles the 
death rate from cancer and nearly doubles 
the death rate from coronary disease" 
should not be taken lightly. 
Dr. Ochsner digresses from the problem 
of "Smoking and Cancer" enough to show 


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FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No. 2 


other serious conditions that threaten the 
smoker in much greater proportion than the 
non-smokers. He also criticizes the tobacco 
companies for their advertising methods and 
their lack of responsibility for the health 
of their customers. 
The author, realizing that the use of to- 
bacco will continue with the years, has given 
a suggested program for breaking the habit. 
For those who will not give it up completely 
he outlines the methods by which the health 
risks may be minimized. 

Physiology and Anatomy by Esther M. 
Greisheimer, Ph.D., M.D. 808 pages. J. 
B. Lippincott Company, 2083 Guy Street, 
!\fontreal. 7th. ed. 1955. Price $5.00. 
Previous editions of this text are well- 
known to instructors and students of nurs- 
ing. The present edition has undergone 
re-evaluation of content and certain changes 
in manner of presentation, The author's 
objective was to increase the value of the 
text as an aid in teaching and learning. 
The book is divided into five main units. 
The various systems of the body are al- 
located and discussed under the appropriate 
headings. Each chapter contains a very 
concise summary of its contents. Study 
questions of the multiple choice variety 
are included at the end of each chapter 
as well. These are interesting and valuable 
but in some instances seem too advanced 
for the preclinical student. A new section - 
"Practical Considerations" - has been in- 
troduceò. This developed as the result of 
questions asked by students. It constitutes 
a brief discussion of some of the common 
pathologic conditions associated with specific 
hody systems. For examples. arteriosclerosis. 
aneurysm, and varicose veins are dealt with 
under the anatomy and physiology of the 
circulatory system. There are a large num- 
ber of illustrations - a considerable pro- 
portion of them in color. They are clear- 
ly labelled and understandable. A glossary 
has been prepared to aid in familiarizing 
the reader with anatomical and medical 

One section deserves special mention. 
:Most students find the study of the nervous 
system difficult. This may be the result 
of the tendency to separate the system into 
its component parts instead of regarding 
it as an integrated unit. The author has 
approached the subject with the emphasis on 
integration. The use of a familiar situa- 
tion - an aching tooth - as an analogy 


in the introductory remarks attracts one's 
attention immediately. The section is well 
illustrated with tables and diagrams. The 
discussion is detailed but pertinent. There 
has been greater emphasis placed upon re- 
lating the rôle of the nervous system to 
familiar bodily activities. 
This is a very readable and useful book. 
The instructor in anatomy and physiology 
should find it a valuahle aid. Some may 
consider that there is too much detail. The 
author anticipated this but included addi- 
tional information for the student who 
might be lacking in a supporting basis of 
scientific knowledge. Considerable thought 
has been given to the sequence of subject 
matter hased on the needs of the student 
nurse. For the less experienced instructor, 
the use of the text Teaching Physiology 
and Allatomyin Nursing by H. H. Flitter 
and H. R. Rowe in conjunction with this 
book would be very helpful. 

Teaching Physiology and Anatomy in 
Nursing by Hessel H. Flitter, R.N., 
B.S.. M.A.. and Harold R. Rowe, R.N., 
B.S., M.S. 56 pages. J. B. Lippincott 
Company, 2083 Guy Street. :Montrea1. 
1955. Price $2.00. 
The new instructor often has di'ticulty in 
deciding upon the best method to use in 
presenting her sub{ect. In the words of the 
authors "this book is intended to offer help 
to the beginning instructor in physiology 
and anatomy." To make the text more 
meaningful, it was developed with specific 
reference to Physiology and Anatomy, 7th 
edition, by Esther 
1. Greisheimer. 
In introduction there is a general dis- 
cussion and definition of the usual ap- 
proaches to teaching. Such terms as "cor- 
relation," "integration," and "content-cen- 
tered approach" are clarified. Succeeding 
units are related to corresponding units of 
Dr. Greisheimer's book. No attempt is made 
to organize subject material for teaching 
purposes. Suggestions and ideas are offered 
for the use of the instructor in choosing 
the best method of presentation. The im- 
portance of teaching this subject in integra- 
tion with t!ìe rest of the curriculum is 
emphasized. Using the student's past ex- 
periences as a basis for imparting new 
information is also stressed. 
A plan of time distribution of content 
is given. This is of limited value. The num- 
ber of hours allotted to each subj ect varies 
from one school to another ùepending on the 
organization of the curriculum. A course 


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Each capsule contains: 
Vitamin A Activity d. ..,..... ..., , . ..., ..'... ...5000 I. U. 
(from Carotene 1000 units; from fish liver oils 4000 units) 
Vitamin D. ..........,....... 500 I.U. 
Thiamine .........' .................... ............'. 1 mg. 
Riboflavin '.......,.. ................. ,......,............,. 2 mg. 
Niacinamide .,................ .,....,............. 10 mg. 
*d-Calcium Pantothenate. 10 mg. 
Pyridoxine. ,..........,.............. 1 mg. 
Ascorbic L\cid . ...... ........................................ 30 mg. 
,Mixed Tocopherols (antioxidant) ............. 4 mg. 
Liver Concentrate 
(derived from 2.5 gm. whole liver).............. 125 mg. 
Brewer's yeast........,........,... . 125 mg. 
*The significance of this vitamin in human nutrition is 
not yet established. 


VITULES are supplied in 
bottles of 30, 100 and 
1000 capsules 

one Vitule daily 

one Vitule, three or four 
times daily. 

\ ri,d J 

..I.."': T '0. .. Þ04u 

FEBRUARY, 19:->6' Vol. 52. No. 2 


outline is included in conclusion. Senior 
instructors may have mixed feelings in 
regard to this. The new instructor will 
undoubtedly be grateful for it. 
It would appear that the authors have 
accomplished their purpose. \Vhile designed 
primarily for the less experienced instruc- 
tor, the senior instructor may conceivably 
find a fresh approach to a familiar subject. 
This text should prove very useful. 

upervision of Nursing Senice Per- 
sonnel, by Cecilia M. Perrodin, R.N., 
M.S.N. Ed. 622 pages. The Macmillan 
Company of Canada, 70 Bond Street, 
Toronto 2, Onto 1954. Price $6.00. 
Revieu!ed by 
!I1iss Jeanie S. Clark, 
Director of Nursing, Uni'i.lersity H osþital, 
Edmonton. Alta. 
The author of this textbook was formerly 
assistant professor, Nursing Education, De 
Paul University, Chicago, Illinois. In the 
preface, she states her three purposes in 
writing this book as follows: 
1. In an effort to demonstrate the role 
of the nursing supervisor as a harmonizer 
and a key figure in the achievement of a 
desirable balance between the legitimate as- 
pirations of those directly or indirectly 
affected by supervision: patients, community, 


is presenting a five-day institute 

APRIL 23-27, 1956 


Administration and Supervision in 
Nursing Education designed for 
supervisors and directors of nursing 
education with at least one year's 
university experience. 
Dr. Genevieve Bixler, consultant 
in Nursing education is to be the 
conference leader. 

TUITION FEE - $25.00 

Detailed Program will be sent to each 


nursing personnel and hospital and nursing 
2. From a belief "that this is the age of 
supervision, that supervision is the answer 
to many of the problems of nursing service 
in all hospitals, large and small, and that 
a guide to supervision will be welcomed 
by administrator, supervisors, and teachers." 
3. To satisfy students, who, when pursu- 
ing courses in nursing education frequently 
and legitimately complain that they receive 
the same content in nursing administration 
courses that they receive in nursing super- 
It would appear that Miss Perrodin writes 
on the subject of supervision of personnel 
assuredly. She has had extensive experience 
and contacts in the nursing service field and 
also contacts in the fields of industry and 
business. She handled her subject under 
eight units: 
U nit One: The Nature and Meaning of 
Unit Two: Basic Concepts of Importance in 
Unit Three: Principles of Supervision and 
their Relation to Supervisory Practices. 
Unit Four: Analysis and Organization of 
Supervisory Activities, Requirements 
and Qualifications. 
Unit Five: Tools of Supervision. 
Unit Six: Contributions of Education, Busi- 
ness and Industry to Supervision. 
Unit Seven: The Supervisory Program. 
Unit Eight: The Fruits of Supervision. 
At the end of each unit there appears 
an extensive hibliography for the use of 
readers who wish to pursue further refer- 
ences on the subject. 
The material is well organized and set 
out frequently in a tabular or illustrative 
way. There is a discriminating use of a large 
and small type which aids in rapid com- 
prehension. For the student and for the 
nursing service supervisor, this textbook 
should fill a very real need. I feel that the 
author has successfully achieved her three 

The following list sums up all. . of 
the qualities that anyone working in accident 
prevention must have: the curiosity of a cat; 
tenacity of a bull; determination of a taxi 
driver; diplomacy of a wayward husband; 
patience of a self-sacrificing wife; enthusi- 
asm of a jitterburg; good humor of an 
idiot; simplicity of a jackass; assurance of 
a college boy; tireless energy of a bill col- 

- Safety Service Newsletter 



The Floor Supervisor 

Call lights flashing, medications to be 
given, rounds to be made-this is no 
time to talk to a detail man! But 
knowledge of the drugs you handle 
is important. So . . . when you get a 
chance, talk with the lederle Repre- 
sentative. He can give you much 
helpful information on regularly used 
products like: 

Ask your pharmacist to let you know when 
the Lederle man is in the hospital. (Maybe 
you'd like to schedule him to speak at 
your next supervisors' meeting I) 


FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. No.2 

ACHROMYCIN* Tetracycline, the 
leading tetracycline, today's foremost broad- 
spectrum antibiotic. 
FOLBESYN* Vitamins, high patency 
parenteral B-camplex with C. 
DIAMOX* Acetazoleamide, a carbonic 
anhydrase inhibitor, the outstanding drug of 
its kind, useful in edema, glaucoma, epilepsy. 
V ARIDASE* Streptokinase-Streptodor- 
nase, used for enzymatic debridement and 
control of inflammation. 


6óóO Royalmount Avenue. Town of 
Mount Royal. Montreal. Quebec 




Nursing Assistants or Practical Nurses 
required for 

?edøeed '1


Oshweken, Manitowaning, Moose Factory and Sioux Lookout, Ont.; 
Hodgson, Pine Falls and Norway House, Man. ; Fort Qu' Appelle, North 
Battleford, Sask.; Edmonton, Hobbema
 Gleichen, Cardston, Morley 
and Brocket, Alta.; Sardis, Prince Rupert and Nanaimo, B.C. 

Outpost Nursing Stations, Health Centres and fidd positions in Provin- 
ces, Eastern Arctic, and N orth- West Territories. 

(1) Public Health Staff Nurses: up to $3,300 per year depending upon 
qualifications and location. 
(2) Hospital Staff Nurses: up to $3,120 per year depending upon quali- 
fications and location. 
(3) Nursing Assistants or Practical Nurses: up to $185 per month, 
depending upon qualifications. 
· Room and board in hospitals - $30 per month. Statutory holidays. 
Three weeks' annual leave with pay. Generous sick leave credits. Hos- 
pital-medical and superannuation plans available. Assistance may be 
provided to help cover cost of transportation, 
. Special compensatory leave for those posted to isolated areas. 
For interesting, challenging, satisfying work, apply to: 
Indian and Northern Health Services at one of the following addresses: 
(1) 4824 Fraser St., Vancouver 10, B.C.; 
(2) Charles Camsell Indian Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta; 
(3) 10 Travellers Building, Regina, Sask.; 
( 4) 522 Dominion Public Building, Winnipeg, Manitoba; 
(5) Box 292, North Bay, Ontario; 
(6) 55 "B" S1. Joseph Street, Quebec, P.Q.; 
(7) Moose Factory Indian Hospital, Moosonee, Ontario. 
Chief, Personnel Division, 
Department of National Health and WeUare, 
Ottawa, Ontario. 



. '" 











Checking Ident-A-Band before giving blood. 


There's an new vogue in wallpaper in 
Calgary. The staff at Jackson's Welding 
Shop started sticking quarters to the wall 
with the intention of taking them down 
for a staff treat when the amount reached 
$10. Then it was decided that there was 
no point in taking them do\\on and that they 
should aim for $100 and give the money 
to the children at the hospital. Visitors 
became curious and joined the game. A short 
time ago the money reached the mark and 
was stripped off the wall and sent to the 
Red Cross. 
ow a receipt from the Red 
Cross has an honored spot on the wall and 
around it are coins and hills totalling nearly 
$100. Now they plan to paper the wall with 

* * * 
The maiden v. ho takes her time about 
marrying is usually happier than the one 
who enters matrimony early in life. This 
is a conclusion drawn by sociologists from 
a study of 604 young women. single and 
married. Psychological tests indicate that the 
single girls "had better emotional adjust- 
ment, greater self-reliance and a greater 
sense of personal freedom." The tests also 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No.2 

You CAN Check 
Identity. . . 

. . . as the nurses at left are doing. The 
patienr is abour to receive blood and is 
unconscious and dependenr on the nurses. 
Should she receive blood inrended for 
someone else, the resulr could be tragic. 
However, the nurses are averring danger 
by checking the Idenr-A-Band @ on the 
patient's wrisr. Her name and number 
are clearly visible. 
JUSt one of many good reasons why 
Idenr-A-Bands on all patienrs at all times 
are essenrial. 

I Please send me free samples and information 
I about Idenr-A-Bands for all patients. (No 
I tariff on Idenr-A-Bands in Canada.) 





showed that those who are in no hurry 
to marry are less likely to be anti-social. 
Although most authorities on marriage agree 
that a woman should not marry until she 
is emotionally mature, one sociologist points 
uut that their advice is not always followed 
because it is the immature and emotionally 
insecure young v. oman for whom marriage 
has the strongest appeal. - (lSPS) 
* * * 
Courtesy is kindne:>s expressed in action, 
and etiquette is merely a collection of forms 
that help to make courtesy easy and natural. 


Required for fully approved 125-bed 
General Hospital in Suburban Toronto. 
Salary open depending on training & 





 1956 Spring Examinations for Provin- 
cial Registration will cover two groups of 
candidates, and will be held as follows: 
Examinations for Rel'istration - Part II: 
Graduates desiring to qualify for a licens
to practise will write on APril 9th, 10th 
and 11th, 1956. Candidates will not be per- 
d to writ
 examinations until they 
 actually compl
d th
ir training and 
hold th
 diploma of their school. 
Applications must be received by February 
29th, 1956. 

Examinations for Registration - Part I: 
Students who will hav
d their 
first year will 
nter th
 Examinations for 
gistration, Part I, which will be held on 
March 19th, 20th, 21st, a,
d 22nd, 1956. 
 to b
 announced in each school.) 
Applications '/'I!IIst be received by Febnlary 
8th, 1956. 

For application forms and all information 
relating to the examinations, apply to the 
headquarters of the Association. 

See retary- Reg i stra r. 
Suite 506-1538 Sherbrooke Street, West, 
Montreal 25, P.Q. 




Saint John General Hospital 


Degree in nursing education with 
experience required. 

New Educational Department 
opening in March, 1956. 

Expected registration 200 students. 



Keep an hour or two now and then for 
the cultivation of at least one hobby. And 
by "hobby" I do not mean a form of athle- 
tic recreation but some pursuit which en- 
gages your interest and involves a certain 
amount of intellectual activity. It should 
be completely divorced from your profes- 
sional studies and, if possible, should lead 
you into association with men and women 
whose vocations and outlooks are different 
from your own, 





The officers for the coming year were 
elected at the last meeting of the season: 
J. \Vickett, president; Mrs. \Vanda Camp- 
bell, vice-pres. ; Mrs. E. Holmes, sec. 
treas.; committee conveners: Advertising, 
1Irs. .MaMrguerite Greenfield; welfare, Mrs. 
Nancy Sproul; entertainment, Mrs. Alice 



The annual Nightingale Dance was held 
in November under the auspices of the 
chapter. It was suggested at one of the 
regular monthly meetings that the members 
might assist in furnishing the new Com- 
munity Rest Room as a worthwhile project. 
At a later meeting it was decided to pur- 
chase a play-pen and a bottle warmer to be- 
donated in the name of the chapter to the 
new community centre. 


Mrs. Bresden was appointed as a corres- 
ponding member of the Institutional Nursing 
Committee. The delegates to the annual con- 
vention, 1955, have been appointed as a 
committee to study and submit any neces- 
sary recommendations in regard to plans. 
for the 1956 meeting. 
At the November meeting of the chapter, 
Mrs. Asp and Mrs. Climic were appointed 
to select a slate of officers for 1956. It was 
decided to donate a sum of money to the 
Bethany Home to help in the work with 
orphans and children from broken homes. 
The guest speaker, Rachael Tasker, gave 
a very interesting talk on "Home Delivery." 
The January meeting featured a specia] 
program under the direction of Mrs. Mc- 
Whinnie. High school girls interested in 
nursing, were guests of honor on this oc- 


(':asion. It is hoped the opportunit) to asso- 
ciate with active nurses and to discuss 
student nurse life will encourage futun: 
Other guest speakers during the season 
have been Elsie Henschell, Sydney, Aus- 
tralia and Mr. Schumacher both of whom 
showed slides of their visits to many parts 
()f the world. 


The members of this chapter have had a 
very busy term. I. Stewart attended a ses- 
sion of the local branch of the Canadian 
Mental Health Association. Her report 
proved extremely interesting. The major 
projects for the past year of the Council 
of Social Agencies were outlined for the 
members by 
1iss D. Guild at one of the 
meetings. 1Iiss Algard attended a session 
held by the Women's Bureau, Department 
of Labor, at which :Miss M. Royce, director 
of the bureau, was guest speaker. Her report 
darified the functions of this department. 
Earlier this past year Sister Leclerc attended 
do convention for Catholic hospitals and 
schools of nursing in St. Louis. Members 
were interested in the highlights which she 
later presented to them. 
A motion to hold a minimum of four 
-chapter meetings a year has been approved. 
This will require amendment of the district 
by-laws. At a supper meeting late in the 
fall, the following officers were elected for 
the coming term: A. Fallis, president; Mrs. 
M. Duthie, vice-pres.; J. Cummings, sec- 
retary; Mrs. N. Milan, treasurer. In her 
greeting Miss Fallis expressed the hope 
that each one would take an active part in 
the association and thus assure the success 
of its work. 
Interested members were invited to attend 
a meeting of the Institutional Nursing Com- 
mittee and to spend an evening at the 
Calgary Associate Clinic. The need to study 
the proposed revision of by-laws was empha- 
The best wishes of the chapter were ex- 
tended to F. Ferguson for success and 
happiness in her new endeavor in Ceylon. 


Chapter meetings have been well attended, 
and programs have been interesting. Dr. 
Little, a recent speaker based his lecture 
On the subject of "Rest" and the ill effects 
of confinement to bed. Dr. ðL Rowland 
sJ?oke on the prevention of communicable 
dIseases through immunization, and used a 
film "The Body Fights Bacteria" to empha- 
size his remarks at the November meeting. 
A membership committee has been formed 
under the direction of Mrs. Robertson and 
J. Hagg. 
Mmes. :MacDonald, Betton, McRae and 
Lyon took charge of the January program, 
The slate of officers elected for the year 
was: Mrs. Irving, president; Mrs. White, 
vice-president; Mrs. ]. Dougherty, secretary 
and R. Sarson, treasurer. 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No. 2 


Get\,\e . t\ 
. 0,,0 
COt\S"P . 




Even mild or occasional constipa- 
tion takes a heavy toll of a nurse's 

Pheno-Active is a gentle laxative 
that will not cause cramps, yet is 
effective for even the most severe 

cases. You can take Pheno-Active, 
or recommend its use to others, with 
complete confidence. 

Available in handy tubes 
for your purse, and in 
economy size for home use. 


, j ü'" 






Both, oC eou....,. are talkin. about the \ . 
unique taøu appeal oC Coca-Cola, From 
_ ACriea to Alaøka . , . Crom Calcutta to Cal.ary, 
.-t-': ' Coca-Cola iø the popular bevera.e that 
'.. the home-town Colkø and offers a Camiliar welcome 
, to viøitors wherever they're Crom. Around 
. the world. Coca-Cola hel
 people to 
_, >> 0;,., " ,0 work reCreøhed and play reCreahed 
" '"'. .,,;,,{' 
 t...'. and at the aame ûme adda 
\ .... diøtinction to 
. . V f!t -
}./ .
, · tr

.:' . 

:" . i . 
. . y. . .. " .. . . -
- L//// j;4
;""'t.., r/ 
í' (fr .I .. f ;, . ...... . '. . ;

' :ï1 :
' " 
-.' \ -! '.. ',i., .I
:::' \ . '\. . 

t t.'O'"
: - 6

Jrè say" delicious. H 

Pretorians say 


U heerlik." 









- " 
.'",. - 








. .... 





Several members assisted in "Operation 
Lifesaver" by setting up a first aid station 
for that day. Mrs. Kinder has been chosen 
corresponding member to the Institutional 
Nursing Committee. 


Provision of a T.V. set for a shut-in and 
development of a plan of assistance for a 
rheumatic. heart sufferer have been among 
the projects undertaken by members of this 
chapter. Home nursing lectures have been 
tentatively planned for the future. Mrs. S. 
Christianson was appointed secretary for the 
Civil Defence home nursing course. 

E I [AT 

Fall and winter activities were resumed 
at a meeting of the members early in Sep- 
tember. The private ward at the .Maternity 
Hospital, which was 'furnished by the dis- 
trict, is to be provided with new curtains. 
Mrs. Anderson and Mrs. Montgomerie 
placed a wreath at the Cenotaph, 
Proposed revisions of the by-laws have 
been studied by a committee under the 
direction of :Miss Bietsch and a report for- 
warded by this chapter of the A.A.R.N, 
The Community Nursing Registry report 
showed considerable activity for November. 
It was decided that the constitution and by- 


laws of the registry should be printed in 
booklet form. Mrs. Renner gave a compre- 
hensive report of the work of the institu- 
tional nursing committee at a recent chapter 
meeting. A brief resume of the civil defence 
course which she attended in Arnprior was 
given by Mrs. McKay. The annual meeting 
was held in January at which the slate of 
officer<; for 1956 was presented. 


The possibility of sponsonng a blood 
donor clinic as a chapter project is to be 
explored. I t was recommended that a repre- 
sentative of the local Red Cross branch 
be invited as guest speaker for a future 
The development and care of children's 
teeth was the subject of a discussion by 
Dr. H, Canniff at a recent meeting. The 
members found the information educational 
as well as very interesting. 



New otììcers elected for the term are: 

frs. 1. Pelltier, president; Mrs. E. White, 
vice-pres., and 11. 
lacKinnon, secretary. 
1Irs. B. Stephens and M. Fredgin are in 
charge of program planning. 
Civil defence was discussed by Dr. Argue 
at one of the earlier chapter meetings. 



Twenty-two members were present a
first meeting initiating the fall and wlI1ter 
program. The chapter plans to assume re- 
sponsibility for the drive for funds for the 
Cancer Society - a project succ
undertaken in 1955. A buffet supper in con- 
nection with the nurses' formal dance was 
served as a means of raising funds for the 
treasury. Dr. McKibbon provided the mem- 
bers with the latest information on the 
toxemias. of pregnancy following the busi- 
ness seSSIOn. 
A detailed and interesting lecture on neph- 
ritis by Dr. 
IcFetridge was thorou!fhly 
enjoyed by the audience at a later meeting. 
It was planned to invite a representative of 
the Cancer Society as a guest speaker at a 
future meeting. 

The past year has b
en both active and 
interesting, A bylaw committee was formed 
to study revisions and then submit them to 
the executive and members of the provin- 
Óal association for approval. Funds were 
provided to help pay treatment expenses 
for a worthy patient and a donation was 
made to the polio drive. It was also decided 
that a contribution should be made to a 
charity fund. Miss Yuill and 
Irs. McKeoun 
attended the annual provincial convention 
earlier this year. 
Increasing the active membership has 
received serious consideration. 
have been asked to cooperate individually 
in trying to increase attendance. Dr. More, 
Mrs. C. Van Dusen and 
1r. Taylor, psy- 
chologist, have been guest speakers at vari- 
ous times during the past year. 
Iiss Ross 
from the V.o.
. headquarters, Ottawa, was 
present at one meeting and outlined the 
steps necessary to set up such a service in 
the district. 
The establishment of a nursing scholar- 
ship has been undertaken as a major project 
by this chapter. A committee has been 
formed to draw up the list of requirements 
necessary. It has been decided to use a por- 
tion of the funds to assist a student to 
complete her basic nursing education. Mrs. 
Davis was nominated to represent the in- 
stitutional nursing group. 
lembers enjoyed 
a social evening at their December meeting. 



Iiss Gilda Graves, whose work among 
the Indians with her study of rare blood 
types has provided so much interest, gave 
a very informative address at a recent meet- 
ing. Dr. Venner discussed "Misunderstood 
Illnesses of Childhood" and "Epilepsy" as 
guest speaker during the past year. It was 
decided to seek advice in the selection of 
films which would be of interest to the 
The topic of breast cancer was discussed 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. No.2 

. .." 






'" ,." 

." .\\y

, g

becattse. . . 
Vegallill brings 
relief from paiJl 

Pain upsets a woman's poise and ap- 
pearance, whatever her job. Her work 
becomes much more difficult, adding 
tension that is unnecessary today. 
That's why relief from pain is so im- 
portant, especially to nurses. not 
Just at specially difficult times. but 
every time pain occurs. 
Veganin tablets are recommended by . 
physicians and dentists . . . especially 
for "st ronger" relief . . . since Veganin 
contains approximately 8 grains of 
anti-pain medication. -\ vailable in 
handy tubes of lO's and 20's for pocket 
or purse. 





" ',\/ [; '\ 






School of Nursing 


A Four-Calendar-Year Course designed to prepare students for all 
branches of community and hospital nursing practice and leading to the 
degree, Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.Sc.N.J. It includes studies in the 
humanities, basic sciences and nursing. Bursaries, loans and scholarships 
are available. 

A Two-Year Course designed to prepare graduate nurses to teach basic 
sciences in schools of nursing and leading to the degree, Bachelor of 
Education in Nursing (B.Ed.N.J. It includes studies in the humanities, the 
physical, social and biological sciences, teaching and nursing education. 
For additional information, write to: 
School of Nursing, Hamilton College, 
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. 

by Dr. Betkowski and a film shown at a 
late fall gathering. Plans were completed 
for the monthly Baby Clinic and three mem- 
bers were selected to assist with this. The 
Christmas banquet was held in the CN.R. 
dining room and was followed by a party 
at the home of Mrs. Graves. Dr. 0. Hogan, 
Dr. and "Mrs. Betkowski and Dr. Vinner 
were honored guests for the evening. 


Discussion of proposed by-law changes 
was of major concern at a recent chapter 
meeting. A suggestion that an enlarged 
executive of the district meet and study 
such changes was accepted. R. McLure gave 
a most interesting talk about her course in 
public health which she had taken in Pitts- 
burgh. Many highlights about the city itself 
were included. Miss McLure acted as chair- 
man of the nominating committee for the 
January meeting. 


The programs for future meetings have 


been the chief topics of discussion at chap- 
ter sessions this past fall. "Members have 
been submitting suggestions in regard to this. 
Welfare organizations are to be approached 
with the hope of obtaining speakers. A 
recent guest speaker was Dr. Gillespie, 
medical health officer for Lac S1. Anne 
Health Unit. His topic, ".:\Iaternal Depriva- 
tion and Mental Health in Children" was 
most interesting. Two films, "Crossroads" 
and "Miracle Fluid" were presented at one 
of the past meetings and proved both educa- 
tional and enjoyable. 


The following slate of officers was elected 
for the current season: 
lrs. K. Brix, presi- 
dent; Mrs. Alice Soldan, vice-pres.; Mrs. 
V. Barr, secretary; J. McPhee, treas. 
The chapter is directing a scrapbook com- 
petition on Cancer Education among school 
pupils in the local area. This contest is being 
sponsored by the Alberta division of the 
Canadian Cancer Society. A home cooking 
sale was held late in the fall as a money 
making project. 


Members of the chapter assisted with the 
Blood Donor clinic held recently. A course 
in home nursing has been planned with two 
volunteers from the chapter contributing 
their services. 

An organjzational meeting was held in 
lunicipal Hospital to form a chapter 
of the A.A.R.N. The officers elected were: 
Mrs. Nicol, chairman; 
Iiss Gamble, vice- 
chairman; Miss I. Okamoto, secretary; Mrs. 
Rash, treasurer. Bylaws were adjusted and 
accepted. Meetings are to be held monthly. 
Members have decided to help with the 
Baby Clinic as one project and to sponsor 
the annual nurses' dance. 



The annual meeting of the chapter was 
held in November with 15 members present. 
Mrs. J. Berto presented the report of a 
successful year with varied activities. 
Officers for 1956 were elected as follows: 
Irs. H. Steele; vice-pres., Mrs. 
P. Gannon; secretary, Mrs. J. Ulaga; 
lrs. J. Mitchell; social convener, 
Mrs. A. Quayle. Miss O. J ami, Miss H. 
Fulmore and 
1rs. D. B. Quayle attended 
the institute in Nanaimo on "Body Mechan- 
ics and Rehabilitation Nursing." Miss C. 
Charters conducted this valuable course 
which was sponsored by the R.N.A.B.C. 
The purpose of the course was to provide 
instructors for the local chapters. 

St. Paur s Hospital 
The members of this year's graduating 
class were entertained at a buffet supper 
by the alumnae association. Mrs. CoIIishaw 
presented a trophy to the outstanding student 
in each section on behalf of all alumnae 
members. Outside graduates presently on 
staff were guests of honor at the annual 
Christmas party. A bazaar was held early 
in December and featured home cooking 
and sewing. 
News of the graduates reveals that A. 
Klassen, X, Martens and A. Friesen are 
working in Kelowna. A. (
lellor) Pulfer 
is On the staff of the Royal Inland Hos- 
pital, Kamloops while B. J. Mellor is at the 
King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Ber- 
muda. R. \\' olfe is working at the \Vestern 
Hospital, Toronto and Miss Galloway at 
\Velland County Hospital, Ontario. P. John- 
cox completed her postgraduate studies in 
surgery at the General Hospital, Vancouver 
and is in Fresno, Calif. E. Ropas and P. 
Branca have started postgraduate study in 
surgery in their home school. G. (Larson) 
Alder has joined the staff of the Central 
Supply Dept. 

FEBRUARY. 1956. Vol. 52, 
o, 2 


Courses for Graduate Nurses 

Term 1955-56 

The School of Nursing offers one-year 
diploma Courses in the following fields: 

1. Public Health Nursing. 

2. Teaching and Supervision in 
Schools of Nursing. 

The Director, 
School of Nursing 
Dalhousie University 
Halifax, N.S. 


The South Waterloo Memorial Hospi- 
tal, Galt, Ontario, invites applications 
from qualified personnel for the 
position of Director of Nursing. The 
hospital is less than 2% years old and 
furnished with the latest equipment in 
every department. 

220-active bed General Hospital with 
41-bassinettes. In addition school of 
nursing with 43 students at present. 

Adequate salary together with modern 
3 roomed furnished suite. 

The position is open immediately. 

Apply to 



School of Nursing, Montreal 


1. A four-month clinical course in 
Obstetrical Nursing. 

2. A two-month clinical course in 
Gynecological NU1"Sin

Salary-After second month at 
General Staff rates. 

For information apply to: 

Director of Nursin
Royal Victoria Hospital 
Montreal 2, Que. 


HOSPITAL offers six-month courses in 
Theory and Practice in Psychiatric 
Nursing to Graduate Nurses in good 
standing in their own province. 

Classes - Spring and Fall. 

Complete maintenance or living-out 
allowance, meals in hospital and uni- 
form laundry for the first three months. 
General duty rates the second three 

For further information write to: 

Miss H. M. Lamont, Director of Nursing, 
Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal Z, Que. 
or Miss Kathleeen Marshall, Supervisor of 
Nurses, Allan Memorial Institute of Psy- 
chiatry, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal 
Z. Que. 


General Hospital 

V1trscs' Hospital Aid 

Authority to purchase a motion picture 
screen for the nurses' classroom was given 
to K. Richardson and Mrs. C Colwell. This 
was an outstanding feature of the November 
meeting of the members. A recent cooking 
sale with a drawing for a cake added sub- 
stantially to treasury funds. Small gifts were 
collected for distribution to sick members 
at Christmas. Mrs. C Forsythe was wel- 
comed as a new member. The student nurses 
were presented with 25 season skating tickets 
as a Christmas gift and the members en- 
joyed a special Christmas program and 
exchange of gi fts at their December meeting. 



St. l11iclzacl's Hospital 

A meeting of the alumnae association was 
held prior to the Christmas season. Plans 
were made for the preparation and mailing 
of gift boxes to sick nurses, and for a 
theatre night. The annual nurses' dinner 
was held earlv in December in the residence. 
G. Fergusõn has been appointed to the 
teaching staff of the obstetrical department. 
M. Hough has joined the staff of Baker 
Clinic, Edmonton. 11. 'Villsher is stationed 
in Zweibruchen, Germany with the RCA.F., 
while M. MacKenzie is working in St. 
Joseph's Hospital, Ann Arbor. S. Walker 
is presently in New York at the N euro- 
logical Institute, Presbyterian Hospital. B. 
Burns is taking postgraduate study at Boston 
University. R. Krmpotic has joined the staff 
of Franklin Hospital, San Francisco. B. 
Kelly and M. Noble are on the staff of the 
Montreal General Hospital. The appoint- 
ment of F. Roach as Dean of Nursing 
Education, Assumption College, was noted 
with pride. 

H' o l1lCIl 's College Hospital 
In recognition of her years of service and 
as a token of their regard for her, members 
of the alumnae association presented Miss 
C. Dixon with a piece of luggage. The 
presentation was made by Mrs. Mary 
Roberts. Mrs. M. Hood, who also has given 
many years of faithful service to her hos- 
pital and alumnae, received a life member- 
ship in the association and a bouquet of red 
roses. These were highlights of the last 
meeting oi the association for 1955 at which 
Dr. Ferreira was the guest speaker. 
The class of 1931 is making tentative 
plans for a reunion, marking their 25th 
anniversary, following the graduation dinner 
this coming spring. [t is hoped that other 


classes will follow their example. H. Muir 
has joined the staff of the new Sudbury 
"Memorial Hospital. R. Duff visited the hos- 
pital recently and was the guest of honor 
at a buffet supper and a tea. M. Kerr re- 
cently returned from Europe. 

A new chapter has been formed which 
includes Cochrane, Kapuskasing and Hearst 
areas. In spite of the distances which must 
be covered to permit attendance, interest is 
high and the members plan to hold monthly 
meetings - eight in Kapuskasing and tv. 0 
in Cochrane. The first meeting was held 
in November at the Sensenbrenner Hospital 
under the chairmanship of Mrs. Loosemore, 
district president. The slate of officers elec- 
ted was: G. Larocque, president; ]. \Var- 
rington, 1st vice-pres.; 
liss Millredge, 2nd 
vice-pres.; P. Osborn, membership convener. 


City Hospital 
The annual tea and bazaar of the student 
nurses' association was held under the 
auspices of the class of 1957 A. Mrs. H. 
Armstrong, Misses ]. Bernie, M. Gibson 
and E. Klewchuk received the guests. Mrs. 
D. \\'ilkie, Misses L. \Villis, M. :MacKen- 
zie and E. Pears ton presided over the tea 
table. D. Kacsmar and I. Levorson, scholar- 
ship students of last year. are attending 
the University of Saskatchewan. E. Redden 
and A. Hompoth have joined the staff of 
the nu,rsing school office as assistant night 


:Members attending a recent chapter 
meeting experienced a rare treat in hearing 
Dr. H. B. de Groot discuss folk music. 
In the short time at his disposal, Dr. de 
Groot outlined the evolution of folk music 
and illustrated with records. Music of the 
British \Vest Indies, Russia, Spain and 
Hungary was played. The gypsy music of 
the latter two countries v. as especially 
enjoyable. A short business meeting fol- 

GC1leral Hospital 
The school of nursing is the proud owner 
of a new movie projector, with plans to 
acquire a new slide proj ector in the near 
future as well. The gymnasium in the re- 
cently completed nurses' residence is much 
appreciated by both graduate and student 
nurses as indicated by the increasing ac- 
tivity. 11rs. A. Stewart and Miss M. Lyons 
attended the institute on "The Role of the 
Nurse in Civil Disaster" held at Fort 
Qu' Appelle. 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. No.2 






-. ............... 









. "'"- 

l . 


""1 ',

:- ... 


Grey Nuns' Hospital 
The student nurses are planning a special 
ceremony to welcome a new and modern 
"Mrs. Chase" into their school. Mrs. H. 
McCormack and Miss V. Ryan attended 
the Civil Defence institute held in Fort 
Qu'Appelle. C. Kenny attended and enjoyed 
the course held earlier this year at Civil 
Defence College, Arnprior. D. Percy, Chief 
Nursing Consultant, Department of N a- 
tional Health and \VeHare, visited the school 
of nursing recently. Mrs. Ellis has resigned 
from the staff. 









CASH'S Loomwoven NAMES 

I'.rmanent, .asy IdentlAcation. Easily sewn on, Of' a"acbecl 
wIth No-So Cement. From deolers or 
CASH'S .,lIewill, i. Oil 
CASH'S: 3 Doz. 51.80; . Doz. 13.00; NO-SO 
NAMES: I Doz. 5Z.40; lZ Doz. S3.50; Z5c per tube 


Positions Vacant 

AD\ ERTISING RATES - $5.00 for 3 lines or less,. $1.00 for each additional line. 
U.S.A. & Foreign - $7.50 for 3 lines or less,. $1.50 for each additional line. 
Closing date for copy and cancellations: 10th of the month preceùing the month of 
publication. All letters should be addressed to: The Canadian Nurse, 1522 Sherbrooke 
St. W., Montreal 25, Que. 

Director of Nursing &: Nursing Education for 160-bed General Hospital. Postgraduate 
course in administration or equivalent experience required. Salary open. Applications 
should give details of education, qualifications & experience. Apply Administrator, 
The Victoria Public Hospital. Fredericton, N.R 

Asst. Director Nursing Service (night shift). Degree not necessary. Staff Nurses. all shifts. 
Excellent personnel policies. Nurses' residence. Apply Director Nursing Service, General 
Hospital, Kings Co., Hanford, California. 

Supt. of Nurses immediately for 67-bed hospital. Salæy open depending on training & 
experience. Gen. Duty Nurses also required. Good salary & personnel policies. New 
t30-bed hospital opening in 1956, Apply M. M. Barber, R.N., Administrator, Portage Hospital, 
Dist. No. 18, Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, 

Superintendent of Nurses for 30-bed hospital. Feb. 1 or later. Salary: $275 per mo., $40 
per mo. board & lodging. 40-hr. wk. 4-wk. vacation, II statutory holidays, 18 days sick 
leave. Pleasant surroundings. Apply K. Scheer, Administrator, Grand forks, B,C. 

Supervisor of Public Health Nursing for generalized program In CIty ot 43,000. 5-day wk., 
I mo. vacation with extra time at Christmas or Easter. Cumulative sick leave. Pension 
plan, Blue Cross & P.S.I., Workmen's Compensation. Transportation provided or allow- 
ance. For further, information please write supplying details of training & experience 
to Dr. J. P. Wells, M.O.H., Peterborough, ant. 

Supervisor &: Public Health Nurses (qualified) for Porcupine Health Unit, 5-day wk. 
.. wk. vacation. 18 days sick leave annually. Car provided. Good working conditions 
Apply Secretary, Porcupine Health Unit. 164 Algonquin Blvd, E" Timmins, ant. 

Operating Room Supervisor for operating suite - 4 rooms. 180-bed hospital. Good 
salary and personnel policies. Postgraduate course and experience preferred. Apply 
Miss B. A. Beattie, Director of Nursing, Public General Hospital, Chatham, ant. 

Hospital Supervisor. Rotating afternoon & night shifts, Blue Cross in effect. 4-wk. vaca- 
tion, 5 statutory holidays. Apply stating age, experience & salary expected to Director 
of Nursing, Cottage Hospital, Pembroke, ant. 

Obstetrical Supervisor (Experienced) for night duty, 11-7. Salary: $230 with board, 
room & laundry. Write to Director of Nurses, Misericordia Hospital, Haileybury, ant. 

General Supervisors. Operating Room Nurses and General Duty Nurses for new ISO-bed 
hospital. Starting salary for Registered General Duty Nurses $230 with annual increases 
to $40. 1112 days per mo. cumulative sick leave; 40-hr. wk; 28 days vacation; 10 statu- 
tory holidays. Apply: Supt. of Nurses, Trail- Tadanac Hospital, Trail, RC, 

Operating Room Supervisor. Night Supervisor &: Staff Nurses. Good salary & personnel 
policies. Living accommodations available, Apply Director of Nurses, General Hospital. 
Parry Sound, Ontario. 

Psychiatric Nurse to assume position as Head Nurse & Clinical Supervisor of new 
38-bed Psychiatric Unit in a 500-bed General Hospital. An excellent opportunity for 
a Psychiatric Nurse who wishes to assume leadership in developing the policies, pro- 
cedures & teaching program of this new Psychiatric Unit. Patients treated only by 
psychiatrists. The most modem facilities & treatment methods. Cooperative administra- 
tion. Bachelor's Degree required plus Psychiatric experience, Salary commensurate with 
experience & abilities, Write Director of Nursing, Aultman Hospital. Canton, Ohio. 



University of Alberta Hospital 
Edmonton, Alberta. 

Requires General Duty Nurses. Salary range: $190-$215 per mo. plus 2 meals 
& laundry. 40-hr. wk. to be instituted not later than March 31 st, 1956. 
Rotating shifts, 21 days vacation, statutory holidays, other benefits. 

For further information apply 


Superintendent (Qualified) for new 35-bed hospital. New private suite with telephone. 
Salary to be arranged, Vacation with pay. Apply stating qualifications with references 
to Mr. H, R. Wilson, Chairman, Souris Dist. Hospital Board, Souris, Manitoba. 

Pediatric &: Medical Ward Supervisors also General Duty Nurses. Apply Director of 
Nurses, Woodstock General Hospital. Woodstock, Ontario. 

Asst. Director of Nursing for 200-bed hospital in Niagara Peninsula. Experienced, pref- 
erably with University certificate or postgraduate training. Good salary 6. personnel 
policies, Please furnish references stating age, qualifications & experience, Apply 
Director of Nursing, County General Hospital. WeIland, Ont. 

Matron (Experienced) for 31-bed hospital. Duties to commence as soon as can be, 
3 doctors practicing, staff of 22, avercge daily census 24. Gross salary: $330 per mo. 
less $30 for room & board. 1 mo. vacation with pay after 1 yr. employment. 
New modern residence with separate matron s suite. Good train service. Apply to 
J. P. Fawcett, Sec" Union Hospital. Unity, Sask. 

Head Instructor for Training School to teach Sciences. 86-bed hospital; 30 students. 
Complete maintenance provided in c::>mfortable suite, Apply, stating qualifications & 
salary expected, A. J. Schmiedl, Sec. Manager, General Hospital, Dauphin, Man. 

Instructor in Nursing. Faculty position in medical areas, accredited integrated diploma 
program, northern California college community. Liberal personnel policies, excellent 
clinical & teaching facilities. Progressive faculty, 90-students, Immediate opening. For 
details write Personnel Office, 510 E, Market St., Stockton, California, 

Obstetrical Clinical Instructor for School of Nursing with capacity 195 students attached 
to expanding hospital of 571 beds. B,S. Degree in Nursing Education preferred or at 
least 3 yrs. experience & working towards degree. Located in "all American City" of 
120,000 in North Eastern Ohio with educational. industrial. recreational & agricultural 
primary interests. Salary commensurate with qualifications. Write Director of Nursing, 
Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

Clinical Instructor in Obstetrical nursing for dept. with 26-beds & Supervisor of Nurseries 
for dept. with 30 bassinettes. Duties to include teaching & supervision of student nurses. 
University postgraåuate course & experience preferred for both positions. Apply Director 
of Nursing, Ge!leral Hospital. Oshawa, ant. 

Nursing Arts Instructor for School of Nursing, with capacity 195 students, attached to 
expanding hospital of 571 beds, B,S. Degree in Nursing Education preferred or ot least 
3 yrs. experie!lce & working toward degree. Located in "All American City" of 120,000 
in North Eastern Ohio with educational, industrial. recreational & agricultural primary 
interests. Salary commensurate with qualifications. Write Director of Nursing, Aultman 
Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

Instructor to teach anatomy and physiology, microbiology first term, followed by sur- 
gical nursing lectures and clinical supervision on surgical wards. Starting salary: $255; 
$10 for 2 yrs, experience; $10 yearly increments; 1112 days sick leave, cumulative; 
10 statutory holidays; 40-hr. wk; I class per yr. in September. Apply to: Director of 
Nurses, Royal Inland Hospital. Kamloops, B,C, 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. No. 2 




General Staff Nurses for General Hospital with a School of Nursing with 200 
students. Salaries starting at $210 depending on qualifications. Increments 
of $5.00 every 6 mo. Bonus for evening & night duty. 44 hr., 5 1 /2 day wk. 
Good Personnel policies. 

Apply to: 

Public Health Nurse Grade 1. British Columbia Civil Service, Dept. of Health & WeUare. 
Starting Salary $255, $260, $266 per mo., depending on experience, rising to $298. per mo. 
Promotional opportunities available. Qualifications: Candidate must be eligible for regis- 
tration in British Columbia & have completed a University degree or Certificate course in 
Public Health Nursing. (Successful candidates may be required to serve in any part of 
the Province.) Cars are provided. S-day wk. in most districts. Uniform allowance. Candi- 
dates must be British subjectsi preference is given to ex-service women. Application forms 
obtainable from all Government Agencies, the Civil Service Commission, 544 Michigan 
St., Victoria, or 411 Dunsmuir St., Vancouver 3, to be completed & returned to the Chairman, 
Civil Service Commission, Victoria. Further information may be obtained from the Director, 
Public Health Nursing, Dept. of Heaith & Welfare, Parliament Bldgs., Victoria, B.C. 

Public Health Nurse. Starting salary: $2,844 with annual increases over 3 yrs. to $3,228 
per yr. Previous experience qualifies for a higher starting salary. Cost of transportation 
to Port Arthur refunded after 3 mo, Car allowance or free transportation while on duty. 
Pertsion plan after 3 yr. serTice. Apply stating qualifications & experience to Arthur 
H, Evans. Secretary,' Board of Health, Port Arthur, Onto 

Public Health Nurses for generalized program. City of Ottawa, Health Dept. Salary: 
$2,760-$3,240 plus cost of living bonus. Good personnel policies. Superannuation & Blue 
Cross benefits. Apply Employment & Labor Registry Office, Room 118, Transportation 
Bldg., 48 Rideau St., Ottawa 2, Ont. 

Assistant Head Nurses for children's orthopedic hospital. Good personnel policies. Pen- 
sion plan available. Apply Director. Shriner's Hospital for Crippled Children, 1529 
Cedar Ave., Montreal. 

Registered Nurse, qualified to assist Supt. for 50-bed hospital. Hours chiefly 8:00 A.M. 
to 4:00 A.M. Apply Supt., General Hospital, Cobourg, Ontario. 
Registered or Licensed Practical Nurse for Baldur Medical Nursing Unit. Salary: $175 for 
reg'd. nurse & $1l0 for practical with full maintenance, Apply John Hiscock, Sec, Baldur 
Medical Nursing Unit, Baldur, Man. 
Registered Nurses for General Duty (2) for 76-bed fully modern hospital on C.P,R. 
main line & Trans-Canada Highway to Calgary & Banff, Gross Salary: $205 per mo., 
perquisites $30, $5.00 increment every 6 mo. I mo, annual vacation with paYi 8-hr. day; 
44-hr. wk. Sick leave with pay. Apply Matron, Municipal Hospital. Brooks, Alta. 

Registered Staff Nurses. immediate appointments, in 511-bed newly enlarged and finely 
equipped general hospital. Duty assignments in medical, surgical. pediatrics, psychi- 
atric, obstetrics, or contagion units. Northeastern Ohio stable "All-American City" of 
120,000. In centre of area of recreational, industrial, and educational friendly activities. 
Living costs reasonable. Vlithin pleasant driving-distance advantages of metropolitan 
Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio and Pittsburg, Pa, Friendly, cooperative work relations 
and conditions. Progressively advanced personnel policies. Starting salary: $240 per 
mo. with 4 merit increases. Paid vacation, sick leave, recognized holidays, premium 
pay, sickness insurance and hospitalization program, retirement. Contact: Director of 
Personnel. Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio, by letter or collect telephone 4-5673. 
Registered Nurses for General Duty. Initial salary: $200 per mo.; with 6 or more months 
Psychiatric experience, $210 per mo. Salary increase at end of 1 yr. 44-hr. wk.; 8 statu- 
tory holidays, annual vacation with pay. Living accommodation if desired. For further 
information apply Supt. of Nurses, Homewood Sanitarium, Guelph, Ont. 




The Grenfell Mission operates four Hospitals & seven Nursing Stations in 
northern Newfoundland & on the labrador. Here is a wonderful opportunity 
for valuable experience & an adventurous life. If you are making plans for 
next year, why not consider this splendid service still carried on in the name 
of a great man? 

For lull inlormation please write 


Registered &: Non-Registered Nurses. X-Ray &: Lab. Technician for General Hospital. 
Gross salary for nurses registered in Ont. equivalent to $233,85 per mo. Good personnel 
policies, new facilities. 8-hr. rotating shifts; 44-hr. wk.; I-day off 1 wk. & 2 the next. 
1112 days holiday & sick leave per mo.; 8 legal holidays per year. Up to $40 travelling 
expenses & increase paid after 1 yr. service. Semi-private Blue Cross with M.O.S. 
coverage. Full maintenance is provided including room, boa,d & laundering of uniforms. 
Apply Supt., Lady Minto Hospital, Cochrane, ant. 
Registered Nurses for modern SO-bed General Hospital situated 40 mi. south of Montreal. 
Salary: $200 per mo. 8-hr. duty; 44-hr. wk; rotating shifts. Many attractive benefits 
provided. Board & accomwodation available at minimum cost in completely new motel- 
style nurses' residence. Apply Supt., Barrie Memorial Hospital, Ormstown, Que. 
Registered Graduate Nurses for General Duty for 650-bed Tuberculosis Hospital, 10 mi. 
from downtown Toronto. Gross starting salary: $93 bi-weekly, less $15,23 for room, 
meals & laundry. 3 annual increments. 44-hr. wk., 8 hr, day, broken hrs. 3 wk. vacation 
after 1 yr" 9 statutory holidays. Hospital bus service to & from city. Apply Supt. of 
Nurses, Toronto Hospital, Weston, ant. 
Registered Graduate Nurses for General Staff Duty for 200-bed hospital. Medical-Surgical 
Units & Obstetrical Unit. Good personnel policies. For further information apply to 
Director of Nursing, General Hospital, Belleville, ant. 
Registered General Duty Nurses for medical & surgical. Rotating shifts, Good personnel 
policies. Apply Director of Nursing, The Greater Niagara General Hospital, Niagara 
Falls, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses (3) immediately for 36-bed General Hospital in southern Manitoba. 
Starting salary: $205 per mo. with 3 wk. vacation with pay 1st. yr. employment; 4-wk. 
vacation thereafter. All statutory holidays, Regular sick leave, 50% Blue Cross payments. 
Apply Supt. of Nurses, Hospital Dist. No, 24, Box 330, Altona, Manitoba. 
Registered Nurses for surgery, must be able to scrub & circulate. Starting salary: $325 
per mo. plus other benefits. Registered Nurses for general floor duty start at $300 per 
mo. plus other benefits. Must be able to get New Mexico registration. 30-bed hospital 
to move into new 70-bed hospital soon. Apply Supt. of Nurses, Memorial Hospital, 
Carlsbad, New Mexico. 
Registered or Graduate Nurses for General Duty (2) for modern 20-bed hospital. Salary 
& increments in accordance with S.R.N.A. recommendations. 1 mo. vacation & sick time 
with pay after 1 yr. service. Separate staff residence. Apply Sec,-Man. Riverside 
Memorial Hospital, Turt1eford, Sask. 
Registered Nurses for General Duty Staff. Salary commences at :l40-10-0 per mo. with full 
maintenance, Transportation allowance. For full particulars apply Matron, King Edward 
Vll Memorial Hospital, Bermuda. 
Graduate Nurses for 100-bed West Coast General Hospital. Salary: $250 per mo. less 
$40 for board, residence, laundry. 3 annual increments; $10 per mo. night duty bonus. 
1 mo. vacation with full salary after 1 yr. serVll:e, 1112 days sick leave per mo. cum- 
ulative to 36 days. Transportation allowance up to $60 refunded after 1 yr. Apply Director 
of Nursing General Hospital, Prince Rupert, B,C. 
Graduate Nurses (3) for 24-bed hospital. Salary: $230 per mo. if B.C. registered; less 
$40 board, lodging, laundry. 1 mo. vacation after 1 yr. on full pay. Ilh days sick leave 
per mo. cumulative. Apply, stating experience to Matron, Terrace & District Hospital, 
Terrace, British Columbia. 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52. No. 2 


See Quebec With Employment Rather Than A Tourist Visit 

Where? Jeffery Hale's Hospital 
Why Unique? Only English speaking hospital & trainins school in 
Quebec City 

For information write: 


Graduate Nurses (2) for 64-bed hospital 250 mi. northwest Edmonton. Good train & mail 
service, Salary as recommended by R.N.A. of Alberta, increments of $5.00 every 6 mo, 
for 2 yrs. $30 room & board. Transportation allowance up to $50 after 1 yr. service. 
28 days paid vacation after 1 yr. plus 10 statutory holidays. 1 '12 days sick leave per 
mo. Apply Sr. Superior, Providence Hospital, High Prairie, AHa. 
Graduate Nurses for duty on Obstetrical, Medical & Surgical Wards. Personnel policies 
as recommended by the Assoc. of Nurses of the Provo of Quebec, Please apply Director 
of Nursing, Queen Elizabeth Hospital of Montreal. 2100 Marlowe Ave., Montreal 28, Que, 
Graduate Nurses &: Dietician (1) for new, very modern 88-bed hospital in a pleasant 
progressive town. Nurses salary: $200 per mo, Annual increase $10 per mo. for 3 yrs. 
2-wk, shift rotation, bonus for night shifts. 1 hr. drive to Toronto & several resorts. Local 
swimming pool. bowling alleys, skating, theatres etc. Apply Director of Nurses, Dufferin 
Area Hospital, Orangeville, Ont. 
General Duty Nurses for small hospital. Salary: $200 per mo. plus maintenance. 8-hr. day, 
44-hr. wk" statutory holidays as outlined by R.N.A.O. Travelling expenses refunded after 
12 mo. service. New nurses' residence under construction. Apply Lady Minto Hospital, 
Chapleau, Ontario. 
General Duty Graduate Nurses for well equipped 72-bed hospital on B,C. coast. Salary: 
$222 per mo. less $25 full maintenance, Semi-annual increments. 28 days vacation plus 
10 statutory holidays after 1 yr. Apply Matron, St. George's Hospital, Alert Bay, B.C. 
General Duty Nurses for Medical, Surgical. Pediatrics, Obstetrics. Good salary & per- 
sonnel policies. Apply Director of Nursing, Victoria Hospital. Lonàon, Ont. 
General Duty Nurses for all departments. Gross salary: $210 per mo. if registered in 
Ontario $200 per mo. until registration has bE'en established, $20 per mo. bonus for 
evening or night duty; annual increment of $10 per mo. for 3 yrs. 44-hr. wk., 8 statutory 
holidays. 21 days vacation & 14 days leave for illness with pay aíter 1 yr. of employ- 
ment. Apply: Director of Nursing. General Hospital. Oshawa, Ont. 
General Duty Nurse for well equipped 80-bed General Hospital in beautiful inland valley 
adjacent Lake Kathlyn, Boating, fishing, swimming, golfing, curling, skiing, Initial salary: 
$240, full maintenance, $40, 44-hr. wk. vacation with pay. Comfortable, attractive nurses' 
residence on grounds, Rail fare advanced if necessary, refunded following 1 yr. service. 
References required. Apply Bulkley Valley Dist. Hospital. Smithers, B.C, 


Due to the opening of a new wing in a well-equipped, new 125-bed hospital in 
Suburban Toronto. Enjoy the congenial working conditions of a smaller institution with 
the advantages of locating in metropolitan Toronto. Residence accommodation optional. 

GENERAl DUTY $205 - $275 monthly 
HEAD NURSES $225 - $295 monthly 
SUPERVISORS $240 - $310 monthly 





Required for All Departments in 

For further information apply to 

General Duty Graduate Nurses for small attractive hospital located on highway between 
Ottawa & Morrisburg. For particulars write Supt., Winchester Hospital, Winchester, Ont. 
General Duty Nurses for GSO-bed teaching hospital in central California. Salary: $288- 
$337 per mo, 40-hr. wk. Liberal vacation, holiday & sick leave plan, Apply Personnel 
Office, 510 E, Market St., Stockton, California. 
General Duty Nurses. Salary: $230-270, $10 increment for experience. 40-hr. wk. lIh days 
sick leave per mo. cumulative; 10 statutory holidays, (l) mo. vacation. Must be eligible 
for B.C. registration. Apply Director of Nurses, Royal Inland Hospital. Kamloops, B.C. 
Staff Nurses for GOO-bed General 6. Tuberculosis Hospitals with School of Nursing. 
Salary: $288-$341. Shift, special service & educational differentials, $10. 40-hr. wk; 3-wk. 
vacation; II holidays; accumulative sick leave, Apply Associate Director of Nursing 
Service, County General Hospital. Fresno, California. 
Staff Nurses 6. Operating Room Scrub Nurses for 225-bed General Hospital, 20 mi. north 
of New York City. Salary: $240-$280. $20 extra for O.R. duty & permanent evening 
duty; $15 for permanent night duty. Apply Director of Nursing, St. John's Riverside 
Hospital, Yonkers, N.Y. 
Operating Room Nurses. immediate appointments, for 511-bed newly enlarged and 
finely equipped hospital; 10 operating rooms now completed. Northeastern Ohio stable 
"All-American City" of 120,000. In centre of area of recreational, industrial and educa- 
tional friendly activities; living cost reasonable. Within pleasant driving-distance 
advantages of metropolitan Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, and Pittsburg, Pa. Friendly 
and considerate working associates and conditions. Progressively advanced personnel 
policies. Starting salary: $240 per mo. with 4 merit increases. Paid vacation, sick leave, 
recognized holidays, premium pay, sickness insurance and hospitalization program, 
retirement. Contact Director of Personnel, Aultman Hospital. Canton, Ohio, by letter or 
collect telephone 4-5673. 
Operating Room Nurses, preferably with experience, for 75-bed hospital. Operating unit 
consists of 2 theatres, emergency treatment & recovery room. Apply Supt., Carleton 
Memorial Hospital, Woodstock, N.B. 
Operating Room Nurses (Immediately). Rotating shifts, good personnel policies. Apply 
Director of Nursing, The Greater Niagara General Hospital. Niagara Falls, Ontario. 




General Staff Nurses for Medical, Surgical, Obstetrical and Pediatric Services. 
Forty-four hour week. Salary $210. to $260. gross per month. Differential 
for evening and night duty. Residence Accommodation if desired. 

Apply to: 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, NO.2 




Gross salary commensurate with experience, 28 days vacation after one 
year, 8 statutory holidays, sick leave accumulative to 60 days; Residence 
accommodation available at reasonable rates. Hospital has recently completed 
a well equipped and staffed wing with extensive renovation program pro- 
gressing in the old section. 


Operating Room Scrub Nurses with experience for new operating suite near completion, 
finely equipped. Salary open depending upon preparation Or experience, Desirable 
working conditions. Travel expenses if necessary, Apply Supt. of Nurses, Union Hospital, 
Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan 

Operating Room Nurses (2) for 60-bed General Hospital. Apply Superintendent, Leam- 
ington District Memorial Hospital. Leamington, Ontario. 

Maternity Nurses for modern GO-bed General Hospital located 40 mi. south of Montreal. 
Salary: $155 per mo. 8-hr. duty; 44-hr. wk; rotating shifts, Many attractive benefits 
provided. Board 6: accommodation available at minimurr. cost in completely new motel- 
style nurses' residence. Apply Supt., Barrie Memorial Hospital, Ormsbwn, Que, 

General Staff Nurses for 400-bed Medical 6: Surgical Sanatorium, fully approved student 
affiliation 6: postgraduate program. Full maintenance, Recreational facilities. Vacation 
with pay. Sick benefits after I yr. Blue Cross coverage. Attractive salary; 40-hr wk, 
For further particul
rs apply Supt. of Nurses, Nova Scotia Sanatorium, KentviIle, N.S. 

Baker Memorial Sanatorium, Calgary, Alberta. offers to Graduate Nurses a 6-mo, post- 
graduate course in Tuberculosis. Maintenance 6: salary as for general staff nurses. 
Opportunity for permanent employment if desired, Spring ó Fall Classes. Further 
information on request. 

Registered Laboratory Technician (Experienced) would like position in small hospital 
laboratory. Ontario Or B.c. preferred, Available I mo. Apply The Canadian Nurses, Box M, 
1522 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal 25, Que. 

Dietitian (qualified) for Teaching Hospital. Opportunity for advancement. Full main- 
tenance Fare from Canada for accepted candidate, For full particulars, write, giving 
qualifications 6: date available, Matron, King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Bermuda, 

Office Nurse with commercial training required for doctor's office January 1956. Must 
have ability to take full responsibility for running large office practice in St. Catharines. 
Apply Box 1. The Canadian Nurse, 1522 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal 25, Que. 


Required by 


To organize a surgical unit of 100 beds. Good personnel policies, 
Salary: $240 to $300 per month. 

Apply to: 



has Staff and Supervisory positions in various paris of Canada. 
Personnel Practices Provide: 
· Opportunity for promotion. 
· Transportation whil
 on duty. 
· Vacation with pay. 
· Retirement annuity benefits. 
F or further In/ormation write to: 
Director in Chief, 
Victorian Order of Nurses for Canada, 
193 Sparks Street, Ottawa 4, Onto 

Asst. Superintendent 6. General Duty Nurses for 35-bed hospital, 50 mi. from Toronto. 
Good salary 6: personnel policies, Please furnish references 6: apply to Supt., Stevenson 
Memorbl Hospital, Alliston, ant 

Operating Room Supervisor for Ontario active surgical unit of 100-bed hospital. Approx. 
1.800 cases annually, Vac:::xtion after 1 yr. of service. Sick leave, statutory holidays 6: 
Blue Cross Plan, Postgraduate diploma desirous but not necessary if experience is 
adequate. Apply The Director of Nursing, Cottage Hospital, Pembroke, ant. 
Graduate Registered Nurses for general duty for 1I8-bed General Hospital along the 
shores of Lake Michigan, 25 mi. from Chicago, Base salary $300 Good personal policies. 
Apply Highland Park Hosp., Foundation, 718 Glenview Ave., Highland Park, Ill. 
R3gist2red Nurses for 82-bed accredited hospital. Gross Salary: $210-$230 per mo. 44-hr. 
51fz-day wk. with no split shifts. 30 days vacation with pay after 1 yr. of service plus 
statutory holidays. Room in a comfortable residence 6: laundry of uniforms provided 
at $10-$12 per mo. Apply Supt. of Nurses, Union Hosp" Canora, Sask, 

General Duty Nurses for 40-bed hospital. Salary $250, full maintenance $45. 42-hr. wk., 28 
days annual vacation plus 10 statutory holidays. Rotating shifts, cumulative sick leave, 
selÍ-contained residence. Apply Director of Nursing, General Hospital. Princeton, B.C. 

General Duty Nurses for Pediatrics, Medical, Nursery 6: O,R. Scrub Nurse for new 
165-bed hospital plus 35-basinettes. Excellent salary 6: generous personnel policies. 
Apply Director of Nursing, General Hospital, Pembroke, ant. 

General Duty Nurses for 114-bed hospital. Salary: $220-$250 with $5,00 increments every 
6 mo, 44-hr. wk., 3-wk, annual vacation, statutory holidays etc. For further particulars 
please apply to Director of Nurses, Union Hosp., Swift Current, Sask. 

Industrial 6. Public Health Nurse. experience desirable but not essential for Company 
with 350 employees, Located in mid southwestern ant. familiarity with all phases of 
Workmen's Compensation would be an asset but not essential. Usual company benefits 
including Group Life, Blue Cross 6: P,S,I. Good and congenial working conditions. Apply 
by letter stating experience, salary expected 6: when available to Hay 6: Co. Ltd., 
Woodstock, ant. 

$2,430 - $3,1 20 

Application forms, available at your nearest Civil Service Commission Office, National Em- 
ployment Service & Post Office, should be forwarded to the Civil Service Commission, 
25 St. Clair Ave., E., Toronto 7, Ontario. 

FEBRUARY, 1956. Vol. 52, No, 2 


Official Director, 


270 Laurier Ave., 'V., Ottawa 

Prf'sidpnt, . . . . . _ . . . . . . 
Past Prpsidpnt,........... 
First \'ice-President,..... 

Miss Gladys J. Sharpe. V\'estern Hospital, Toronto 2B, Onto 
Miss Helen G. McArthur, 95 Wellesley St. E., Toronto 5, Onto 
Miss Trenna G. Hunter. Metropolitan HealtÞ. Com., City Hall, 
Vancouver. B.C. 
Miss Alice Girard. Hõpital St. Luc, Lagauchetière St., Montreal, Que. 
Miss Muriel Hunter, Provincial Health Dept., Fredericton, N.B. 
Miss M. Pearl Stiver, 270 Laurier Ave. W., Ottawa. 

Second Vice-President..... 
Third Vice-President. , . . . , 
Genpral Spcrptar
' _ . , . . _ , _ . 


Presidents of Provincial Associations- 
Alberta. . . . . . . . . . . .. Miss Elizabeth Bietsch. General Hospital, Medicine Hat. 
British Columhia.......... Miss Alberta Creasor, 1645 West 10th Ave., Vancouver 9. 
ìUanitoba. ... ...... ......., Miss Mary Wilson, Ste. 18, Lenore Apts., Lenore St.. Winnipeg. 
New Brunswick........... Miss Grace Stevens, Box 970, Edmundston. 
Newfoundland............. Miss Elizabeth Summers, 55 Miitary Rd., St. John's. 
No\'a Scotia.... ,...,...... Mrs. Dorothy McKeown, 79% Allen St.. Halifax. 
Ontario. ........ .......... Miss Alma Reid, McMaster University, Hamilton, 
Prince };dward Island...., Sister Mary Irene, Charlottetown Hospital, Charlottetown. 
Quebec... .... ........ MIle Eve Merleau, Apt. 52, 3201 Forest Hill, Montreal 26. 
Saskatchewan.. ........... Miss Mary MacKenzie, St. Paul's Hospital, Saskatoon. 

Religious Sistus (Regional Representntion)- 
"!\Iarltlmes Rev. Sister Helen Marie, St. Joseph's Hospital, Saint John, N.B. 
;c.. '. : : : : : : : : :: : :-
: ::: Rev. Sister Denise Lefebvre, Institut Marguerite d'Youville, 
]185 St. Matthew St., Montreal 25. 
Ontario....... .....,...... Rev. Sister M. de Sales, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto 2. 
Western Canada.......... Rev. Sister Mary Luelta, St. Joseph's Hospital, Victoria, B.C. 

Chairmen of National Committees- 

Nursing Service. ........ 
Nursing };ducation........ 

MIss Allee Girard. Hõpital St. Luc, Lagauchetière St., Montreal. Que. 
Miss Evelyn Mallory, School of Nursing, University of British 
Columbia, Vancouver 8, B.C. 




: : : : : : : : 
Legislation & By-Laws. . . . 
Finance, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

MIss Evelyn Pepper, Rm. 726. Jackson Bldg., Ottawa, Onto 
Miss Helen Carpenter, 50 St. George St., Toronto 5, Onto 
Miss Trenna G. Hunter, Metropolitan Health Com., City Hall, Van- 
couver, B.C. 


Alberta Ass'n of Rpgistered Nurses, Mrs. Clara Van Dusen, Ste. 5, 10129-102nd St., Edmonton. 
Rf'gisterf'd N'urses' Ass'n of British Columhia, Miss Allee L. Wright, 2524 Cypress St., Van- 
couver, 9. 
lUanitoha Ass'n of Registered Nurses, MIss LillIan E. Pettigrew, 247 Balmoral St., Winnipeg. 
New Brunswick Ass'n of Registered Nursl.'s. Miss Muriel Archibald, P.O. Box 846. Fredericton. 
Ass'n of Registerpd N'urses of Npwfoundland, Miss Pauline Laracy, Cabot Bldg., Duckworth St., 
St. John's. 
Rpgisterpd Nurses' Ass'n of No\'a Scotia, Miss Nancy H. Watson, 301 Barrington St., Halifax. 
Registf're(1 Nurses' Ass'n of Ontario, Miss Florence H. Walker, 515 JarvIs St., Toronto 5. 
Ass'n of Xursps of Prim'p Edward Island, Mrs. Helen L. Bolger, 188 Prince St., Charlottetown. 
Asociation of "Surses of the Pro\'ince of Quphf'c, Miss Winonah Lindsay, 506 Medical Arts Bldg., 
Montreal 25. 
Saskatchewan Registered Nurses' Ass'n, Miss Lola Wilson, 401 Northern Crown Bldg., Regina. 


Canadian Nursps' Asociation: 270 LaurieI' Ave. West, Ottawa. General Secretar:y-Treasurer. Miss 
M. Peari Stiver. Secretary of Nursing Education. Miss Frances U. McQuarrie. Secretary of Nursing 
Service, Miss F, Lillian Campion. Assistant Secretary, Miss Rita MacIsaac. 
International Council of Nurses: I, Dean Trench St., Westminster, London S.W. 1, England. 
E.xecuti'/.'e Secretary, Miss Daisy C. Bridges. 




J - " 




'. ." 



Better ph)'sical condition 
when fed meat early. . ." 

 a study conducted by Leverton and Clark 
feat in the Diet of Young Infants", 
(1. A. 
I. .\., 131.1215 (19-1:7), special pre- 
pared meat \\as added to the formula of 
full-term Labie!' beginning at the age of :;;ix 
wee\..." and continuing for a period of eight 
\\eeh. The pediatrician in charge considered 
that the babies were in better ph\ sical 
conditi:m generally as a result of the meat 
supplement. :\ urse
 in attendance reported 
that the meat-fed infants 
eemed better 
satisfied, slept well and cried little. 

Swift's Meats for Babies was the original 
product of this kind placed on the market. 
Prepared from only fine, lean meflt, the food is 

MARCH, 1955 · Vol. 52, NO.3 

cooked and milled to a .fine purpp. The texture is 
soft, moist and easily fed in formula or for initial 
spoon feedin
 just as it comes from thp can. There 
are seven kinds f(ìr variet}" and sped'll conditions: 
Beef, Lamb, Pork, Veal, Liver, Henrt, Lh'er and 
Bacon, and also SIl.ift'S Eg
 } olks for Babies, 
Salmon Seafond for Babips and the clwpppd 
Swift's Meats for Juniors. 

Meats for Babies 


most precious product 

7# $_ 
tHVJ T-'+ 

S W 1FT CAN A D I A N co. , L I M I TED. 





MARCH 1956 

1 66 :\'nv PRODUCTS 

173 FORTY YEARS OF PILGRnIAGE,......,......................,.,...E. K. Russell 

OF PATIENT CARE,...,'.....mmm...'mm...........E. L. Brown 

180 THE DISTRICT Xt:RSE KNOWS BETTER.............,..........A-f. Kirk 
 t- RSI
G'..m'..'.....'__...,......................,__.........,......E. Bre gg 
185 FUN ON TRAINS.. .......,................,..'.'....'m.....................................l.I. Steed 

187 KVRSES AS TEACHERS OF SCIENCE.........................,.A. E. Reid 

191 A
 ORDERLY TRAIKIr;G PROGRA:\L_.... m,...H. L. Richmond 

fEco:-.J"n!:\I ILEUS..........................,...D. Wright and]. Bullock 
196 LA Sor.IfTÉ D
FIR:\nÈREs \'ISITEUSES..,...... ,.R. Rivard 

197 My Cm[PLAINTS........,...,..............,..__.............__.............,..............A. Dalton 


20D IN !\fDfORIA:\I 






224 Xnvs NOTES 

Editor and Business Manager 

Assistant Editor 

The views expressed 
in the various articles 
are the views of 
the authors and 
do not necessarily 
represent the policy 
or views of 
nor of the Canadian 
Nurses' Association. 

SubscriptWtI Rates: Canada & Bermuda: 6 months $1.75; one year, $3.00; two years, $5.00. 
Student nurses - one year, $2.00; three years, $5.00. U.S.A. & foreiJ$n: one year, $3.50; two years, $6.00. 
In combination with the American Journal of Nursing or Nursing Outlook: one year, $7.00. 
Single copies, 35 cents. 
Make cheques and money orders payable to The Canadian Nurse. 
Detailed Official Directory appears in June & December. 
Please give one month's notice of Change of Address. 
Authorized as Second-Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 
National Advertising Representatives: W. I'. L. Edwards & Co. Ltd., 34 King St. E., Toronto I, Onto 
:Member of Canadian Circulations Audit Board. 
15Z2 Sherbrooke Street, West, Montreal 25. Quebec 










- ....... 



 .........:.. '. 



Here's a balanced diet for toddlers 
that even the busiest mothers can follow! 

One of the biggest problems of everv mother is time-working 
according to a strict schedule. And it is often the time factor 
that prevents a young mother from adhering to a balanced diet 
for the toddler who has graduated from strained food, 
but is not vet read v for adult fare. 
That is 
vhen H
inz Junior Foods can be 
such a help. They are easily digested and at the 
same time are the right texture to promote 
the chewing habit. You can be sure that by 
recommending I Ieinz wide variety of Junior Foods, 
you will be prescribing a well balanced diet 
that mothers will find com-enient and economicaL 
If you would like to taste and test Heinz Junior 
Foods, yourseIf
 write for free samples to 
Professional Service Department, Heinz Baby Foods, 
Leamington, Untario. 


MARCH, 1956. Vol. 52, No.3 







National Office when there was consider- 
able discussion regarding the topics that 
would probably generate greatest interest 
in the forthcoming convention. Everyone 
would want to know about costs so Ethel 
Armstrong Collins, convention coordinator 
of the CN A, was assigned the task of secur- 
ing information from the railway companies 
and the airlines about fares. That informa- 
tion was published last October, together 
with a preliminary description of some post- 
convention tours. Followint' the 1954 con- 
vention, the arranged tours proved so popu- 
lar that 
Irs. Collins has spent a great deal 
of time p
rfecting arrangements for the vaca- 
tion trips this year. Considerable supplemen- 
tary material regarding them was published 
last month. 
The two special trains from Eastern 
Canada to 'Vinnipeg have been well-pub- 
licized both at provincial annual meetings 
and through the Journal. This month, 
Margaret Steed tells Us of the enjoyment 
of the hundreds of hurses who travelled on 
the "Nurses Special" in 1954. 
As everyone knows by now, the theme 
of this year's convention is "Nursing Serves 
the N ation." Alic
 Girard, chairman of the 
CNA Nursing Service Committee posed 
some tl:J.ought-provoking questions relating 
to dais theme last month. "But basic to good 
nursing service," ran the discussion at last 
summer's conference, "is nursing education. 
In stressiNg our theme this y
ar, we must 
not let it completely overshadow the impor- 
tance of a sound educational program to 
provide the highly qualified nursing staffs 
to give the service." 
Though she has retired from the School 
of Nursing of the University of Toronto 
where, after more than 30 years, her dy- 
namic leadership has left an indelible mark, 
E. Kathleen Russell has by no means retired 
from active interest and participation in 
nursing education. Shortly after completing 
an interim evaluation of the centraliz
nursiNg program at the University of Sas- 
katchewan last year, Dr. Russell was ap- 
pointed by the University of New Brunswick 
to make an intensive study of the schools 
of nursing in th<l.t province. 
Dr. Russell's interest has never been con- 
fined to anyone school. On the contrary, 
she has always conceived of nursin2' educa- 
tion as being the medium through which 


improved community service might be effec- 
ted. She was one of the first to adv(')cate 
a survey of nursing educ<l.tion in Canada 
and served as a member of the joint com- 
mittee that guided the project some 25 years 
ago. \\T e ar
 delighted to welcom
 her as 
our guest editor this month, 
* * * 
As has often heen said in th6 course of 
talks about Our J oumal, there is a very 
varied reader audience for every issue. This 
audience ranges from the more senior group 
in administrative and executive positions 
through the vast throng of staff nurses in 
every branch of our profession to the eager 
youngsters who are the stud
nts in our 
schools of nursing. It includes hundreds 
of nurses who are no longer active par- 
ticipants in the hospitals and public health 
organizations but who nev
rtheless are 
valued workers in the chapters aNd district 
associations - the associate members who 
are always eager to know ",h2Lt is going 
on in the nursing world. Each issue is plan- 
ned with this wide span of reader interest 
in mind. 
This month we welcome to this reader- 
ship all of the active and associate members 
of the Register
d Nurses' Association of 
N ova Scotia. You will find mental stimula- 
tion in the challenging address of Dr, 
Esther Lucile Brown, in the discussion of 
developments in the program of two Cana- 
dian university schools of nursing, in the 
analysis of what psychiatric nursing really 
is. Good reading, friends! 
* * * 
Those Canadians wh05e good fortune it 
was to receive Florence Nightingale Foun- 
dation fellowships probably hav
 all received 
copies of the new book, recently published 
by the League of Red Cross Societies, "The 
Lamp Radiant." This' is a fascinating story 
of the inception, developm
nt and postwar 
achievements of that illustrious group of 
"Old Internationals" whose memories of 
stroyed 15 Manch
ster SQuar
, Lon- 
don, remain ever fresh. Oth
rg who are 
intere5ted in securing this small history 
may order it from the League at 26 Avenue 
Beau-Séjour, Geneva, Switzerland. The price 
is 80 cents. 

We judge ourselves by what we feel cap- 
able of doing, while others judge us by what 
we have already done. - LONGFELLOW 






'{OJ ( f!7a1JlOllð 
[fi:fJl riie1J'le 

II-Purpose Creme is produced using 
II materials and according to th
F, mc:<ers of Europe's 
Imous preparations for s'<:in care. 

ZA CREME keeps your skin smooth, supple 
ld lovely at all times. . . gives it day-co-day 
.on against ""inter \\inds and piercing cold 
as summer heat) which rob your skin of 
ral oils. 
10re dry, rough, or chapped skin! V ANZA 
hture help you by actively replacing lost 
ltion" when your skin has been exposed 
elements; or when you wash frequently 
Jap or detergents. Delightful, smooth- 
ng . . . such a little goes such a long way. 
RY USE- V ANZA Creme. . . a penetrative, 
nt for the care of baby's skin is a proven aid 
lUrsery. Protects against discomfort of dry 




RSDORF & co. A.-G., HAMBURG, West Germany 







. .
 ( .A.'. 

CIZE rv 1 E fI" 


Tubes: 35 cents and 60 cents 

Jars: $1.10 and $2.50 

skin, roughness and chapping, so common during 
the winter months. It "lubricates" with a choles- 
terinized water-in-oil emulsion, the nearest cos- 
metic approach to the sebaceous secretion itself. 

VANZA SUPERFATTED SOAP-Those sensitive to 
ordinary toilet soap or detergents, or having dry 
thin skin, benefit through the regular use of 
V ANZA Superfarred Soap. It is invaluable for the 
nursery as a companion product to V ANZA Creme. 

Cake: 2S cents 


VanZant & Co. Limited 
357 College Street 
Toronto 28, Ontario 

Please mail me free of charge a 35-cent tube of Vanza Creme 
and guest size Vanza Superfatted Soap. 


STREET, . . 

CITY. _ . , _ , _ _ . _ _ . , , . . . . . . . _ _ . . . PROV. , , . . , , . . . . . . . . . 


Editcd b}' DEAN F. N. HUGHES 
PUBLISHFD THROUGH COURTESY OF Canadian PIza.r1llaccutical Journal 

Manufacturer-Frank W. Horner Ltd., Montreal. 
Description-Contains: Bicetonium (cetyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride) 0.025%, 
methapyrilene HCl 0,2570' ephedrine HCl 0.50%, hydrocortisone 0,02%. 
Indications-Allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinitis, nasopharyngitis and 
Administration-To be sprayed or dropped into nostrils m; prescribed. 

Manufacturer-McNeil Laboratories, Philadelphia; Can. Dist.: Van Zant & Co. Ltd., 
Toronto, Ont. 
Description-Butisol repeat action tablets, each containing 30 mg. butisol sodium 
(sodium 5-ethyl-5-sec-butyl barbiturate). 15 mg. in the outer coat for immediate release 
and 15 mg. in the specially coated core for delayed action. 
Indications-Conditions requiring mild prolonged sedation such as: Essential hyper- 
tension, coronary disease, congestive heart failure, premenstrual tension, menopause, 
anxiety neuroses, etc. 
Administration-One dose affords a sustained sedative effect for 8 to 12 hours. 
Dosage is 1 or 2 tablets 2 or 3 times a day. 

Manufacturer-Charles E. Frosst & Co" Montreal. 
Description-Brand of prednisone, anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic agent said 
to be 3-5 times as effective as cortisone or hydrocortisone. Scored tablets of 5.0 mg. 
Indications-Collagen diseases - as for cortisone. 
Administration-Initially, 20 to 30 mg. daily by mouth in divided doses after meals 
and before retiring. Higher doses may sometimes be indicated. Maintenance doses 
range from 5 to 20 
g. daily. 

Manufacturer-H. Powell Chemical Company Ltd., Bowmanville, Ont. 
Description-Compressed tablet containing: Salicylamide (6 gr.) 390 mg" secobar- 
bital sodium (1/4 gr.) 16 mg" dihydrocodeinone bitartrate (lia gr.) 8 mg, 
Indications-As an analgesic and sedative for the relief of pain symptoms of 
migraine, neuralgia, severe headache, dysmenorrhea, muscle and joint pains. 
Administration-One tablet every three or four hours. 

GAMADYNE No. L No.2, No. 3 
Manufacturer-Gama Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 
Descriptions-Each capsule contains: 

Acetylsalicylic Acid ........., ............ ................. ...... ... .......,.. .................. 
Phenacetin ...................... ................ .............. .....,......... .......... 
Caffeine Citrate. ,........',.", ,'..,.,.."...,.",..'.....,.' 
Codeine Phosphate __.......,.. ....___ ......, ..,.. ......... 00'...." .... ,___ ......................__. 
Indications-Analgesic, anodyne, antipyretic. 
Administration-One or two capsules as directed by physician, 

5 gr. 
2 gr. 
112 gr, 
Ifa gr. 

5 gr. 
2 gr. 
112 gr. 
lJ4 gr. 

5 gr. 
2 gr. 
112 gr. 
l1z gr. 

Manufacturer-Gama Pharmaceuticals Ltd" Toronto, Ont. 
Description-Each fl. oz. contains: Codeine phosphate 1 gr., sodium citrate 25 gr" 
ammonium chloride 16 gr., potassium iodide 16 gr., chloroform 1.6 m. in a palatable 
flavored base. 
Indications-Expectorant and respiratory sedative. 
Administration-One or two teaspoonfuls every four hours. Children, according 
to age, 

Manufacturer-Abbott Laboratories Limited, Montreal. 
Indications-For the treatment of lupus erythematosus. 
Administration-Solutions of this gold salt are unstable. They should be freshly 
prepared before using, 
Dosage-The preferred initial dose is 5 mg. given intravenously in 2 to 5 cc, 
of sterile distilled water. Subsequent doses given at weekly intervals are increased 
5 mg. per dose to a maximum of 50 mg, for women and 75 mg. for men provided no 
reactions have occurred. 

The Journal þreSe1Jts þharmaceuticals f01'" information. Nurses flnderstand that only a physician may prescribe. 




School of Nursing 


A Four-Calendar-Year Course designed to prepare students for all 
branches of community and hospital nursing practice and leading to the 
degree, Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.Sc.N.). It includes studies in the 
humanities, basic sciences and nursing. Bursaries, loans and scholarships 
are available. 

A Two-Year Course designed to prepare graduate nurses to teach basic 
sciences in schools of nursing and leading to the degree, Bachelor of 
Education in Nursing (B.Ed.N.). It includes studies in the humanities, the 
physical, social and biological sciences, teaching and nursing education. 
Bursaries are available in both years of this course. 
For additional information, write to: 
School of Nursing, Hamilton College, 
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. 



1. Degree Course leading to B.N.Sc. 
Opportunity is provided for special- 
ization in final year. 

2. Diploma CUIlr!les: 

(a) Teaching, Supervision m 
Schools of Nursing. 
(b) Public Health Nursing. 

F or information apply to: 


MARCH, 195. . Vol. 52, No.3 




This course is especially valuable 
to those contemplating Public 
Health, Industrial, or Tuber- 
culosis X ursing. 

For further infoll1lation app/J.' to' 
Director of Nursing, 

Iountain Sanatorium, 
I-Iamilton, Ontario, 


nufaclurer-Ayerst, McKenna & Harrison Ltd., Montreal. 
Description-Each scored tablet contains penicillin G potassium 500,000 J.U. formu- 
lated so that disintegration occurs in the small intestine. 
Indica1ion-TreatmE."Jnt and prevention of infections due to penicillin-sensitive 
Administration-Therapeutic - 2 or 3 tablets daily are usually adequate except 
in bacterial endocarditis, meningitis and staphylococcic sepsis, 
Prophylactic - One-half tablet twice daily. Higher blood levels are obtained when 
given on a fasting stor1ach. 

Manufacturer-Lederle Laboratories Division, North American Cyanamid Ltd., 
Description-A refined and concentrated vaccine prepared by centrifugation from 
the extra-embryonic fluid of the chick embryo am' ,0rma1Ïn-killed.. 
Indications-Immunization against epidemic influenza. 
Administration-Subcutaneously or intramuscularly. This vaccine should not be 
injected intravenously. 
Dosage-Adult: 1 cc. Children under 12 years of age: Dose should not exceed 0.5 cc. 
with proportionately less for the very young, Booster injection: 0,5 cc, if unusual epi- 
demic c
nditions exist. The booster injection should be given preferably 6 months to I 
year after basic immunization, 

Manufacturer-Mead Johnson & Company of Canada, Limited, Toronto and Belle- 
ville, Ontario. 
Description-Made from water, soybean, flour, dextromaItose, sucrose, soybean oil, 
coconut oil, calcium carbonate, sodium chloride, dicalcium phosphate, chondrus extract, 
vitamin A palmitate and calciferol. 
Indication-Hypoallergenic soya formula for allergic infants. 
Administra1ion-As directed by physician. 

Manufacturer-Neutra Chemical Co" Toronto. 
Description-An" alkyl aryl sulphonate (Nacconol) detergent adjusted to pH 5.5-6,0 
in a bar form containing 4<;'0 olive oil to protect skin against excess drying. 
Indications-For soap-sensitive skin, acne and whenever thorough cleansing of skin 
is indicated, 
Administration-Use instead of soap, 

Manufacturer-Neutra Chemical Co" Toronto, 
Description-A combination of hexachlorophene and specially prepared crude coal 
tar in a neutral lauryl sulphate base. 
Indications-Seborrhea and other common causes of dandruff, for oily hair and 
scalp and whenever thorough cleansing of hair and scalp is indicated. 
Administration-Use as regular shampoo. 

Manufacturer-A. H. Robins Co., Montreal. 
Description-Each light blue tablet contains: Hydrocortisone 2.5 mg., potassium 
salicylate 0.3 Gm" potassium para-aminobenzoate 0.3 Gm" ascorbic acid 50,0 mg. 
Indications-Rheumatoid arthritis and its variants; osteoarthritis, acute rheumatic 
fever, bursitis, fibrositis and neuritis. 
Administration-Adults, usually 2 tablets 4 times daily. Children, according to age 
and ability to swallow tablets. 

Manufacturer-E. B. Shuttleworth Limited, Toronto, Ont. 
Description-Contains per cc,: Pectin 12 mg., kaolin 215 mg., in a pleasantly 
flavored vehicle. 
Indications-Indicated in diarrheas of various origin. 
Administration-Adults - Two to four tablespoonfuls several times daily as required. 
Children - One or two teaspoonfuls according to age. 
Manub:cturer-Paul Maney Laboratories of Canada Lirrâted, Hamilton, Ontario. 
Description-Each capsule contains: d, I-Amphetamine sulfate 15 mg., thyroid 3 gr., 
atropine sulfate 1/180 gr" aloin 1J4 gr., phenobarbital 1/4 gr. 
Controlled disintegration capsules. Each capsule prepared in a special base to 
allow for the disintegration of the contents throughout a 6-10 hour period. 
Indications-Adjunctive treatment of obesity. 

The Journal presents pharmaceuticals for informatin1t. Nurses ullderstalld that OJlly a ph)'sician may prescribe. 





The following one-year certificate 
courses are offered: 

1. Public Health Nursing. 

2. Teaching and Supervision in 
Schools of Nursing. 

For information apply to: 

School of Nursing Education 
University of Manitoba 
Winnipeg, Man. 



The Hospital for :Uental Diseases, 
Brandon, Manitoba, offers a 6-month 
Diploma Course in Psychiatric Nursing 
to Registered Nurses. 

Applicants accepted in September of 
each year. Salary while taking course: 
$205 per mo. less $25 per mo. for full 

Upon completion of course nurses are 
eligible for positions on Permanent 

For further information aPPI)': 

Superintendent of Nurses, 
Hospital for Mental Diseases, 
Brandon, Manitoba. 


Offers to qualified Registered Grad- 
uate Nurses the following oppor- 
tunities for ach-anced preparation: 
1. A six-month Clinical Course in 

2. A six-month Clinical Course in 
Ope,.ating Room Principles and 
A dVa1lced P,-actice. 

These courses commence 111 JANUARY 
and SEPTEMBER of each year. Main- 
tenance is provided. A reasonable sti- 
pend is given after the first month. 
Enrolment is limited to a maximum of 
six students in each course. 

F or further information Please write to: 

MARCH. 19::;6 . Vol. 52. No. 3 


I. Basic Degree Course in Nursing (B.ScJ: 
This course provides study in the 
humanities, bas:c sciences and nursing, 
and prepares the graduate tor com- 
munity and hospital nursing practice. 

II. Degree Course for Graduate Nurses 
A two-year program designed to pre- 
pare the nurse for positions in Nursing 
Education and Public Health Nursing. 
The program includes courses in the 
humanities, basic sciences, supervision, 
teaching and public health nursing. 

III, Diploma Courses for Graduate Nurses: 
One year diploma courses are available 
to registered nurses who wish to pre- 
pare for positions in Xursing Educa- 
tion and Public Health 

IV, Certificate Course in Advanced Practi- 
cal Obstetrics: 
A four and one half month course of 
study and supervised clinical ex- 
perience in the care of the mother and 
the newborn infant. 

For information apply to: 



School of Nursing, Montreal 


1.A four-month clinical course in 
Obstetrical Nursi.g. 
2. A two-month clinical course in 
Gynecological N ursi.g. 
Salary-After second month at 
General Staff rates. 

For information apply to: 

Director of Nursing 
Royal Victoria Hospital 
Montreal 2, Que. 



HOSPITAL offers six-month cours
s in 
Theory and Practic
 in Psychiatric 
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standing in their own province. 

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Complete maintenance or living-out 
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General duty rates the second thr

F or further information write to: 
Miss H. M. Lamont. Director of Nursinc-. 
Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal Z, Que. 
or Miss Kathleeen Marshall. Supervisor of 
Nurses. Allan Memorial Institute of Psy- 
chiatry, Royal Victoria Hospital. Montreal 
Z, Que. 




d Graduate Nurses a six- 
month certificate course in Ps}'chiatric 

· Classes in June and December. 

. Remuneration and maintenance. 

For further information apply to: 

Superintendent of Nurses 
N ova Scotia Hospital 
Drawer 350 
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia 



Offers to Graduate Nurses a Six- 
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1. Fun series of lectures by Medical 
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4. Fun maintenance, salary & an staff 

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F or information aPPly to: 



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MARCH. 1956 . Vol. 52. No. 3 

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Forty Years of Pilgrimag e 

The Canadian X urses' Association 
has announced the topic for the coming 
biennial meeting to be held in \Vin- 
nipeg in June, "Xursing serves the 
nation" is the general theme around 
which the whole program has been 
constructed. But, hroad as this subject 
is, it must suhmit to even further ex- 
pansion: inevitably nursing service 
precipitates us into the allied question 
of nursing education, for it is well 
known that the service of any profes- 
sion finds its level in the schools that 
prepare the workers. So we are now 
faced with the two seemingly separate, 
and yet completely interdependent, ap- 
proaches to our field of professional 
For the past twenty-five years there 
has been increasing effort to change 
the structure and pattern of nursing 
schools in order to give competent 
preparation for adequate nursing serv- 
ice to contemporary society. The 
concerted effort in this direction, in 
Canada. might he dated from the puh- 
lication of the \Veir Report in 1932. 
\Vith what success? It would be quite 
wrong to discount real accomplish- 
ment. hut equally wrong to ignore the 
increasing confusion as new patches 

MARCH, 1956. Vol. 52, No.3 

are added to the old garment of nurs- 
ing education. K mv Canadian nurses 
are asking insistently for the explana- 
tion of this delav and are determined 
to overcome all ühstac1es and to pursue 
the matter. in season and out of season, 
until they see the fundamental recon- 




struction that must come. :Nursing as 
it was adapted to nineteenth century 
medical, hospital and social conditions 
is unable to serve the extraordinarily 
different conditions of the mid-twen- 
tieth century. Sighing for past glory- 
real or imaginary - is merely a waste 
of time. 
Undoubtedly nursing education pre- 
sents an extremely difficult task, 
inherently complex and dogged by re- 
actionary influences. Unfortunately, it 
is being made even more difficult by 
the tendency to over-simplification of 
the whole question. It is not simple, 
and cannot be made simple, but it 
must be possible to outline the total 
objective and to prepare a blue print 
for constructive action. :r\ote that we 
speak of the total objective. Piecemeal 
change may make matters worse than 
before and yield only diminishing 
returns. A simple illustration is found 
in the fact that the eight-hour day for 
nurses has left the hospital patient 
more isolated than ever. Certainly, a 
return to the old twelve-hour period 
of duty is neither desirable nor pos- 
sible. A deeper search must be made 
for the answer to this and many other 
Editorial comment must of necessity 
be brief. It is only possible now to add 
that many problems present themselves 
in the pursuit of our total educational 
objective but perhaps three may be 
cited as indicative of the task that lies 
ahead. The first of the three has been 
suggested already, namely, the adjust- 
ment needed in hospitals in order to 
give nursing to the patient. With in- 
tent we ask tersely for nursing, not 
for "nursing care" or "nursing the 
patient as a person." These expres- 
sions can hecome so hackneyed that 
they tend to obscure thought or to 
serve as suhstitutes for thought. 

The patient may be represented as a 
small island, one among many in the 
hospital sea. A fleet of nursing boats 
and auxiliary craft ply to and from 
the island throughout the twenty-four 
hours, carrying very necessary cargo 
of divers shapes and sizes; but no boat 
can pause long in its rapid voyaging 
so none really knows the island, 
though the passive island itself comes 
to recognize - more or less - a few 
of the craft that happen to calI a bit 
more frequently than others. Is this 
a distorted description or merely a bit 
of exaggeration to give emphasis? If 
essentially true, the import of it all to 
the patient - and the doctor and the 
nurse - cannot be stressed too greatly. 
And could it be that the young student 
is learning thereby to expect not to 
know her patients - and this at the 
most impressionable stage of her clin- 
ical training? 
A second task is to obtain accept- 
ance throughout the nursing world for 
the fact that public health nursing is 
real nursing, just as truly as is hospital 
nursing. \Vith this acceptance, prep- 
aration for health practice wilI be given 
more adequate attention from the be- 
ginning of the ha "ie professional 
Perhaps the final place in this selec- 
ted trio should be given to the tre- 
mendous challenge of finding and 
preparing even a tiny company of 
directors of nursing schools, and of 
teaching staff, ready to lead their 
folIowers into the promised land even 
if it entails forty years of pilgrimage. 
For comfort. it might be considered 
that nearly hventv-five of those years 
have been checked off already! 
B.A., B. P AED., D.C.L, 
Professor El1zcritus, 
[1nivcrsity of Toronto 

The following facts have been brought to 
light in a recent study of hospital morbidity 
in Ontario. The results are based mainly 
on hospitalization reports for 1951. 
The men outnumbered the \\omen in the 
incidence of such conditions as gastric ulcers, 
arteriosclerotic heart disease, displacement 
of intervertebral disc and alcoholism. The 
women showed a greater tendency towards 
diabetes mellitus, diseases of the thyroid 


gland, migraine headache and varicose veins. 
They are more likely to become anemic and 
outrank the men eight to one in develop- 
ing bunions 
 Flat feet and hay fever affect 
both sexes with equal intensity. 
- Hospital Morbidity Study, 
Pr07.ince of Ontario 
* * * 
The Canadian Red Cross Society will 
celebrate its 50th Anniversary in 1959. 


The Social Sciences and 
Improvement of Patient Care 


TlETH CENTGRY, particu- 
larlv the decade since the end of 
\\Torld- \Var II. has seen a vast ex- 
pansion of hospitals, outpatient clinics, 
health agencies. and bodies charged 
with planning for the health services 
in large parts of the \ V estern world. 
The magnificent new University Hos- 
pital in Saskatoon takes its place 
among the proud guardians of what 
modern medical science and hospital 
construction and administration have 
been able to achieve. I speak, however, 
not of hospital buildings as such, of 
the achievements of the biological and 
physical sciences, nor of the practice 
of medicine in which I han> no com- 
petence. but of patient care as it is 
provided within the hospital and as it 
is experienced by the patient. 
For some 15 vears now there has 
been increasing concern both by the 
staffs who prO\'ide that care and by 
the patients who experience it lest 
we be failing even to maintain stan- 
dards comparable to those that existed 
prior to the past war. In techniques 
for diagno"ing, treating. and prevent- 
ing disease we have shown preeminent 
success" But what about relationships 
with patients, and the contribution of 
those relationships to the healing pro- 
cess? Let us take a brief look at pa- 
tient care as it would probably appear 
to social scientists as well as to many 
members of the health services, who 
\'isited a succession of large general 
hospitals that had well-established rep- 
utations in diagnosis and treatment of 
disease and laboraton' research. 
1. Observation of Jfloors or wards 
would reveal much movement, often 
hurried and sometimes confused, by 

Dr. Brown is on the executive staff 
of the Russell Sage Foundation. New 
York. She gave this paper as one in a 
<ieries of adòresses presented at the 
opening of The University Hospital, 
Saskatoon, Sask.. last May. Several of 
these addresses are being publisheò this 
month in The Calladian Hospital. 

MARCH. 1956. Vol. 52. No. 3 

staff of many different categories. in- 
cluding several new groups of assist- 
ant personnel. Almost everyone would 
be carrying out a procedure ordered 
by the appropriate person in the 
service with which he was associated. 
Even if he \\"ere a member of the reg- 
ular ward staff and not from another 
department, however, he would rarely 
seem to be part of a team whose efforts 
had been closely coordinated in behalf 
of helping patients to manage the 
problems of illness, particularly psycho- 
logical prob1ems. Very infrequently 
would one see the members of the 
ward staff sitting down together at a 
conference tab!t' for regular and sys- 
tematic discussion of the needs of in- 
dividual patients and how those needs 
could best be met. 
Patients report that they find the 
stream of personnel who do something 
to them or for them but rarely with 
them. extremely disconcerting and 
fatiguing. Instead of gaining psycho- 
logical support they have a sense of 
vast aloneness, and often an increase 
of anxietv. \\Then ward staff is asked 
whether group planning could not lead 
to reduction in the number of person- 
nel serving a particular patient, and 
whether it is not possible for someone 
- physician or nurse - to sit down 
quietly with. and listen to, the patient 
for a few minutes each day. the ques- 
tioner is promptly told that present 
deficits in ward care are the result 
of serious numerical shortages. pa rtic- 
ularly of nurses. That grave shortages 
exist in many geographical areas that 
have heen rapidly expanding their 
medical and health sen-ices, as well 
as in practically all psychiatric hos- 
pitals. is factually correct. hut to make 
these shortages hear so large a respon- 
sibility for inadequacies is to preclude 
examination of other essential factors. 
2. The average general hospital is 
still organi7ed to take care almost 
exclusively of patients who are in hed. 
although early ambulation has greatly 
reduced the nature of hospitalization. 


Tht: social scientist is surpri
ed at the 
ahsence of con\ enient founges fur- 
nished with books, magazines, and 
games. and the ahsence of facilities for 
showing films. serving tea, or prO\"id- 
ing other social activities. From the 
lessons learned by psychiatric hos- 
pitals, pediatric and rehabilitation 
services, are we not to conclude that 
all ill patients need a enyiron- 
nwnt more pearly resembling that of 
the h01lle and community which \yould 
give thcm some sense (
f contact with 
the outside world, some distraction 
from preoccupation with illness. and 
would perhaps reduce the demands for 
servin' maòc upon the ,,"ard staff? 
If there b,' a shortage of personneL 
could a social setting not be cTe1.ted 
that would minimize this inadequacy 
somewhat, and would allow patients 
themselyes to gi\-e more psychological 
help to other patif'nts? 
\lthough large numbers of per- 
sons are employeò in òoing something 
to or for the patient, examination of 
ward care reveals that systematic plans 
for teaching patients how to care for 
themsf'lves after. leaving the hospital, 
or facilities for the maximum rehabil- 
itation possible while in hospital. are 
rare indeed. :\Iany inòividual patients 
certainlv receive excel1ent instruction 
from physic;an Or nurse. and an in- 
crf'asing- number of hospitals are con- 
cerned with oroblem5 of rehabilitation. 
But for numberless other pati\.'nts re- 
sDonsibility appears to end \yhen the 
acute phase of the illness is over. 
Every011l' is so \\-en acquainted with 
the sf'rious consequences for the pa- 
tient. in discomfort. anxietv, and often 
needless readmission to the hnspital 
t JlO illustrations are nece::.san'. The 
qUf'stion is, \yh
T is it impossible to 
prO\'ide at least the l'
sential guidance. 
eyen if rehabilitation cannot be sup- 
plied? The an s\\'er prnln bly lies chiefly 
in the h.ct that therf' i" no cll,'ar al- 
location of responsibility 
mong per- 
sonnel <'I hout \yho is to òo the teaching-. 
or insuffìcif'nt supenision. if respon- 
sibility has heen assigned, to guar,
that the teaching win be consist,'ntly 
performeò. .\nd the reason for failure 
to determ;l1e ,,"ho shan assume the re- 
sponsibilih" is rooted, in c01"Jsider;l b 1 e 
part, in the inadequacy of communica- 
tion t]1at exists 
 the categories 
of s.aff concerned with patient care. 


4. This last conclusion brings us 
immediately to one of the most serious 
problems in its consequences for pa- 
tient care, but one of which physicians 
particularly seem so little aware that 
something must be said about it in 
greater detail. It is the distressing lack 
of communication between the two 
professions most directly and intimate- 
ly in contact with the patient, namely, 
the doctor and the nurse. So incred- 
ible does this phenomenon appear to 
ocial scientist when he first begins 
objective obsf'rvation of hospitals, that 
one sociologist periodicalIy stationed 
himself near the charge desk on vari- 
ous \yards to count the number of 
exchanges - of no matter what nature 
- between these Ì\yO groups of staff. 
His count shO\yed that physicians 
spoke to physicians, even at the hf'ad 
nurse's station. eight times as frequent- 
ly as they spoke to nurses. If this 
occurs in a fine voluntary hospital 
that prides itself on administrative 
competence, is it any wonder that a lay 
hoard member of another hospital 
characterized this social distance be- 
tween the two groups as a "barren 
no-man's land"? 
\Yhat are the consequences of such 
failure in communication for the pa- 
tient? One brief illustration will have 
to suffice. In a particular hospital that 
I wrt.s visiting. it was suggested that 
I talk to the head nurse of a want for 
\'eterans with long-term illness, so ex- 
ct'ptionrtlly competent and highly moti- 
vated WllS she in the care of chronic 
patients. In Jescribing the \'arious 
patients and the nursing prohlems 
presented. she came to the name of 
:\1 r. :\1. 
"Last night he told the nurse," said 
she. "that 'he did not expect to live. 
\\T e had no idea that he had anxiety 
about (h'ing, particularly \\-hen his con- 
dition is so much better than that of 
other patients." 
"And what has he en done to relieve 
-:\1r. :\1. of an-..;:iety?" T inquired. 
"The night nurse reported it to me 
and I have- reported it to the resident." 
was the replv. 
"Do vou l;nO\\" whether the resident 
has alréadv harl a talk with 1\f r. :\1.?" 
I queried. - She did not know. 
"Do yOU think he will talk with }.1 r. 
:\L - -;mò very SOO'1?" She refused 
to hazard an opinion. "Then I inquired 


'what she considered her responsibility, 
knowing as she did that a patient was 
afraid he was going to die, she only 
said again that she had reported the 
matter promptly. 
"But couldn't you ask the resident. 
with a smile, 'Did you remember to 
see 1\'Ir. 1\1.?" 
To this she answered, "You have 
been discussing with us in the hospital 
the value of ",.ard staff meetings at 
which we could talk about the man- 
agement of patients. If we are able 
to start 
uch meetings, problems like 
that of Mr. 1\1. can be taken up." 
The only difficulty with the pro- 
posed solution was that such meetings 
would not be instituted for ,veeks at 
best. and 1\1r. 1\1. was suffering anxi- 
ety. Here was a thoroughly experi- 
enced nurse whose interpersonal 
relations with patients, as I watched 
her, appeared so excellent that she 
could probably have allayed l\1r. M.'s 
fears in short order. Yet she did not 
feel free to assume that responsibility 
or even to make certain that the resi- 
dent physician had assumed it. We 
can only infer that the institutional 
svstem of the hospital, a subject to 
hich we shall return soon, had pro- 
duced this strange pattern of behavior. 
5. Detailed observation of patient 
care and interviews with personnel 
lead to the conclusion that motivation 
is often inadequate and morale low 
among many members of ,vard staffs. 
So poor indeed does motivation fre- 
quently appear that we must ask 
whether the roots of the present prob- 
lems do not lie here quite as much 
as in numerical shortages. In hospital 
after hospital that is favored with 
relatively large staffs, excellent equip- 
ment, and facilities of the traditional 
kind, a(lministrators admit that if onlv 
the resources in personnel and equip- 
ment could be fully mobilized patient 
crtre would probably be greatly im- 
\\7hen memhers of the staff are in- 
terviewed bv a social scientist in whom 
they have éonfidence, recurring opin- 
ions and emotions are expressed that 
perhaps explain the half-hearted 
interest. T f these opinions are sorted 
and arranged according to their fre- 
quency, the interviewer is likely to 
discover that ahove everything else 
staffs want to be found fault with 

MARCH, 1956. Vol. 52, No.3 

less when the fault lies reallv in the 
hospital system rather than -in their 
own neglect or shortcomings. Gener- 
all" in second place is the desire by 
the staff for recognition in the form 
of a word of praise or a smile when 
something has been done well. Rela- 
tively high on the list is the expression 
of need for stronger support from 
,vanl physicians or supervisory nurses 
in frustrating and anxiety-provoking 
situations. Parallel with the expression 
of need for support, however, is the 
desire to be cunsulted about patients' 
behavior or what could be done to im- 
prove ward conditions. Interestingly, 
higher pay and shorter working hours, 
that management often concludes are 
workers' chief interest, are likely to be 
well down the list - and that in spite 
of the low salary scale of hospitals 
\Yhat hospital employees who work 
most closely with patients want, there- 
fore, is much like what most workers 
elsewhere want: the sense that \vhat 
they are doing is important, and that 
it is recognized as such both by those 
higher in authority and by their own 
category of staff. They want that 
recognition to be demonstrated in pos- 
itive terms not only of praise and of 
being asked for opinions concerning 
ward matters with which they are well 
acqu.ainted, but they want to be given 
the feeling that they are part of a 
group therapeutic effort. In the failure 
of the hospital to supply these basic 
needs of its employees may lie an es- 
sential reason for patient care being so 
impersonal and hurried, and neglectful 
of other than technical procedures. 
I s it not possihle that floor staffs have 
lived in a cold, sterile atmosphere that 
has chilled them to the bone until they 
in turn reflect that atmosphere in their 
stiff and starched relations with pa- 
6. This question brings us to the 
last point in this array of observations 
The social scientist notes research 
laboratories where productive efforts 
are being made to further diagnostic 
and therapeutic goals. But he rarely 
finds comparable research concerned 
with assessment of the quality of pa- 
tient care, with development of tech- 
niCJues for increasing effectiveness of 
relations between staff members and 
between staff and patients, and with 


evaluation of the results achieyed. In a 
manuscript recently submitted to Rus- 
sell Sage Foundation for puhlication, 
one of the authors has written the 
following paragraph about a hospital 
that for a decade has pioneered in 
studies of improvement of patient care. 
As late as 1943 there was little re- 
search that tended to increase self- 
awareness: understanding of the manner 
in which each individual in the hospital 
setting was functioning, how he was 
contributing to therapeutic goals, and 
how his contribution might be imple- 
mented further. Although a few things 
within the h0spital system were well 
studied, the system itself escaped notice, 
and (social science) research was not 
an integral part of the system. 
Research of the kind to which Dr. 
Milton Greenblatt refers has as yet 
been slight. \Vhat has been learned, 
however, from the application of con- 
cepts of behayior to the field of in- 
dustrial management alone furnishes 
sufficient guide lines for initiating hos- 
pital research and experimentation. J. 
A. C. Brown. a British psychiatrist, 
has simply and cl
rly synthesized this 
knmvledge in "The Social Psychology 
of Industry," puhlished in 1954 by 
Penguin Books. Dr. Brown's discus- 
sion of morale and the impetus that 
causes men to want to work is almost 
as relevant for the hospital as the in- 
dustrial plant. If the analysis made by 
social scientists who have studied in- 
stitutional organization be applied to 
large complex hospitals, the cause for 
the frequent failure to supply the basic 
needs of employees becomes apparent. 
That cause is the traditional and 
inflexible nature of the formal social 
structure of the hospita1. Let us think 
of it for a moment as it would appear 
on an organizational chart. The chart 
would show parallel horizontal lines 
representing authority and status. At 
the top of the structure ,voule] be the 
hoard of trustees; at the bottom, so 
far as direct patient care is concerned. 
would be the aide or orderly. The 
chart also would show parallel vertical 
lines representing functions or serv- 
ices. such as the medica], social work, 
nursing, or physiotherapy service. At 
the top of each of these vertical lines 
would he the persons responsible for 
planning and administering the serv- 
ice; at the hottom. those responsihle 


for carrying out orders at the point 
of immediate contact with patients. 
\ Vithin this organizational structure 
everyone would function within a rel- 
atively well-defined area, and those 
numerically very important groups at 
the hottom of the hierarchy, within 
closely circumscribed areas. 
This limitation to functional move- 
ment either upward or outward is ac- 
centuated, moreover, by the fact that 
communication moves primarily only 
in one direction - from persons with 
more authority and higher status to 
those with less - and the communica- 
tion is phrased largely as orders, pro- 
nouncements, and announcements. 
Few plans or even suggestions anò 
pertinent information flow in the other 
direction, while reasonable requests for 
supplies or repairs often move so 
slowly and with such distortion along 
extended lines of communication that 
patients and floor staff conclude that 
"the hospital" is not interested. 
The effect of the formal organization 
of the large hospital, thus analyzed, 
is ohviously the opposite to what 
would be required ,vere floor staffs to 
be given recognition, a feeling of im- 
portance, and a sense of contributing 
to a group therapeutic effort. The 
problem becomes, therefore, one of 
striving to discover how these two 
apparently irreconcilable sets of fac- 
tors may be more nearly harmonized. 
Some hospital administrations have 
rather naivelv assumed that if in- 
creased praise and decreased blame 
of ward personnel would improve 
morale and efficiency, little more was 
required than a suggestion to those 
in positions of authority that they alter 
their behavior when on the wards. Un- 
fortunatelv, behavior patterns are not 
likely to' he changed. or remain 
changed, if the social organization con- 
tinues inflexible and no attempt is 
made to re-evaluate and restructure 
the roles ascrihed to the lower echelons 
of personnel. 
Recently a few hospitals have ex- 
perimented with altering relationships 
among staff bv creating situations that 
foster less reliance upon authority and 
status and more upon coordinated 
group effort. The results have been 
promising enough to encourage these 
hospitals to attempt to discover how 
such situations be expanded in 


number and scope and made to con- 
tribute the maximum possible to 
breaking down harmful barriers. 
Space permits illustrative reference 
to only one type of situation. The 
weekly or semi-weekly ward-staff con- 
ference has been selected because most 
persons have some acquaintance with 
it and it has proved potentially useful 
in improving patient care. Although 
it has been employed in many places 
for discussion of management of pa- 
tients or altering ward conditions, it 
is capable of greater effecti,'eness and 
of serving more ends simultaneously 
than has generally been supposed. Suc- 
cess has frequently been limited be- 
cause the resident physician did not 
attend. monopolized the discussion, or 
kept reverting to considerations of 
diagnosis and treatment: because only 
the morning shift was represented or 
aides and orderlies were not included. 
If a total staff be present and a per- 
missive atmosphere cultivated. such 
meetings are capable of encouraging 
movement on several fronts concur- 
rently. The discussion of patient care 
and ward conditions is extremelv valu- 
able in itself. But an opportun
ty has 
also been provided whereby anxieties 
can be expressed and support offered: 
frustrations and annoyances aired and 
often resolved; personnel who ha,'e 
never before uttered an opinion helped 
to participate and thereby to develop 
greater occupational competence: and 
the entire staff gradually woven into 
a closelv coordinated team of workers. 
In a 'project on improvement of pa- 

tient care 111 large psychiatric hos- 
pitals that Russell Sage Foundation 
lately sponsored and the results of 
which will shortly be published, the 
ward psychiatrists for the selected ex- 
perimental areas concluded that they 
could not raise the level of care ap- 
preciably unless the ward staffs wet-e 
individually and collectively taken into 
full partnership. The \vard-staff meet- 
ing was one of the chief instruments 
employed for creating and maintaining 
that partnership, I wish I could report 
in detail on the changes that were 
achieved in a few months. It is only 
possible to note that changes were of 
an order that made manv visitors 
hesitant to believe that these were 
the same wards and the same staff 
thev had seen prior to the beginning 
of the project. :Motivation ran so high 
that the personnel vied with each 
other to see who could think of more 
or better ways to improve conditions; 
one physician. in particular, was sub- 
jected to great pressure to initiate 
further undertakings. Almost an staff 
reported to the social scientist who 
acted as obsen'er that thev \\'ere more 
interFsted in and satisfied with their 
work than they had ever been before. 
One supervisory nurse stated that in 
his 14 years of psychiatric nursing he 
had heard much talk of the team, but 
this was the first time he had ever seen 
it practised. Bes
 of all. improvement 
of even long-time chronic patients was 
pronounced. and both patients and 
their families showed far more satisfac- 
tion with the hospital than formerly. 


The effect of fluoridation in reducing the 
rate of tooth decay has b
en graphicaJ]y 
illustrated by the results of a lO-year ex- 
perimental study in an Ontario town. 
The purpose of the experiment was to 
rletermine whether the mechanical adjust- 
ment of the fluoride content of the water 
supply would reduce the rate of tooth decay 
to the lower level found in regions v. here 
drinking water contains fluoride naturally. 
The result was "a significant decrease. 
amounting to 60 per cent in the number of 
decayed. missing and fiJ]ed teeth" suffered 
by school children of the area, It has been 

MARCH. 1956. Vol. 52. No, 3 

established that there is nothing to indicate 
that this practice is harmful to persons of 
any age. On the contrary it appears that 
introduction of fluoride is both harmless and 
The cost of water fluoridation in the ex- 
perimental area. where the ratio was 1.2 
parts to one million parts water, ranged 
between 12 and 17 cents per capita per year 
using sodium fluoride, The use of sodium 
silicofluoride in the future is expected to 
reduce the cost to about six cents per capita. 

- O'ltar;() Department of Health 


The District Nurse Knows Better 

1\1 \Rr.ARET KIRK 

Edit o
 s Note: 
Iiss Ki rk is aNew 
Zealander who completed her course in 
public health nursing at the C niversity 
of Toronto School of Nursing then 
joined the staff of the Indian Health 
Service, b
ing assigned to the Micmac 
Health Unit at Shubenacadie, N.S. The 
article below was written primarily to 
inform the nurses "down under" about 
the work she is doing in Canada. Hence, 
there are some descriptive passages that 
will present a familiar picture to Cana- 
dian nurses. But for the thousands who 
have had no experience in a rural health 
service, Miss Kirk's quick perception 
and sparkling sense of humor lighten 
the day and night responsibilities that 
are inevitable in such work. 
* * * 
I AM WRITING from an Indian Res- 
ervation in central i\ ova Scotia, 
that quiet little province clinging to 
the eastern seaboard of a vast con- 
tinent. True, the visitor seeking the 
rustic simplicity described on his tour- 
ist pamphlet believes it peaceful. The 
district nurse knows better! 
This is the !argest of more than 
a dozen such areas set aside for the 
lVlicmac Indians, native Canadians of 
N ova Scotia, "to be neither bought 
nor sold, nor trodden by foot of white 
man without permission," although 
today the latter clause is modified. 
All around sprawl hills clothed in a 
forest of conifers, well mixed with 
eastern hardwoods, maple, birch and 
oak. In clearings, which have been 
given over to the wild blueberries, 
cluster the homes of the 1\Iicmacs, 
statistically a dying race but, with in- 
termarriage, really suffering from 
'white absorption. Some squares of 
green indicate potato patches, but the 
bard stony land does not respond well 
to cultivation, nor its masters to the 
thought of labor! 
During the summer these families, 
-from grandpa to the newborn, forsake 
their own patches and head for Maine 
'where, at the height of the commercial 
potato and blueberry harvest, good 
money is to be had. However, the 
majority find it necessary to "hitch 


home." often spending a night un- 
concernedly in a county jail. 
The fall (and what a sight are those 
blazing scarlet maples!) calls hunters 
to don regulation red caps and leave 
for the woods. lVlany Indians proudly 
wear the badge of licensed guides, and 
wait to conduct excited American 
businessmen to their first deer. Now 
with the first dusting of snow they 
are cutting and hauling Christmas 
trees out of the forest on homemade 
sleds; fir and prized blue spruce, which 
will give joy to city homes. 
All winter they will watch traps, 
dreaming of large beaver and muskrat 
pelts, as they snowshoe hopefully over 
their traplines. Beaver is rare now, 
and the trapping season limited for 
their valuable pelts, but there is a 
bounty on the little sniffing nose of Mr. 
Indoors, a cottage industry flour- 
ishes. \Vhile husbands split maple and 
birch saplings to unbelievable thinness, 
wives weave baskets of every shape, 
size and color. Others use the wood 
shavings to make exquisite flowers 
and sell them in the Halifax open 
The Health Centre (for such my 
residence with clinic and dispensary 
attached is called) emerges sturdily 
above the surface of a hilltop. 
Howling Atlantic gales bring rain 
and fog and, as the season progresses, 
sleet and blizzards whistle by all the 
way from Hudson Bay. It requires 
increasing strength to open a front 
door directly facing the west, and even 
more to shut it again. 
In our community, pride of posses- 
sion is a foreign expression. The In- 
dian homes, little two-storied boxes 
of shingles and shakes, are barely 
furnished. As always some are spot- 
less, many terribly overcrowded, and 
others uninhabitable yet inhabited. To 
you in a land of bungalows it must 
be explained that the square high 
house, however unbeautiful, heats bet- 
ter through a long winter, specially 
when cooking is on a wood stove also 
used for heating. Water is carried 


from common wells. I try not to 
imagine the washing facilities, nor 
notice the consternation when nurse 
wants to wash her hands. However, 
as a teaching measure the ritual is 
carried out, in a grubby basin if neces- 
sary. \Yhether I end up any cleaner 
or not is beside the point. 
For my sake interviews are held 
in Englisl;, though all family backchat 
continues in l\ilicmac. Today, few can 
read and fewer write this language 
that the French Jesuit priests so pa- 
tiently transcribed into Arabic sym- 
bols, ,,'ith the first telling of the Gospel 
in Canada's history. The original 
Indian hieroglyphics are preserved in 
an old prayer book belonging to the 
parish priest, and with a little imagina- 
tion they can be guessed at. The sign 
for marriage is a primitive but obvious 
double bed. 
To describe the actual duties of a 
nurse in the Indian Health Service. 
only the word "generalized" would 
ever qualify. 
 ewly postgraduated and 
fresh in the field of puhlic health, I 
was bent on the education of my pub- 
lic, and they on the education of the 
nurse. Initiation included meeting the 
Government agent, who generally ad- 
ministers public affairs and finances 
within Indian territory, and afternoon 
tea with the chief. I asked about a 
plan of work. "\Ve haven't any. You 
must make your own," they replied. 
For the first few mornings I was 
beseiged with ailments of every de- 
scription. After suturing some lacer- 
ations, writing an obesity diet for a 
300-pound hrave, and generally diag- 
nosing and prescribing with the license 
of a family physician, I thankfully 
referred the doubtful cases to the doc- 
tor \vho called once a week. \Vhen 
everyone had satisfied his curiosity 
regarding the new nurse, callers slack- 
ened off, and the plan was able to 
organize itself. 
In this area, where the weather 
conditions playa decisive part in one's 
program, much of the routine work 
must be fitted into the late spring 
and fall. as after the middle of N ovem- 
ber. no guarantee of arriving on 
schedule can he giyen. Some of the 
roads ha\'e a Burma-type surface - 
a giant washhoard, camol1Haged ditches. 
anrl every corner a right angle. It is, 
indeed, a far cry from the super high- 

MARCH, 1956 · Vol. 52, No. 3 

ways of Ontario. I roar around the 
wilderness in a mud-spattered Pon- 
tiac, stones flying, dogs barking. I 
carry enough pills and potions for a 
mobile drug store, a large black bag 
labelled "general," and another labelled 
"maternity." Several times my trusty 
yehicle has allowed itself to get stuck, 
hut \\"e have always been rescued by a 
crO\vd of yelling little Redskins, cry- 
ing "The nurse is in the ditch up to 
her fender," and regarding it as the 
event of the week. 
Once, when bearing a supervisor 
from headquarters in Halifax along a 
narrow track, we found a rock sub- 
merged in a blackberry bush and 
smashed a door. 
\ small hov. our on I\" 
witness. said comfortingly. - "Yo' shó' 
was going a pace, missus." 
\Vith headquarters at the largest 
settlement, the smaller communities, 
some of them 150 miles distant, look 
forward to regular visits from the 
nurse's car, bringing "needles," b:>ok". 
cod liver oiL cough mixture. headlice 
lotion and goodwill. The school chil- 
dren eagerly help to unload baby 
scales and the mO\'ie projector with 
rollapsible screen. They are as awkward 
in a car as a pair of skis but our latest 
pieces of equipment so are held in deep 
respect. Incidentally, during the late 
fall months it is a wise measure alwavs 
to carry a sleeping bag on journe}TS 
which involve a night a,vay from 
_ \t one school, rather isolated from 
white contact, the beginners are learn- 
ing their first English. \ Vhen the nurse 
appears eyen the smallest rises and 
bows. The next move is from a bov 
who says, memory-style, "l\Iay I take 
vour coat, ma'am?" and carries it 
reverently to the cupboard. Even if 
icicles were forming on mv nose, to 
keep it on would be the end! Another 
brings a tin basin of ,,,arm water, and, 
under the wondering gaze of big brown 
eyes. I wash up with dignity. The 
pupils then display their arms, with 
precision and confidence. to receive 
their "boosters" of triple vaccine 
(diphtheria. pertussis. tetanus). There 
is only one room in which to do every- 
thing. yet the children give perfect 
cooperation. The older ones all can 
tell why these are necessary. 
The fathers had to be rounded up 
to mcnd baby-carriages and carrying 


baskets betore the first few mothers 
toiled to baby clinic. Alas for the beau- 
tiful literature I had seen on display 
during our course! Not very suitable 
for showing a mother with two bottles 
and a black pot how to prepare for- 
mula! How often it is necessary to 
modify our preconceived ideas of 
hygiene to conform to local standards. 
I remember a father who proudly 
presented a pickle jar containing the 
roundworm three feet long, which my 
pills caused to escape from his daugh- 
ter. "Very good pills, miss; better 
than Indian medicine." 
There was the time when everyone 
seemed to complain of sore eyes. It 
was baffling till I discovered the first 
T.V. set, standing gloriously alone in 
a home with little else visible. Each 
night as many as would fit sat on the 
bare floor till the end of the program, 
we !I after midnight - and were 
thoughtfully charged 25 cents by the 
Then came the x-ray survey, when 
crowds flocked round the portable 
generator and equipment set up in 
church, school, or home, but could not 
find the courage to try it. Some hid 
in attics and others fled to the woods. 
Tuberculosis among Indians and Es- 
kimos, as with other native races, finds 
little resistance and is difficult to con- 
trol, despite frequent surveys of every- 
one over six months old, and B.C.G. 
for the infants of parents who can be 
persuaded to give consent. All preven- 
tive measures, taken for granted in 
so many communities, must be fought 
for patiently and persuasively, yet 
when an Indian is sick there is no 
one with greater faith in a needle. 
Rather than encourage him, it is often 
more a matter of discouraging the 
prescription the Indian has set his 
heart on. 
Indian days are measured from 
dawn till dark. and I have never seen 
so many unpunctual pupils at any 
school. "Off duty" means nothing 
either. However. when a person has 

walked two miles down an icy, pitch- 
dark road, it is difficult to refuse him 
no matter how trivial his complaint 
may be. The arrival of babies excepted, 
the most exciting things usually hap- 
pen at night. 
There was the early rising toddler 
who, with his puppy, ate two packets 
of chocolate laxative (about 20 times 
the dose). It was a minor disaster 
for the boy, but his dog was missing 
for days! 
On the night of the first snow- 
storm this year a lone drunk man 
almost beat my door down. With all 
the Christian love I could muster I 
beamed "Come in" and he did. with 
a cloud of flakes, and his muddy snow- 
caked boots right on the mat. "Wife 
drinking," he muttered. "Threw pot 
of tea at my boy and ran away." I 
donned winter uniform ( ski pants) 
over pajamas, and with chains rattling 
we slithered through 40 miles of slush 
taking a burned, scared nine-year-old 
to hospital. 
After a beating a mother plodded 
up one night to say she was so dis- 
couraged she was going to leave her 
ten children. After pouring out her 
woes she was persuaded to return, so 
back we plodded to find husband snor- 
ing and the doors locked. Like com- 
mon thieves we quietly pried open a 
window and I pushed her in. 
Legislation forbids the sale of liquor 
to an Indian, so thrives "bootlegging," 
and home brewing with yeast cake 
from the grocery store, or aspirins 
saved up from nursing station dis- 
tributions. All the misery and degrada- 
tion associated with it follows. 
Life in this manner, here pictured 
so briefly, is likely to continue seven 
days a week unless the nurse leaves. 
She did last Sunday and what hap- 
pened? I was caught by one of those 
storms mentioned above so instead 
of being snowed in I was snmved out 
and spent the night with hospital 
friends (no sleeping bag) until such 
time as the roads were ploughed clear. 

Why some human wounds fail to heal 
may be partially explained by the presence 
of mucoproteins which agglutinate the pa- 
tient's own erythrocytes. This may cause 
"plugging" of the capillaries and produce 
an inflammatory condition of tissue cells, 
Although more extensive trials are necessary 


to confirm present findings, investigators 
have discovered that chlorophyll derivatives 
tend to counteract this condition. Chloro- 
phyll derivative ointment used in the treat- 
ment of previously resistant varicose or 
decubitus ulcers has shown beneficial healing 


Psychiatric Nursing 


I T HAS ALWAYS seemed to me that 
the definition of terms, while of 
great importance in any interchange of 
ideas, can be a tedious and rather 
frustrating use of time. This is espe- 
cially true when one is considering 
nursing because everyone has a defini- 
tion of nursing. It is always a defini- 
tion garnered from the individual's 
own experience, the experience of his 
friends, impressions of Sairy Gamp 
and Florence Nightingale and the dis- 
ingenuous stories from Hol1ywood. It is 
always peculiarly his own and subject 
to all the bias and prejudice of his 
pattern of living. This makes many 
people quite ready to speak of and for 
nursing. There is no other discipline, 
unless perhaps it is psychology, with 
so many spokesmen, so many critics 
and so few really informed supporters. 
Nursing therefore becomes a compli- 
cated picture in the minds of our 
pu blic. As soon as we add to the 
muddle the adjective "psychiatric" we 
are launched on a very rough trip 
indeed. Here we really come face to 
face 'with feelings, fears, suspicions, and 
a rather horrified fascination. Many 
in and out of medicine and nursing 
ha \-e the comforting idea that if we 
don't talk too much about it, it may 
go away. Sometimes the more anxious 
relieve their feelings by reflecting that 
while it is interesting, nurses and doc- 
tors who stay too long in psychiatry 
get a little queer too. In some way this 
relieves the discomfort. 
YVhatever the method of arrival em- 
ployed, most people reach a definition 
of psychiatric nursing. This will most 
certainly be one best suited to their 
particular feelings in this area. Be- 
cause of this, the majority must think 
of psychiatric nursing as the kind of 
nursing carried out in mental hospitals 
in the midst of hopelessness, disturb- 
ance. premeditated homicidal attacks. 
noise and confusion. They are upset 
to think of "nice" young girls exposed 

Miss Bregg is director of nursing at 
the Toronto Psychiatric Hospital. To- 

MARCH. 1956. Vol. 52. No.3 

to these sights and sounds. These mis- 
conceptions and anxieties are revealed 
in countless ways - most obviously 
perhaps by the apathy which allows 
us to ignore fairly completely the 
thousands of our citizens who are con- 
fined to mental hospital. So, for many, 
psychiatric nursing is something car- 
ried out in mental hospitals. This is 
of the greatest concern to me and 
gives, I believe, a completely erroneous 
picture of the concept of nursing which 
is developing today. 
A patient is always a member of a 
social system. Removing him to hos- 
pital does nothing to negate this. It 
complicates simply by the addition of 
a new pattern of living and feeling. 
It accentuates his interpersonal diffi- 
culties, creates new social problems 
and removes tried and trusted props. 
The most adequate of us responds to 
this strain with more or less anxiety, 
irritability or the pronounced use of 
other defence patterns. The nurse re- 
ceives the full impact of this and re- 
sponds. If she responds with percep- 
tiveness, sensitivitv and warmth to 
unspoken needs, she guides the patient 
towards physical and emotional com- 
fort. She is also practicing psychiatric 
nursing which is the refinement and 
most skilled use of the interpersonal 
situation for growth and health. 
Psychiatric nursing becomes, then, 
the skilled use of the nurse-patient re- 
lationship to aid the patient's recovery, 
to help him handle difficulties as they 
appear to him, to meet needs unmet 
in the past and to restore him emo- 
tionally and physically well to the 
community. There is no successful 
nurse practicing who does not in some 
way attempt this. Her degree of satis- 
faction depends on her ability to 
operate in this \vay. It is an essential 
if she is to gain satisfaction because, 
for an intelligent woman, the routine 
of physical care. divorced from this 
wider area is not stimulating. Only 
to the yery young novice in nursing 
can the making of a hospital bed give 
a glow of achievement that will last 
all day. It it in the attempt to under- 


stand the complex person in the bed 
and the equally complex person in the 
uniform that satisfaction, challenge and 
development occur. 
l\Iany of our student nurses in On- 
tario are now offered a 12-week ex- 
perience in nursing the mentally ill. 
fhere are many rather confused 
reasons for this but basically, I think, 
it is a recognition of the interdepend- 
ence of mind and body and the hope 
that somebody somewhere can teach 
this in 12 weeks. Some centres now 
complacently plan to do it in eight 
weeks - a completely unrealistic point 
of view since time as a maturation 
factor cannot be overlooked. vVhat- 
ever the motives, psychiatric nursing 
has become a 12-week specialty and 
there it stays. A student nurse may 
reach this at the end of her first year 
of practice or at the end of her third 
year, or, due to force of circumstances, 
she may never reach it at all. This 
in spite of the fact that from her first 
hour on the ward she is dealing with 
emotional disturbance of greater or 
lesser degree in herself, her patients 
and her fellow workers. 
1 think there was a time when the 
lot of the nurse was simpler than it 
is today. She simply worked under 
direction. Her task was "to carry out" 
rather than "think through." To some 
this husiness of "carrying out" is still 
the highly desired characteristic of the 
nurse. There is much distrust of higher 
education for nurses especially if this 
education removes the student from the 
confines of the wards. In those situa- 
tions where a nurse is still expected 
to "carry out" and not "question 
through" her task is simpler but the 
turnover of staff is enormous. When 
encouraged to think through, she be- 
comes often a storm centre and the 
tides of resistance grow. Other things 
grow too - independence of thought, 
greater respect for the knowledge of 
others and a healthier climate for pa- 
N ow psychiatric nursing when it is 
locked in a mental hospital and cus- 
todially oriented, is as dead as nursing 
in a general hospital when shackled 
hv blind routine and militaristic hier- 
chv. Kursing is a function - one of 
th(' functions of the health team. The 
operations of nursing are technical and 
interpersonal. Almost anyone of nor- 


mal intelligence can learn most of the 
technical aspects of nursing but only 
a nurse specially educated to recog- 
nize and respond to the patient's need 
for help can go beyond the routine 
and supply relief or the means of 
future growth. And it is this going 
beyond that has come, in many in- 
stances, to be called quite erroneously 
psychiatric nursing. It is this miscon- 
ception which restrains nursing from 
fulfilling its highest calling. \Vhat 
saves us from complete failure is the 
fact that the ranks of nursing are filled 
with women \vho have the vision and 
maturity to go the extra half-mile and 
to take the young nurse with them. 
L'nfortunately, many who do this com- 
plete nursing have never thought 
through their methods or the reasons 
for their successes and failures. There- 
fore, they cannot teach it - the learner 
has to be exposed and catch it. Some 
people have a natural immunity. 
If we accept the desirability of this 
complete nursing then we can use 
our experience and knowledge to put 
this so-called psychiatric nursing back 
where it belongs at the root of nurs- 
ing. This does not mean that skill and 
knowledge in technical areas will ever 
decrease in importance. On the con- 
trary, techniques will become of greater 
use and value, will be the exordium 
to a fuller relationship with the pa- 
tient and a greater acceptance on his 
part of the help offered. 
This leaves us still \vith the respon- 
sibility for hundreds of acutely ill 
psychotic and neurotic patients. \Vhat 
kind of nursing do they need? The 
answer is \10 different. They need the 
same perceptiveness, sensitivity and 
knowledge that is due any patient. The 
difference is in the degree of these 
qualities and in the stability and mat- 
urity of those nurses who choose to 
work with the mentally ill. It is not a 
new or different kind of nursing but 
rather a refinement of nursing where 
challenges are great and satisfaction 
\Ve shall never achieve this kind 
of nursing as long as our emphasis 
is on techniques but we could come 
much closer were we to put what we 
now call psychiatric nursing out of the 
specialty area and back to the begin- 
ning of our nursing education prog- 
rams. Then we could rea!ly use the 


special 12 weeks for intensive de\'elop- 
ment and growth for the student and 
the mentally ill patient. 

This, it seems to me, is the real chal- 
lenge of nursing as it is for medicine 
and hospital administration. i\ othing 
,,-ill go smoothly until our teaching 

Fun on Trains 


\ LL ABOARD! Is there anyone who 
1 has not thril1ed to the exciting pos- 
sibilities of those words? The shrill 
warning of the whistle as the train 
nears the crossing, the roar of wheels, 
the rush of e
caping steam as the cars 
slide to a stop, the sense of adventure 
and anticipation hovering over the 
wai ting passengers - all arouse an 
eager longing to climb on board and 
go - somewhere, anywhere. 
As a child in a small railroad town, 
I used to watch the west-bound train 
as it pulled away from the station and 
picture where it went. I could see it 
nosing its way through the dense bush- 
land of X orthern Ontario, rocking 
round the cun-es of the beautiful north 
shore of Lake Superior, then, on across 
the prairies, golden with wheat, until 
the rolling foothil1s introduced the 
Rockies. Here my imagination failed 
me! T knew the Rockies were big - 
bigger than the "mountain" down 
which I slid on my toboggan in winter. 
I know now that they must be seen 
to appreciate their vast grandeur. 
I had a dream. Someday I would 
be one of the lucky ones to whom the 
conductor would shout his invitation. 
Someday T, too, would see those won- 
derful, faraway places. 
That dream became a reality when 
the CX A biennial convention ,,:as held 
in Banff. The click of the wheels on 
the rails became a song in my mind: 

X urses, nurses I've been thinking 
\Vhat a dull world this would be 
I f we never had conventions 
Taking us from sea to sea. 

l[iss Steed is an ardent travel enthu- 
siast from Toronto \Vestern Hospital. 

MARCH, 1956. Vol. 52, No.3 

help..; us to work with people - start- 
ing, if you like, from the patient and 
spreading out in an directions. It is a 
terribly difficult assignment because it 
always involves oneself and this, as 
most of us know, is a subject which, 
like psychiatric nursing. is fascinating 
but not quite healthy. 

The fun started as we met more 
excited, happy folk like ourselves scur- 
rying through the crowded terminal. 
For man," it \vas to be their first ex- 
perience J of living and sleeping on a 
train - an adventure in itself. Each 
coach had a captain who acted as hos- 
tess and human encyclopedia. The 
questions! Passenger lists were pro- 
vided which smoothed out the scramble 
to find the friends vou knew were 
there and surprised J you with the 
names of some whom YOU had not ex- 
pected. "' 
Each day was packed to the brim 
with activitv. Commercial wen-wishers 
contributed J fresh variety daily - a 
fragrant rose delighted each of us one 
morning. The larger gifts were used 
to prove conclusively that the gambling 
instinct is equally strong in both sexes. 
Every night one of our number 
gleamed with the luck of the Irish. In 
the evening the parlor car resounded 
with our enthusiastic singing. 
And then there was the day of the 
hat-fashioning contest! It's amazing 
what one can do with a coat hanger, 
a powder puff, a cake carton, a jar of 
pickles or olives, soda crackers and 
countless other bits and bobs. They 
were not only wearable - some 
fashion-conscious souls modelled them 
at the next station stop - but were 
also. in some instances, edible. 
The entire trip took on the atmos- 
phere of a triumphal tour as we were 
met at one local stop by a hag-pipe 
band, serenaded at another. waved 
hello and good-bye at still others, It 
added that extra hit of zest to the gen- 
eral feeling of good will, good humor 
and adventure which pervaded the 
whole train. 


And 110W another cOllyention vear 
is upon us Our hardworking con;'en- 
tion coordinator is already far ad- 
vanced with her arrangements for you, 
planning your trip in the same excel- 

lent fashion as hdoft,. So make "our 
resen-ations carly, don't forget to bring 
your sense of humor and spirit of ad- 
Yl'nture and let's climb on board the 
Funland Special to \Yinnipeg. 

ALL aboard


j N IKSTrTUTE ENTITLED "The Kurses' Role 
11 in Civil Disaster," the first of its kind 
to be held at the Saskatchewan Civil Defence 
School since its inception in 1951, was re- 
cently concluded. 
This institute \\ as sponsored under the 
joint auspices of the provincial civil defence 
organization and the S,R.X.A. It was held 
at Valley Centre, Fort Qu'Appelle, \\hich 
is the training centre for civil defence activ- 
ities. From the comments made by those 
attending the institute, it appeared to be 
generally agreed that the benefits derived 
from attendance at the institute greatly off- 
set the lack of seasonable enjoyment. Many 
Saskatchewan nurses had previously enjoyed 
the privilege of attending the course on ABC 
warfare conducted by a team from Ottawa 
in December, 1951. 
Ian} others had been 
trained over the years at courses given 
locally. This was the first course conducted 
at the provincial level since 1951. 


:15 .. If 
. , 
..... ... 

A real need had been felt for a refresher 
course for some and an indoctrination pro- 
gram for others. It was with this thought 
in mind that the program was planned. 
X urses from various localities in the 
province were invited to attend. They rep- 
resented schools of nursing, public health 
nursing and institutional nursing. The re- 
sponse was \'ery gratifying. 
There were 47 nurses enrolled for the 
complete course. The speakers included 
nurses who had recently attended the Civil 
Defence College, Arnprior. The material 
that they presented was practical and inter- 
esting as well as instructive. 1Iiss Evelyn 
 ursing Consultant of the Civil 
Defence Health Sen.ices. Department of 

ational Health and \Velfare, attended the 
institute and contributed vitally to the worth 
of the progr:lm. The success of this institute 
has provided a real incentive for further 
gatherings along similar lines. 





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r([RTAtN . 

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. ... 
.... -- ..! 





Ci'Z'il Defcllcc School 111 Saskatchc'il'an 


nUßslnß EDUCATion 

Nurses as Teachers of Science 

AL)[A E. REID, B.A. 

tory of HOll' One Canadian Universit",Y School of 
IVllrsing Comnlellced Sonlethin
 l.Veu' and Different In 
Nllrsing Edllcation 

IE:\T in pro- 
d fessional education of the past 
thirty-five years has been the place 
that nursing has found, or probably 
more accurately, is finding as one of 
the professional disciplines in Canadian 
universities, The early beginnings and 
subsequent course of this development 
in each of the universities across Can- 
ada would make an interesting study. 
For the most part it has varied ac- 
cording to the particular demands of 
nurses and nursing in the locality. the 
resources of the university (which 
means financial as well as 
 other re- 
sources) and most of all, according 
to the philosophy of education and 
predilections of those who pioneered in 
and promoted the development. A 
study of this development in all its 
\"ariations. ,"",hile revealing much in- 
dividua1ity and dissimilarity in the 
many programs. would likely show 
common characteristics and grounds 
from which might be deduced guiding 
principles for nursing education in 
unin..rsities. Here is the story of how 
one program, specially designed for 
professional preparation in nursing, 
was conceived and planned in one 
Canadian university. 
It was from a -conviction that the 
t1Iliversity school of nursing has a real 
responsihility to serve the demands 
amI needs of nursing that the l\fc- 

1iss Reid is the director of the School 
of }Jursing of 
faster Cninrsity, 
Hamilton. Onto 

MARCH. 1956. Vol. 52. No. 3 

Iaster Cniyersity School of X ursing 
decided to enter the field of post-basic 
nursing education. Since 1942 l\lc- 

Iaster has conducted a program in 
basic nursing education, a program 
which, haying emerged from the in- 
evitable vicissitudes of all early devel- 
opments, has now become well-estab- 
lished as a four-year degree course, 
Hence, the time seemed propitious to 
extend the offerings of the university 
to graduate nurses. Innumerable re- 
quests from graduate nurses concern- 
ing the posibility of study at 
made us increasingly aware of the uni- 
versity's responsibi1ity to aid in fur- 
thering the betterment of nursing 
education in some way other than by 
a degree course in basic nursing. The 
interest of the \V, K. Kellogg Founda- 
tion in giving financial assistance for 
the initial period of an approved pro- 
ject served also to make us think more 
seriously on the question, 
In considering the type of contribu- 
tion which the University might make 
to nursing, several questions came to 
mind, questions which needed to be 
answered before conclusions necessary 
for the formulation of specific plans 
could be made: 
( 1) In Canada toda
, what particular 
field Or fields of nursing education are 
being neglected, or, are at least poorly 
provided for either through university 
programs or other means? From the 
outset it was agreed that if OUr objective 
truly was to assist post-basic nursing 
education, then we should not duplicate 


courses \\ hich neighboring universities 
are already offering, since at the present 
time these courses are not over-enrolled. 
At the same time, it was essential to 
ascertain in some way that there would 
be sufficient numbers of graduate nurses 
in Canada interested in the type of prep- 
aration offered, in order to warrant our 
university setting up such a course. The 
blessing and support of the organized 
profession for whatever \\ as undertaken 
must also be assured. 
(2) Has McMaster University ade- 
quate and satisfactory facilities, includ- 
ing personnel, to undertake this work 
and has the project full understanding 
and acceptance in the various adminis- 
trative and academic bodies of the uni- 
versity, were vital questions. 
For obvious practical reasons it was 
necessary to settle upon some field of 
nursing education before commencing 
any inquiry which would enahle us to 
explore the aforementioned questions 
satisfactorily. Preparation for the 
teaching of basic sciences in nursing 
was the field upon which ,""e chose to 
centre our attention. Our reasons for 
making this choice can be attributed 
partly to our knowledge of the existing 
weaknesses in science instruction in 
schools of nursing which we helieved 
was due, in some measure, to the in- 
adequacies of those giving the instruc- 
tion, partly to our av."areness of the 
tendency for Canadian nurses interes- 
ted in this field to enrol in courses 
in the universities of the United States 
where special science preparation in 
nursing could be secured, and partly 
to our own experience in and facilities 
for teaching basic sciences in nursing 
at lYIdvIastcr. 
Along with our exploratory study 
went course planning, for in the pro- 
cess of soliciting opinions anò iòeas 
on the present situation and need in 
science teaching, it ,vas natural that we 
could also secure some help towards 
formulating a course of study. Both 
processes involved much time, to say 
nothing of effort The whole story 
might make rather tedious reading, if 
related in all its ramifications. For us 
it was fascinating and interesting, even 
though long drawn out and discourag- 
ing at times. 
Suffice to say, the preliminary in- 
 and plans were carried out 
in a ,'ariety of ways: discussing the 


matter with leaders in nursing educa- 
tion in Ontario and with persons who 
are recognized authorities in this field 
in selected centres of the United 
States; soliciting opinion and data by 
means of questionnaires 
ent to 60 hos- 
pital schools of nursing in Ontario, 
35 representative hospital schools 
throughout the other provinces of Can- 
ada, and 12 schools or departments of 
nursing in Canadian universities; 
sponsoring a workshop for graduate 
nurses on the topic "helping students 
use science in nursing": conferring 
with the members of the executive of 
the Registered Nurses' Association of 
Ontario (two of whom were also mem- 
bers of the executive of the Canadian 
Nurses' Association), representatives 
from the N lIrsing Branch of the On- 
tario Department of Health, and with 
memhers of the administrative and 
academic councils of the university. 
\Vhile complete unanimity of opin- 
ion on al1 points was not expected 
from the many individuals and organ- 
izations consulted, it was helpful and 
interesting that there was sufficient 
majority agreement on certain funda- 
mental points to enable us to proceed 
with plans in a spirit of good confi- 
del1Ce. The pertinent findings, elicited 
through the measures undertaken, 
might he hriefly summarized. 
There ,vas fairly universal agree- 
ment that the teaching of hasic sciences 
in schools of nursing presents prob- 
lems. and that there is dissatisfaction 
with the results of the present methods 
and means of teaching these sciences. 
A conglomerate group of people is to- 
òay teaching these subjects: nurses 
holding degrees of one kind or another, 
nurses holding special certificates for 
teaching. nurses without special qual- 
ifications, doctors, high school teachers, 
pharmacists, dietitians, 
::\'1ost schools said that they were 
not in a position to purchase science 
teaching for their students from a uni- 
versity, college or high school, and 
many of those who are now purchasing 
some of this teaching, or have done 
so in the past, expressed dissatisfaction 
with it due to cost, loss of student 
time, inappropriate teélching, etc. 
Practically all schools, exceptil1g those 
participating in the centralized pro- 
gram in Saskatchewan, employ ont' and 


sometimes two so-called SCIence 111- 

There seemed to be a definite pref- 
en'nce for nurses as teachers of science 
as opposed to any other persons or 
arrangements. yet there was almost 
general agreement that a definite lack 
of well-prepared teachers of sciences in 
schools of nursing exists in Canada. 
The reasons for this were not sought, 
but we all knO\v too well that they 
are not due entirelv to a lack of avail- 
able preparatory -training for those 
wishing to enter this field. Economic 
and other security factors of employ- 
ment. on top of a proper regard for 
the position of the science instructor, 
play an important part in this sombre 
As a solution to some of the prob- 
lems of science teaching in Ontario, 
the idea of a central school for certain 
instruction. including science instruc- 
tion, was considered. It was thought 
that this might be practicable in some 
regions but could not be recommended 
as a general solution to the problem, 
partly hecause of the geographical 
isolation of a goodly number of schools 
and partly because of the large student 
enrolment in about ten hospital schools 
for which good facilities have been set 
The need for a specially designed 
course to prepare science instructors 
in Canada received strong support 
from a large majority of those consul- 
ted. One or two interesting questions 
were raised in opposition to the ques- 
tion of whether such a course were a 
prime need. \\That constitutes basic 
nursing science amI what do students 
in nursing need in the way of science. 
were considered bv one or two 
thoughtful persons tõ he more funda- 
mental and pressing- questions. In 
consideration of the"e undnuhtedly per- 
tinent and sound questions. we agreed 
that they were important queries and 
nnes which we are still far from 
answering to the satisfaction of all. 
Yet could it not he through such a 
program as was propo""ed that such 
questions could be studied at least 
academically. and steps initiated for 
SI )l11e eX1Jerimental work in solving 
them? \\ïthout being unduly pessim- 
istic. there seenwd to be little hope in 
our present situation that such big 

MARCH. 1956 . Vol. 52. No.3 

questions could he eyen tackled, let 
alone solved. 
As has heen mentioned, help was 
also gained with respect to planning 
the course and its content. Earlv in 
our considerations, we saw the wis"'dom 
of planning a degree program, rather 
than one leading to a certificate. To 
establish a certificate program seemed 
to be, at best, only meeting the present 
emergenty, and not encouraging or 
providing for an acceptable preparation 
for science teaching. The suggestion 
that the certificate might be the first 
step to a degree had merit. but the 
idea was abandoned as the difficulty 
of arranging a desirable sequence of 
studies made it impracticable. and 
pedagogically speaking unsound. 
\Yhether the hiological sciences 
should he studied as an integrated 
whole, rather than separately. was an- 
other interesting question. Here our 
decision was to stud\' each science in- 
dividualh', for it was 'our he!ief that the 
person preparing to teach sciences 
should. first and foremost, possess a 
sound knowledge of the individual 
sciences. since, from this vantage, in- 
tegration would be definitely safer and 
easier. Provision coulc1 be made for 
some assistance in the principles of in- 
tegration in seminar discussions. 
Probably the longest delayed delib- 
erations occurrec1 at the Cniversit\', 
where the project received sympathet1c 
and keen interest but 'l'cr,\' careful 
scrutiny. Cniversities tread èautiously 
on new grounc1 these c1ays! Ours ex- 
plored it for ahout two years. Some 
of the clelav. hmvever, could be ex- 
pléJined by - the long
eeming vacuum 
which occurs at a university hetween 
spring- convocation and
tration in 
the fall. This project came to the 
"powers that-he" just at the com- 
mencement of that period. Before pre- 

enting the plans to the Board and 
Senate of tl1f' 1. TninTsity. the cur- 
riculmn of the cour
e had f)ecn framed. 
The final outcome of the Senate's con- 

ideration of the project was the ap- 
pointment of a special committee to 
studv the matter in detail anc1 to make 
recoinmendations. Thi" committee had 
as its chairman a profe
sor of physics. 
Three other Senate memhers and the 
Director of the School of 
mac1e up the committee. It workec1 
hard thrm 1 gh many long, intere


hut difficult l1leding
. Differences of 
opinion ami outlook had to he recon- 
ciled and comprol1lise
 reached. Fre- 
quently. expert help from other faculty 
ought. The committee 
concerned itself chiefly with cur- 
riculum content, and at the outset 
agreed upon certain criteria as guide- 
posts in the study: 
That the program should be at least 
the academic equivalent of the "Pass" 
B.A. degree; 
that subject content should centre on 
fundamental learning rather than appli- 
that. as far as possible, the curriculum 
should he planned around existing 
courses in the university; 
that non-science subjects and electives 
should form an important part of the 
that, for self-evident reasons, the 
course should embrace as short a period 
as possiblt:. 
The curriculum recommended In' the 
committee of the Senate was eventu- 
ally presented to the cnrriculum policy 
committee of the Gniversity and ap- 
proved. From here it came under fire 
at a full meeting of the faculty, where, 
after an interesting anò memorable 
discussion. lasting ahout one hour, it 
was accepted with a few minor adjust- 
"ments. Subsequently, the Boarrl and 
Senate gave the course their endorsa- 
tion, and we were away, at least, that 
o far as the Univ
rsity was con- 
cerned! The W. K. Kellogg Founda- 
tion, having waited patiently anrl in- 
terestedly throughout our investiga- 
tions and deliberations, confirmed its 
willingness to accept the proposed pro- 
ject for their support over a maximum 
period of five years. The scramhle 
which ensued in publicizing the course 
among interested nurses and in pre- 
paring for the commencement of the 
course, speaking mildly, resembleò 
wedding haste! This phase of the de- 
velopment woulò be shared gladly with 
any interested persons, but does not 
seem to warrant telling here. 
To conclude this storv without tel- 
ling you a bit ahout the J course would 
he something like telling you how to 
make a cake, but saying nothing ;lhout 
\\-"hat is in it or how it looks or tastes. 
Since we are rather proud or our 
"cake." and think it should "taste" 


goorl to nurse
, we want the nurses 
across Canarla to know sumething 
about it. 
Entrants to the course must ha\"e 
complete senior matriculation standing 
including mathematics, physics and 
chemistry. This is essential because 
the stud
es of the course begin from 
this background. The course, as out- 
lined, extends over a period of t W(j 
academic years with additional require- 
ments which mav be taken in the 
inten"ening and - following summer 
periods. If circumstances make it im- 
possible for students to continue for 
two consecutive years. it is possible, 
if a degree is to be granted, to take 
the course over a longer period, pro- 
vided the requirements are met within 
five vears of the date of enrolment. 
IVluch of the liberal arts and other 
requirements of the cour
e may be 
obtained in another approved univer- 
sity, and through transfer uf official 
credits would be accepted by :\fclYlas- 
ter. Conceivably some might obtain 
these credits while in employment by 
enrolling in extension studies offered 
by a university. The provision of some 
flexibility in the course seemed desir- 
able, especially as graduate nurses 
ha\"e already dt'voted three years to 
their professional preparation and are 
often confronted with prob!ems of 
finance and personal responsihility. 
The studies of the cour
e include 
a comhination of social, hiological and 
physical scienct.'s. humanities, nursing 
education. anrl theorv and practice 
pertaining to the teaching of science
in school
 of nursing. The curriculum 
totals 107 units ('If credit as compared 
to the "Pass" B.A. degree requirement 
of 102 units. It is of interest to nott' 
the relative proportions of t]w main 
hranches of study: 

Physical and hiological sciences oc- 
cupy 44 per cent of the total unit value 
of the course: liheral arts, including- 
social sciences, 30 per cent, and profe!'- 
sional studies the remaining 26 per cent. 
Ten units of credit are allowed for the 
hasic cour
e in nursing and make up a 
part of the 26 per cent of the curriculum 
devoted to professional studies. \Vhile 
the program is designed specially to 
prepare g-raduate nurses to teach ba!'ic 
sciences in schools of nursing, it also 
provides a good background of prepara- 


tion for tt:aching in any field of nursing. 
General scieniific principles and teaching 
methods are incorporated in the course. 
One interesting and rather amusing 

idelight occurred when the question 
of the degree to he conferred was be- 
ing discussed in one of the academic 
councils of the Gniversitv. The recom- 
mendation that came t
 this council 
was that the degree would be Bachelor 
of Education in ì\ ursing (B. Ed.N.) 
and that the academic hood would be 
of certain colors and would be unlined, 
on the grounds that this \vas a second- 
ary degree, J mmediately the chairman 
of the special Senate committee rose 
to his feet and protested. In no un- 
certain terms, he gave facts which 
showed that the course merited no 
second-rate degree. He was ably 
ported by other members of the com- 
mittee. anc1, as a result. the lining will 

he included in the hood! 
This is the story, so far, of our 
venture into the field of post-basic 
nursing education, a venture that has 
been born of much cooperative plan- 
ning and for which we are indehted 
to many people. \Ve trust that in time 
it will prove, as other post-basic nurs- 
ing courses in universities have already 
proven, of sound worth to professional 
nursing. \Ve trust also that it strikes 
at the roots of some of the real prob- 
lems in science teaching in schools of 
nursing. \Ve ha\'e striven, in planning 
for it, to take cognizance of some of 
the fundamental demands of Canadian 
nursing both from the standpoint of 
general education and professional 
preparation. In other words. this 
course has been conceivecf from the 
needs and for the gnorl of Canadian 

An Orderly Training Program 


ences of opinion about the value of 
an orderly training program, and to 
help dispel what appears to be a nega- 
tive or pessimistic attitude toward such 
a program, we would like to report 
what we feel was a very' worthwhile 
undertaking in this field. 
There is, basically, only one reason 
for establishing any training program 
within the hospital - better patient 
care. The other reasons - better util- 
ization of personnel, clearer definition 
of duties, greater job satisfaction, in-; 
creased loyalty, more tolerant interper- 
sonal relations - all may be real and 
significant outcomes, bilt constitute 
justification of the time, effort and ex- 
pense. onlv in so far as thev contrihute 
to hetter éare of the patietlt. 
That an orderly training program 
was net'deò in our huspital was in- 
dicated hy: high rate of turno\"er of 
orderly staff: general low morale 
among the group: a lack of integration 

:Miss Richmond, who is educational 
director at Royal Jubilee Hospital, Vic- 
toria, is currently taking some further 
postgraduate study. 

IARCI-I, 1956. Vol. 52. No. 3 

with the total nursing plan: a lack 
of uniformity of opinion among order- 
lies and nurses as to their rightful 
duties: and a rather general feeling 
among the orderlies that they were. 
being "put-upon," and among the 
nurses that the orderlies did not al- 
\vays carry a fair share of the nursing 
\\'hile these had constituterl a need 
for action for some time, the immediate 
impetus to set up a training program 
came from an administrative interne, 
who, throughout the program, assisted 
with the planning and correlating. It 
was feIt that any program of training 
in patient care should be intimately 
linked with the school of nursing, so 
thl' educational director and the nurs- 
ing arts instructor were brought into 
the plan at its beginning. These. with 
the administrative interne, the chargc 
orrlerlv, and selected head nurst's. con- 
stituted the planning committee. 
Since before a training program is 
established one should "set ohjectives," 
initial discussions were held with the 
head nurses as to what the orderlies 
should ht' expected to do. These dis- 
cussions rt'\"eah"d \,cry widely diver- 


gt'nt ideas as to the role of an orderly 
in the total nursing picture. Should 
he attend morning report? Should he 
carry trays and feed patients? Should 
he bathe patients and make beds? 
Shottld he clo sterile dressings? Who 
should teach him? Is he responsible 
to the head nurse? IVlust he explain 
where he is going if he leaves the 
floor for another ward? Is his role 
on a men' s ward comparable to that 
of an aicle on a woman's ward? 
Such discussion revealed our great 
need for a joh description - at least 
an informal. if not a highly organized 
After rea
onahle agreement on such 
points. an outline was prepared of the 
procedures that orderlies might be 
taught. These formed a core around 
which a series of classes in ethics, 
basic sciences, and nursing arts were 
plannerl, Throughout, emphasis was 
placed on the orderly's role as an es- 
sential part of the nursing team. As 
far as possible, the nurses' "nursing 
procedures" were taught, the same 
mimeographed outlines heing used as 
for student nurses. 
The classes in ethics were given 
bv the medical administrator and the 
administrati \"e assistant; those in basic 
sciences by doctors and the instructors 
from the school of nursing. and those 
in nursing arts hv the senior nursing 
arts instructor. Provision was made 
for supervised practice, and for both 
practical ancI written examinations. 

Intolerant Mothers 

A new theory of the basic cause of ec- 
lampsia has been proposed. According to the 
new concept. fetal hormones can and do 
pass through the placenta in increasing 
amounts during pregnancy. These hormones, 
particularly the fetal insulin and sex hor- 
mones. are not always we1comed by the 
mother. Her tolerance varies with the car- 
bohydrate content of her diet. When the 
mother's tolerance reaches its limit a reaction 
Occurs which shuts off the entry of the 
hormones by damaging the syncytium, the 
outermost layer of the placenta. 
The damage to the syncytium impedes 
nutrition of the fetus and often kills it 
(fetal mortality in eclampsia averages 35%). 
The damaged syncytium also produces poi- 
sons. If pumped back into the maternal 


The course co\ cred 80 hours of in- 
struction and supervised practice. 
Classes were held in the afternoons, so 
that they were in "on duty" time for 
the day staff, but in "off (luty" time 
for the evening and night staff. The 
attendance record was good. Incentive 
was provided by giving a $5.00 month- 
ly salary increase to those who com- 
pleted the course. 
At the completion of the course, 
certificates were presented at a lunch- 
eon attended h,' the orderlies. the 
director of nur
es. the hospital ad- 
ministrator and his assistants. 
The program has now been pre- 
sented twice. In the first series, twelve 
men completecl the course, in the 
second, four men. It is planned to 
repeat the course as necessitated by 
changes in the orderly staff. 
\ V e believe the orderly program has 
been worthwhile. The initial planning 
revealed the great need to interpret 
the role of all auxiliary personnel. not 
only to the individual himself, hut to 
the head nurses and other memhers 
of the nursing staff. For the orderlies. 
the course seems to have resulted in: 
(a) hetter acceptance of supervision 
from nursing: (b) wider participation 
in patient care: (c) more careful tech- 
nique: ( d) improved nurse-orderly 
relationships, and (e) less turnover of 
\Ve like our orderly training pro- 
gram. \Ve hope to reconsider. revise, 
and re-present it. 

circulation by the fetal heartbeat or uterine 
çontractions, they cause a toxic condition 
and precipitate eclampsia in the mother 
Eclampsia is the most frequent cause of 
maternal deaths in many parts of the world. 
- Lancet 

* * * 
Geriatric patients, underweight infants and 
children who suffer from poor appetites may 
be in need of more adequate suppties of 
lysine. Lysine is needed by the body for 
growth and tissue repair. Most infant foods, 
with the possible exception of meat products. 
fall short of the body requirements of this 
substance. The elderly person, too, may not 
be assimilating adequate amounts of lysine 
from his diet to supply body needs. 
- Lederle Laboratories 



Meconium Ileus 


Royal Victoria 1\lontreal l\1aternity 
Hospital on August 31, 1955. The 
first-born, Alex, was the larger, weigh- 
ing approximately five pounds, while 
Robby weighed just over three pounds. 
This was the fifth pregnancy for their 
mother and the birth was difficult for 
both babies. Alex's respirations were 
poor and he required resuscitation 
measures immediately following birth. 
Bobby was a breech presentation and 
he, too, showed respiratory distress 
and required oxygen upon delivery. 
Both babies remained in the case room 
for some time before they could be 
taken to the premature nursery .and 
e,Ten then Alex's color was slightly 
cyanotic and he required frequent suc- 
tioning to remove a collection of thick, 
green mucus. 
Bobby showed no apparent abnor- 
malities upon physical examination fol- 
lowing birth but approximately eight 
hours later his abdomen was distended 
and before his initial feeding at -+ :00 
p.m. of that day he had begun to vomit 
hile-colored liquid. Alex developed 
similar symptoms just a few hours 
later. Dark green fluid was aspirated 
from his stomach. He was unhappy. 
crying almost constantly and unable 
to retain his first feeding of glucose 
and saline although he was only given 
two ounces. Bobby did not retain his 
feeding either. 
The following clay neither babe 

howed any improvement - Alex's 
distention had, indeed, become worse. 
Ordinarily a newborn babe passes a 
meconium stool within 24 hours. 

Miss \V right is the clinical instructor 
1iss Bul10ck the head nurse, of 
the pediatric ward, Royal Victoria Hos- 
pital. Montreal. 

MARCH. 1956 . Vol. 52. No.3 


Bobby passed a small amount of hard- 
ened meconium but Alex did not have 
any movement. A rectal examination 
wãs made on 
-\lex and no evidence 
of meconium was found, suggesting a 
definite abnormality. As a result both 
babes had abdominal x-rays taken. 
The subsequent radiology report for 
Alex was as follows: 
The radiological characteristics of the 
intra-abdominal contents of this baby 
showed marked dilation of the proximal 
smal1 bowel loops due presumably to a 
complete bowel obstruction somewhere 
in the proximal jejunum. The presence 
of calcium on the right side of the 
abdomen pretty wel1 establishes this as 
an example of meconium peritonitis. 
Bobby's x-ray ga,-e the appearance 
of an "acute small bowel obstruction," 
possibly somewhere in the jejunum. 
The appearance of the remainder of 
the abdominal contents was, as in 
Alex's case, suggesti,'e of meconium 
ileus. Surgical intervention was clearly 
indicated and both bovs were trans- 
ferred to the pediatric. ward for pre- 
operative preparation. 
Everyone on the pediatric ward had 
been alerted and orientated regarding 
the coming of the twins aDd their sub- 
sequent care. The condition was un- 
usual, the babes in a critical state and 
intelligent nursing care was a major 
necessity. Alex and Bohby were placed 
on special frames to immobilize their 
arms and legs and provide good ab- 
dominal exposure. \
enous "Cl1t- 
rlowns" were performed on both babes 
anrl 50/0 glucose and water adminis- 
tered. Alex \vent to the operating room 
at 4 :00 p.m. on September 1 and 
Robby followed at 6 :45 p.m. 
At operation Alex fonnd to 
have a large loop of greenish colored, 
completely necrotic. matted bowel. 


There were nUlllerou
 flesl1\-. \'ascular 
 and a dilated pro
imal loop. 
The necrotic area wa:" excised and the 
t\\.o lengths of small bowel were 
brought into position and sutured to 
the peritoneum, Catheters were placed 
in both loops and .L \lex returned to 
the ward in fairly good condition, 
Bobby was found to have jejunal 
atresia or narrowing with marked dis- 
tention of the proximal loop of small 
intestine and reduction in size of the 
distal loop. In his case a jejunostomy 
\vas performed and catheters inserted 
into the proximal and distal ends of 
the jejunum, Bobby withstood the 
operation wel1 and returned to the 
ward in very good condition, 
Specimens of meconium were sent 
for analysis from hoth bahes, Signif- 
icantly, the report indicated an absence 
of trypsin in both instances and Bobby 
also had a very low amylase content. 
The secretion of the mucous glands 
of the body is thick and viscid. Diges- 
tive enzymes are required to liquefy 
and break down the secretion; other- 
wise a \'ery thick meconium is pro- 
duced which the baby cannot expel. 
This condition is known as meconium 
Both habie
 hacl pancreatic juice 
and pepsin introduced into their pro
imal and distal catheters, Unfortunate- 
ly, it v.'as suspected that Alex and 
Bohby were suffering from fihrocystic 
disease of the pancreas as well - a 
congenital condition producing char- 
acteristic changes in the pancreas and 
Postoperatively the bahl'
placed in separate humidicribs regu- 
lated at a temperature of 90 0 and 
humidity 60-70%. In this way they 
rlid not require clothing ami. therefore. 
could be observed 111uch more readilv 
- especiaI1y as to the rate and charaé- 
ter of respiration and color. They were 
spt'cialled constantly by the student 
nurses. Continual intravenous therapy 
was maintained in both smal1 patients 
- approximately 300 cC. of 50/0 glu- 
cose and water, 25-50 cc. of normal 
saline and 50 cc. of blood (alternating 
with plasma q. 2 d.) Oral hreast milk 
feedings supplied by the twins' mother 
anrl the hospital Breast :\Iilk Bank 
were started. 
The nursing care was very exacting. 
The student specials had to observe 


their tiny charges carefully and fre- 
quently for abnormalities as to color 
or breathing. Frequent change of posi- 
tion was particularly important since 
fibrocystic disease is characterized by 
a tendency to deyelop pneumonia. 
Postoperati\ e shoct... was .another 
complication likely to develop and it 
was yery important to detect the earli- 
est possible symptoms. Pancreatic 
juice and pepsin were in
tilled into 
the proximal and distal catheters 
q, 2 h. The catheters had to be ir- 
rigated q. 4 h, with normal saline, Skin 
care, particularly around the area of 
incision where intestinal contents could 
have caused excoriation, had to be 
conscientiously carried out. A thick 
layer of alun1inum paste proved most 
helpful and at no time did infection 
of the :trea develop. 
The babes followecl a demand feed- 
ing routine - they were fed whenever 
the\" cried, At first this was about 
evéry hour then the inten'al length- 
eneef to every 2-3 honrs. Because of 
their small size, one ounCe premature 
feeding bottles with small soft nipples 
were used for the babies. The twins 
managed to retain 10-16 ounces a day. 
Once the incisions started to heal. 
the contents of the proximal loop were 
carefullv collected, measured and in- 
stilled J into the distal loop in both 
babies, This meant that they could now 
recei\'t' the full benefit of their feeclings 
which. until then, had been largely 
draining from the proximal catheter. 
Accordingly it became ,"ery necessary 
that the nurses record accurateh' all 
rectal drainage. All intake - iiltra- 
venous and oral - was noted \\'ith 
equal care. The intra\'enous injection
were checked q. 15m. and recorded 
q. I h. a
 to amount absorhed. rate 
of flow. etc, 
\ll'x and Bohln- showed en- 
couraging progress for - a number of 
days postoperatively. Bobby passed a 
moderately large amount of thick black 
meconium on the fifth day following 
mineral oil 2 cc. given rectally and 
through the distal catheter. Thereafter 
fairlv normal meconium howel move- 
ments were established. He developed 
diarrhea on two occasions hut it was 
well controlled each time. Alex showed 
much less response to the use of min- 
eral oil, tube irrigation and enemata. 
H owe\"er, his abdomen did not become 


distended again and he was passmg 
small pieces of meconium per rectum. 
On September 10, both 
\lex and 
Bobby developed rapid respirations. 
Alex was wheezing slightly and Bohb) 
had diminished respirations over both 
bases. X-rays indicated bronchiolitis in 
the fOrtner, emphysema in the latter. 

-\lex received streptomycin 25 mgm. 
t.i.d. and chloromycetin 100 mgm. t.i.d. 
\dIile Bobbv continued to receive 
 100 mgm. t.i.d. intra- 
muscularly (ordered prophylactically 
earlier) and was also given erythro- 
mycin 30 mgm. Both babes received 
an aerosol mixture of alevaire 1 cc., 
aminophylline 0 cc. and water 30 cc. 
instilled as .a spray into their humid- 
icribs q. ó h. This helped to liquefy 
the ,-iscid, tenacious sputum with 
which they were troubled. 
On September 13. both boys under- 
went x-rays follov."ing barium. Alex 
later pas!'ed the barium in his stool 
and hi;-; condition was felt to be im- 
prO\ ing. Bobby's x-ray showed an 
essentiallv normal small bowel. On 
r 16 he had two normal yel- 
low curdy bowel mm"ements per rec- 
tum and the next dav went back to 
the operating room fór suture of the 
intestine and closure of the abdomen. 
This was not too successful although 
the two parb of the bowel were 
hrought up to the skin amI partially 
Alex's condition unexpectedly de- 
teriorated on September 15. His res- 
pirations again became rapid and 
shallow and the right lung was covered 
with râ!es. Streptomycin therapy was 
instituted. Electrolyte studies. formerly 
thought to be norma]. now showed an 
Normal A/ex's reþort 
Chlorine 99-107 83.2 M/Eg. 
Sodium 138-148 101.8 M/Eg. 
At midnight of the same day his con- 
dition was critical. Calcium gluconate 
:; cc. was added to the intravenous 
fluid to try to correct the calcium 
levels. Digitoxin 3/10 cc. was given 
since it was thought that the hahe was 
in canliac failure. The following day 
his condition continued to deteriorate 
slowly in spite of the use of digitoxin 
3/10 cc. at 7 :00 a.m., coramine 0 cc. 

at 10 :35 a.m.. aminophylline 5 cc. at 
3 :00 p.m. and a repeat injection of 
coramine 0 cc. at 5 :00 p.m. Alex died 
at midnight on September 16. 
On September 17, Bobby developed 
a stomatitis which required the dis- 
continuance of erythromycin. Strepto- 
mycin 60 mgm. and procaine penicillin 
150,000 units b.i.d. were started. The 
babe's mouth was treated locally with 
gentian violet 1 rc after feedings. Elec- 
trolyte studies were done occasionally 
and always showed a slightly de- 
creased chloride, sodium, potassium 
and CO 2 volume. The little bov's con- 
dition was good. He was acti\
e, feed- 
ing well and ha\"ing yellow amI brown 
curdy stools. On September 25, at 
midnight, he suddenly became cyanotic 
with distressed respirations. His ex- 
tremities were cold and he appeared 
to be in shock. On examination the 
doctor found Bobby's lungs clear and 
his airway patent. Artificial respiration 
and oxygen failed to help. Adrenal 
cortical extract 5 cc. administered in- 
travenously at 1: 15 a.m. produced no 
improvement nor did intracardiac 
adrenalin and he died shortly after. 
The loss of the two babes was a 
source of sorrow to all who had been 
concerned with their care. 
reports revealed that the prognosis for 
each little boy was very poor in spite 
of all medical or nursing care. These 
reports were as follows: 
a) Fibrocystic disease of the pancreas 
b) Jejunal stricture 
c) Obstruction of small bowel 
d) Dilatation and hypertrophy of "mall 
e) Ascites 
f) Adhesions of mesentery 
g) Acute bronchopneumonia 
h) Hyperanemia and edema of lungs 
a) Fibrocystic disease of the pancreas 
b) Stenosis of ileum 
c) Fibrous adhesions of peritoneal 
d) Dilatation of jejunum 
e) Abscess of abdominal wall adjacent 
to ileostomy 
f) Atelectasis of lungs 
g) Hemopericardium (4 Cc.) 

Last year the Canadian Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service provided free clinical 
Rh tests for 113.110 Canadian women, 

MARCH. 1956. Vol. 52. No.3 


la Société des Infirmières Visiteuses 

 ü- }{I\' ARD 

des Infirmières Vi
es main- 
tient un sen-ice d'intìrmières licenciées, 
destiné à: 
Visiter les malades à ùomicile. 
Prodiguer à ces patients les soins 
nécessaires en rapport avec leur état et 
la prescription du médecin traitant. 
Faire admettre Ie malade par la fa- 
mille, s'il se troU\'e des rebelles aux 
situations dépassant I'ordinaire ùe la 
routine du foyer. 
Faire l'éducation du malade, qu'il 
n'accapare personne inutilement. 
Faire l'éducation des personnes devant 
s'occuper du malade en I'absence de 
DécoU\Tir les problèmes sociaux s'il 
a lieu, et diriger Ie cas aux organisations 
spécialisées pour Ie règlement des diffé- 
rents problèmes. 
Faire l'enseignement de l'hygiène dans 
les foyers, au point de vue mental, phy- 
sique, alimentaire, en tenant compte du 
budget à disposer et du nombre de per- 
sonnes à nourrir. 
Faire Ie dépistage de certains malades 
laissés trop souvent à eux-mêmes, et 
pouvant être traités. 
Puis, animé d'un grand esprit de foi 
et de charité, semer I'amour, Ie sourire, 
Ie réconfort, la miséricorde, la con fiance 
ou la résignation dans ces foyers fré- 
Quemment dénués de toute vie intérieure, 
de principe, de morale. 


L' cntre'l'ue: E]]e se fait sur rendez- 
vous. en deux temps. 
a) Par la directrice: une formule sim- 
ple d'application est immédiatement 
remplie par I'infirmière. 
b) L'infirmière est présentée aux res- 
ponsables des différents départments 
du Service. 
Le triage: Au moment de retenir les 
services d'une nouve]]e infirmière, une 
commission (formée des responsables 
des départments) étudie l'app1ication 
de chaqlle sujet et fait un choix A. B, 

Mile Rivard est la direct rice de cette 
Société à :Montréa1. 


C, en tenant compte aussi d'tme prio- 
uivant la date d'app1icatiun. 
L'cmbauclwge: L'infinnière choisie 
et qui accepte les conditions de travai1. 
doit fournir les certificats d'usage, le5- 
quels sont ensuite vérifiés. 
 otons ici, 
les conditions de travail de l'infirmière: 
Heures de travail: 8
 hres a.m. à 5 
hres p.m. U ne heure et demie est allouée 
pour Ie diner. 
L'infirmière entre au local chaque 
soir à 40 hres, pour compléter les rap- 
ports de sa journée. 
La semaine de cinq jours de travail. 
Des bar
mes de vacances et jours de 
maladie augmentant avec les années de 
Echelle de salaire modifiée avec les 
exigences du coût de la vie. Augmen- 
tation de salaire annuelle à date fixe. 
Qualifications requises: J nfinnière 
licenciée - au moins un an de pratique 
de sa profession. Beaucoup d'initiative, 
bon jugement, santé parfaite, franchise 
absolue, douée d'un grand esprit de 
foi et de charité. 
L' en traînc11l ent : Etude de la poli- 
tique de I' organisation; de la technique 
adaptée dans Ie service; des services 
sociaux existants rlans la yille; des 
dossiers et fiches en usage dans Ie 
service. Puis. l'entraînement propre- 
ment dit chez les malades. 
La spécialisati()n: Exigée pour les 
infirl11ières destinées à remp1ir des 
postes de coml11ande. 
L' évaluation du trQ'l'ail: Se fait 
après Irs trois premiers mois; puis, 
deux fois par année. Ainsi, l'infir- 
mière désireuse d'arriver à mieux, 
d'améliorer sa personnalité, a la satis- 
faction, tout au moins, de sentir que 
les autorités de l'organisation pour 
laquelle elle donne la majeure partie 
de ses journées, prend connaissance 
de ses efforts et de ses succès dans 
l'accol11plissement de sa tâche. 
En terminant, je me permettrai 
d'ajouter que Ie choix des nouve]]es 
infirmières devient un peu plus diffi- 
cile. Les "bons sujets" se font plus 
Cette carrière, d'une féminité si in- 
tense, dont la femme a voulu faire 


sienne, "puisqu'elle est fait pour Ie 
dévouement sensible" de dire Ie R. 
Père Legault, C.S.C., ne s'exemptera 
donc pas du tourbillon vaporeux de 
la vie actuelle? 
L'infirmière ne doit pas s'y laisser 
prendre. L'orientation qu'elle a con- 
senti à donner à sa vie, en vue d \me 

My Complaints 


IPLAINTS to make and 
not only are they of importance but 
they involve a great number of people. 
The first is the expression on people's 
faces! You cannot expect too much of 
relatives, you can only talk to them 
and hope they will understand. But 
you should not have to tell doctors 
and nurses about their morbid leers. 
In the past few weeks, critically ill 
patients have been in my care and 
what exasperated me beyond words 
was the endless stream of nurses and 
orderlies slipping into the room to see 
the tragedy. It made me think of 
crowds gathering to see an accident on 
a street corner. No, they did not come 
to learn; they came to look! That was 
bad enough, but worse, not one of the 
onlookers ever smiled! They would 
come into the room, look very startled, 
and then, that expression which tells 
the patient he is doomed would slowly 

Iiss Dalton, who was in the 1954 
graduating class of the Royal Victoria 
Hospital, Montreal, is engaged in private 
nursing in Toronto. 

meilleure administration, doit l'inciter 
à améliorer constamment sa personna- 
lité, comprendre davantage, développer 
et raffennir les principes de fonnation 
qu'on nous enseigne, mais que nous 
n'admettons réellement qu'au cours de 
nos années de pratique. L'amour et 
I'effort en seront les grandes solutions. 

creep over their faces. Som
times these 
insensitive people would shake their 
This leads to my second complaint. 
You would not believe this but I heard 
a staff doctor say in front of my pa- 
tient "He is going to die." 1'Iind you, 
the patient was in oxygen but to me 
that made no difference; he was con- 
scious and watching us. Another doc- 
tor said "There is nothing we can do." 
I actually heard a nurse, with a pained 
expression on her face, say "He is 
on his way out now." This sort of 
thing is shocking! stupid! and unfeel- 
ing! Even if a patient is only semi- 
conscious, nurses and doctors should 
be cheerful and, in front of the patient, 
say only what they themselves would 
like to hear if they were ill. 

I remember as a student nurse going 
to the 
Iontreal Neurological Institute 
and seeing a nurse smiling and chat- 
tering away to a patient who had been 
unconscious for three months. I never 
knew her, but she has my deepest 
respect and admiration. God bless her! 

Les Infirmières des Salles d'Opération 

L E ï NO\'EMBRE 1955 à 7 :45 du soir avait 
lieu à I'Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal, une 
assemblée ayant pour but d'aider les infir- 
mières qui travaillent dans ]es salles d'opéra- 
tion. Quatre-vingt-huit infirmières assistèrent 
à cette assemblée bilingue. 
Mile F]anagan et Mile 1Ierleau, Présiden- 
te, Association de ]a Province de Québec, 
ont souhaité succès et encouragèrent ]e 

},lARCH, 1956. Vol. 52. No. 3 

groupe. Mile Trottier, présidente de ce 
groupe a donné I'histoire de cette nouvelle 
Le but principal de cette réunion était 
]'é]ection des officières de ce groupe. Prési- 
dente, Soeur Louis d'Anjou, Hôpita] du 
Sacré-Coeur, Cartierville; vice-présidente, 
Mile M. Warnock, Hôpita] Roya] Victoria; 
IlIe C. Brau]t, Hôpita] Notre- 








': , 


(;:".-.;,: ..",








, ..... l' .' .. 
to> \ 1. ft 

Oþeratillg Roum Sl/þ{'Y'l-isOY!ì 

(Jacqucs Doyon) 

Dame; trésorière, Soeur )'lichaud, Hôpital 
Hôtel-Dieu; relations extérieures, )'lIIe V. 
Crouse, The Montreal General Hu
conseillières, MIle Ena O'Hare, St. )"lary's 
Hospital, Soeur Thérèse, Hôpital Hôtel- 
Dieu, lvIlIe Lefebvre, Hôpital St-Luc. 
Beaucoup de questions concernant les 
problèmes des salles d' opération ont été 
soumises au comité exécutif et seront di,- 
cutées rlans les prochaines assemblées 

Operating Room Nurses 

' MEETING TO ORGANIZE the operating room 
J. nurses was held at the Hotel Diel1 Hos- 
pital, Montreal. in November. This was a 
bilingual meeting with 88 persons in attend- 
The group was given a message of greet- 
ing and encouragement from 
President of the Association of Nurses for 
the Province of Quebec, and from Miss 
Flanagan. Miss Trottier, president of the 
group, gave a report on the history of this 
The election of officers was the principal 
matter of business. They are: president, Sis- 
ter Louis d'Anjou, Hôpital du Sacre Coeur, 
Cartierville; vice president, 11iss M. \Var- 
nock, Royal Victoria Hospital; secretary, 

fi"s C. Brault, Hôpital 1\,"otre Dame; 

Ce gruupe a été organisé avec Ie désir 
de maintenir la plus grande compétence pos- 
sible dans ce champ du nursing, Ainsi, ce 
sera un moyen eff:cace de discutcr les pro- 
blèmes des salles d'opération et enseigner 
aux infinnières qui se destinent à travailler 
dans ce champ les plus récentes découvertes 
et développments des salles d'opération, 

VnïA" (Rot'SF. 

treasurer, Si
lichal1d, HÔpital Hutel 
Dieu: public relations. 
1iss V, (rome, Th(" 

lontreal General Hospital; counsellors, 

liss Ena O'Hare. 51. 
lary's Ho
Sister Therese, H()pilal Hotel Dieu and 
Miss Lefebvre, St. Ll1c's Hospital. 
A number of questions, dealing with oper- 
ating room problems, were submitted to the 
executive committee. These will be discussed 
at future meeting!.. 
This group has been organized with the 
llesire to maintain the highest level of pro- 
ficiency in this phase of nursing. It is a 
means for discussing operating room prob- 
lems. It brings before the operating room 
nurses the newest trenrls and developments 
in the operating room, 


Convention Tour - For those who are planning to take the Ha\\-aiian tour iollowing 
the CN A biennial meeting in \Vinnipeg, a slight change in plans is announced. You will 
leave Vancouver on Tuesday July 3, at 2 1).01. amI arrive ba('k in Vancouver at 
7 a.m. on Saturday, July 14. 



Nursing Profiles 

Florence Mary Roach, R.R.c., has been 
appointed dean of nursing education of the 
new department that has been established 
within the faculty of arts and science at 
Assumption College. \\ïndsor, Ont, 
:\ graduate of S1. 
Iichael's Hospital, 
{iss Roach secured her certificate 
in teaching and administration in schools 
of nursing from the Cniversity of Toronto. 
After further study at Seton Hall Univer- 
sity. South Orange, N.J., she was awarded 
a bachelor of science degree. Before joining 
the nursing service of the Royal Canadian 
Navy, Miss Roach had taught in Hamilton 
and at S1. Boniface. Following her discharge 
from the services, where she had attained 
the rank of lieutenant-commander, she or- 
ganized and administered a new hospital 
at Oakville, Ont. She then returned to S1. 
Michael's where she qualified as a registered 
records librarian. Prior to her appointment 
to Assumption College. 
1iss Roach was in 
charge of the medical records department 
of the Wellesley Division of the Toronto 
General Hospital. 

(Freelang, Toronto) 

Dorothy Cox who, for the past eleven 
years, has been with the Department of 
Health of Prince Edward Island, has. joined 
the \Vorld Health Organization for service 
in India. Her new work \\oill be in the 

MARCH. 1956. Vol. 52. No, 3 

school of nursing at the ]. ). Hospital in 
Bombay where she will help to integrate 
public health nursing into the basic cur- 
riculum and will take some part in the 
planning of field experience. 
A Prince Edward Islander by birth, Miss 
Cox is a graduate of the .Massachusetts 
General Hospital and of the course in public 
health nursing from the University of To- 
ronto. Later. she obtained her degree in 
nursing from the 
IcGill School for Gradu- 
ate Nurses. She spent two years with the 
N ova Scotia Department of Health; then 
during \Vorld "Var II returned to P.E.1. 
where she organized the pruvincial venereal 
disease control program. 
1Iiss Cox is a past-president uf the Asso- 
ciation of Nurses of Prince Edward Island. 


oIIY:.- \:: 


J. Frances Ferguson, who has served 
as the registrar-consultant and general 
supervisor of the School for Nursing Aides 
in Calgary since its inception in 1946, was 
chosen, under the Colombo plan, to set up 
a similar school in Ceylon. 
A graduate of Royal Alexandra Hospital, 
Edmonton, Miss Ferguson took postgraduate 
work in pediatric nursing at Montreal Chil- 
dren's Hospital. She remained on the staff 
there until her enlistment with the Royal 
Canadian Army 
fedical Corps in 19-t2. She 
served in England, France, Belgium and 
Hulland. She joined the Canadian Voca- 






tional Training staff soon after her return 
from overseas. 

liss Ferguson gave splendid leadership 
to the Alberta Association of Registered 
Nurses during her two years as president. 
She has been very active, both nationally 
and provincially, in committee work chairing 
the Arrangements Committee for the 1954 
CN A com ention. 

Christina l\lurra
. :\Iacleod v,"as honored 
recently by the Brandon Association of 
Graduate Nurses when a gift of money was 
presented to her as an expression of affec- 
tion. In making the presentation the pres- 
ident of the local association said: 
"This is evidence of our love and esteem 
for you, and to reassure you that \\-e are 
aware that we have all benefitted greatly 
from having had the privilege of your direc- 
tion. You have always held very high stand- 







. ....1 


ards for the nursing profession before us. 
Ever since we learned of your accident we 
have wished to show you our love." 
Miss !\Iacleod, who retired from the post 
of director of nursing at the Brandon Gen- 
eral Hospital in 1945, sustained serious 
injuries when she was knocked down by a 
car in \ Vinni peg in 
Iay, 1955. After a 
lengthy period of hospitalization she has 
made a remarkable recovery to the joy of 
her large circle of friends. Miss 
has always taken a very active interest in 
nursing affairs since she graduated from 
B.G,H. in 1908. \Ve look forward to seeing 
her at the CNA convention in Winnipeg in 

]In .memoriam 

Esthaol T. Bagshaw, who graduated 
from The .Montreal General Hospital in 
1913, died at Hawkestone, Ont., on Novem- 
ber 24, 1955. 
Iiss Bagshaw served overseas 
during World War I with No.8 Canadian 
General Hospital. Following the war she 
\\ as at the Special Hospital at Buxton for 
a year before returning to Canada. She 
served on the staff at Westminster Hospital, 
London, Ont., retiring in 1946. 
* * * 

Margaret :L\fary Burns, who graduated 
from St. Joseph's Hospital, London, Ont., 
in 1922, died at Sarnia, Ont., on December 


2.-1-. 1955, at the age of 55. A graduate in 
public health nursing from the University 
of Western Ontario, Miss Burns was with 
the Lambton County Health Unit for 20 

* * * 
May Elizabeth Fretz, who graduated 
from the Public General Hospital, Chatham, 
Ont., in 1927, died at Chatham on November 
27. 1955. 

* * * 
Christinf> (Musselman) Harrison, who 
graduated from the Vancouver General 
Hospital in 1916, died at Edmonton on 


December 9. 1955. Prior to her marriage 
in 1919, 
lrs. Harrison was matron of 
lemorial Hospital, Lamont, Alta. 
* * * 

Josephine F. Kilburn, who graduated 
from the Toronto General Hospital in 1916, 
died at Vancouver on December 23, 1955. 
She was 65. After graduation, Miss Kilburn 
joined the Ontario Department of Public 
Health for a few years, then went to Johns 
Hopkins University to study mental health 
work. Returning to Toronto, she headed 
Ontario's first mental health organization. 
In 1930 she moved to Vancouver and assis- 
ted in setting up the first child guidance 
centre there. She \\, as head of the social 
work department at the Provincial Mental 
H9spital, Essondale, until her retirement 
five years ago. 




Iorin died at 
lontreal on 
Xovember 27, 1955. For many years Miss 

lorin was the district nurse in the Vas san 
area in the Province of Quebec. 
* * * 

Elva (l\IacKenzie) Rankine, who grad- 
uated from Victoria Public Hospital. Fred- 
ericton, N.B. in 1939, died on November 18, 
1955, at Fredericton. following a prolonged 
illness, She was 39 years of age. 
* * * 

Elizabeth Mary Redmond, a graduate 
of the General Hospital, St. John's, KAd., 
died on X ovember 6, 1955. 
Iiss Redmond 
was night supervisor at the General for 
many years 

* * * 

Flora Mary (Phillips) Rice, a graduate 

The Mind changes the Stance 

I t has been said that practically every- 
one working in physical therapy is thor- 
oughly dissatisfied with the present results 
in posture training. The reason is partly 
because the wrong things are taught and 
partly because the whole concept of posture 
training is \\, rong. 
The basic point which is being overlooked 
in most remedial work is that it is behavior 
not structure which determines the mechan- 
ics of the body. A person's muscular tensions 
are a fundamental part of his defence against 
the world. C nder tension, a person will 
rapidly revert to his old tension state and 
to the old posture associated with it. For 
example. the posture of submission to au- 
thority is slight cringing, Only through re- 

MARCH. 1956 . Vol. 52. No, 3 

of the Hospital for Sick Children. Toronto, 
died at North Bay, Ont., on December 4, 
1955. For 25 years .Mrs. Rice served as as- 
-;istant superintendent at U uskoka Hospital, 
Gravenhurst, Ont. 
* * * 

Ethel G, Saunders, who graduated from 
St. Joseph's Hospital, Victoria, in 1906, 
died at Victoria on December 7. 1955. Miss 
Saunders went overseas with the C.A.
during \Vorld \Yar I, serving at Gallipoli 
and Salonika and later in France and Eng- 
land. She was appointed matron of the 
military hospital at \York Point barracks, 
Victoria, following her return to Canada, 
transferring later to the \Vinnipeg military 

* * * 

Rita l\Iadeline (Lea<'h) Scott. who 
graduated from the General Hospital, 
Regina, Sask., in 1931, died at Edmundston, 
X.B.. on .November 19, 1955, after a long 
f rs. Scott served in various centres 
in Canada with the R.C.A.F. during \Vorld 
\Var II. 




Margaret Sh.elI died at Moose Jaw on 
XO\.ember 26, 1955 at the age of 81. For 
nine years Miss Sivell practised nursing 
in and around Moose Jaw. In 1920 she 
joined the Travellers' Aid in Regina. Poor 
health forced her retirement from that work 
in 194ï. 




Clara (\\'hite) \\ïllis, who served as an 
army nurse during \\TorId \Var l. died at 
Vernon, B.c., on December 12. 1955, at the 
age of 83, 

education of these behaviord.l attitudes can 
mechanical faults be altered. 

- Lancet 




:\ flange-type rubber stopper for bottles 
that permits autoclaving of fluids is a device 
created recently. The new stopper gives 
hospitals, that manufacture their 0\\ n intra- 
venous solutions, a simpler and more con- 
venient bottle closure. Since the stopper can 
be re-used. the economy factor is another 
of its important features. Recent tests show 
no change in performance after frequent 
rcsterilization and the researchers feel that 
it can be re-used many times over. 

- Fct!'lpal Laboratories file 


W . 
prepared by your national office Canadian Nu es' Associotion, Ottawa - 

"- ,,- 

To and Pro 

11 ried employment from 85 foreign 
nurses were received in X ational Offi- 
ce during 1955, as part of the Interna- 
tional Council of Xurses' Exchange 
Program. Twenty Canadian nurses 
took adyantage of this program in 
securing additional nursing experience 
In addition, the Department of Im- 
migration reports that for the first nine 
months of 1955. 906 nurses emigrated 
to Canada. Of these 625 were British, 
5R German, 54 Dutch, and 51 from 
the C nited States. 
To halance this. 849 professional 
nurses and 31 student nurses left Can- 
ada for the United States during the 
U.S. fiscal year ending June, 1954. 
Since 194ó an average of 737 Canadian 
nurses have emigrated to the U.S. 
X urses form the largest professional 
group emigrating to the U.S. from 
Canada while engineers are the second 
largest group. 

A V isitor to LVational O/fice 
One of lhe 85 nurses securing tem- 
porary employment in Canada, under 
the LC.X. Exchange Program, visited 
X ational Office recentlv. She is l\liss 
Lurline \Valters. - 
A Jamaican nurse, l\liss \Valters 
was granted leave of absence to come 
to Canada to gain experience in the 
nursing care of patients with polio- 
myelitis. Her first six months were 
spent in the University of Alberta 
Hospital, Edmonton, where she ro- 
tated through various units providing 
experience most valuable to her. This 
was followed by observation and study 
in Toronto. Ottawa and l\lontrea1. 
Upon her return to Jamaica, l\fiss 



\\ralters \\'ill he employed at the 
Kingston General Huspital. 
\\'e should like to record here our 
appreciation to the provincial nurses' 
associations and to staffs of health 
agencies for their assistance in plan- 
ning interesting and helpful experi- 
ences for our visitors from abroad. 

Project in J nternationlll N ursinI! 
December marked the launching of a 
new project in international nursing, 
when a nurse from British Guiana 
began a year's intensive experience 
in Canadian hospitals. 
As noted in our N O\'ember column, 

1iss Jovce Owen, a ward sister at the 
Puhliè Hospital, Georgestown. British 
Guiana, was awarded the Kitchener- 
\ Y aterloo Rotary Scholarship. Upon 
her arrival at )'Ialton Airport she was 
met by :\Iiss Frances 
 ,A.. 1\ ursing Education secretary. 
and )'1r. C. ...\. Pollock, chairman of 
the Intt>rnational Service Committee 
of the Ki tchener- \ V aterloo Rotary 
Cluh. Experience in the field of psychi- 
atric nursing will include periods of 
study in Kitchener, St. Thomas. To- 
ronto. l\lontreal and Ottawa. 

Yearhook 0/ J10dern IVursing 
The first annual Yearbook of l\lod- 
ern Nursing i" to be published by 
G. P. Putnam's Sons of New York 
this month. To quote from the purpose 
of the Yearbook, it will be designed: 
1. To provide the medium in which 
progressive thinking is pooled, 
? To prepare annually, in book form, 
a resume of the advancement of 
nursing in all its aspects, especially 
as it pertains to improved practice. 
A broad range of topics is included 
in recognition of the newer patterns 
which are constantly emerging, 


a ,major stride 
in clinical 


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I ntere.;;t in Canadian nursing is 
such that 
 ational Office was asked to 
submit a summary of developments 
of nursing in Canada during 1955. 
Others also asked to contribute to this 
publication are \VHO, Pan-American 
Sanitary Bureau and the ICX", 

Encyclopedia C lInadillna 
A new edition of the Encyclopedia 
Canadiana is now being prepared. The 
present edition was compiled in the 
1930's. Once again the CNA has been 
asked to prepare an article on the 
Nursing Profession in Canada. This 
article, dealing with the early begin- 
nings of our profession and review- 
ing the developments and achievement

over the years, has been submitted. 
\Vhen published, the new edition will 
contain much up-to-date information 
on Canadian nursing. 

Telling the R.N.A.D. Story 
April 12, 13, and 14 the Registered 
Nurses' Association of Ontario will 
hold its annual meeting at the Royal 
York Hotel, Toronto. A panel on 
Public Relations will be held with the 
CNA's public relations counsel, Mr. 
John Fry, participating. The panel 
"Telling Our Story" will discuss gen- 
eral principles of public relations with 
their application to various nursing 
fields outlined by the other partici- 

 à tuweu te ftatI4 

Ca et Là! 

Des demandes d'emplois temporaires et ré- 
munérés furent reçues au Secrétariat national 
en 1955, d'infirmières bénéficiant du pro- 
gramme d'échange du Conseil International 
des Infirmières. Vingt infirmières canadiennes 
participeront également à ce programme et 
iront en Europe afin d'étendre leur expérience. 
Le Ministère de l'lmmigration rapporte 
qu'en 1955, au cours des neuf premiers mois 
de l'année, 906 infimières ont immigré au 
Canada: 625 venant de Grande- Bretagne, 58 
d' A lIemagne, 54 de Hollande et 51 des Etats- 
U nis. Dans Ie même temps, 849 infirmières 
canadiennes et 31 étudiantes-infirmières émi- 
grèrent aux Etats-Unis. Depuis 1946, annuel- 
lement, 737 infirmières quittent Ie Canada 
pour les Etats-Unis. 
Les infirmières forment Ie groupe Ie plus 
important émigrant aux Etats- Unis ; elles sont 
suivies de près par les ingénieurs. 

Une visiteuse au Secrétariat National 

Une infirmière, bénéficiant du programme 
d'échange du Conseil International des Infir- 
mières, visitait récemment notre Bureau na- 
tional; il s'agit de MIle L. Walters de la 
J amaique qui a obtenu un congé afin de venir 
au Canada acquérir quelqu'expérience dans Ie 
soin des enfants victimes de la polio. 
MIle Walters a passé les six premiers mois 
de son séjour au Canada dans les divers ser- 
vices de I'Hôpital de l'Université d' Alberta 
à Edmonton où elle acquis une expérience 
précieuse. Dans la suite elle a fait de courts 


séjours d'étude et d'observation à Toronto. 
Ottawa et à Montréal; puisse-t-elle faire 
bénéficier son pays de l'expérience acquise 
dans Ie nôtre. 

Projet en Nursing International 
Un nouveau projet a été lancé en décembre 
lorsqu'une infirmière de la Guyane anglaise 
est arrivée au Canada afin d'y poursuivre des 
études intensives dans les hôpitaux canadiens. 
Cette infirmière, MIle Joyce Owen, une 
surveillante dans I'Hôpital Public de George- 
town, en Guyane anglaise, s'est vu décerner 
une bourse d'étude par Ie Club Rotary des 
villes de Kitchener et de \i\Taterloo, Ont. A son 
arrivée elle fut accueillie à raéroport par MIle 
Francis McQuarrie, secrétaire du Comité na- 
tional de l'Education en Nursing ainsi que 
par M, C. A. Pollock, président du Comité 
International de Service du dub déjà men- 
tionné. MIle Owen se propose d'étudier la 
psychiatrie à Kitchener, St- Thomas, Toronto, 
Montréal et Ottawa. 

Revue sur Ie Nursing modet'ne 
Un volume, revue de l'année sur Ie nursing 
moderne (Yearbook of Modern Nursing) 
vient d'être publié par la maison G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons de New York. Le but que l'on 
se propose d'atteindre par cette publication est 
1. Favoriser la mise en commun des idées 
de progrès et d'avancement. 
2, Présenter dans une revue annuelle les 
progrès du nursing dans tous ses aspects et 
particulièrement dans Ie but d'en améliorer la 
pratique Des sujets variés y sont traités pour 


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MARCH, 1956. Vol. 52, No. 3 

Note the Difference 
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An Ordinary 
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Ùel110ntnT le
 innuvatiuns Qui se présentent 
sans cesse dans Ie domainc du nursing. 
L'intérêt envers Ie nursing au Canada est 
tel Que J'on a dcmandé au Secrétariat National 
d'écrire un article resumant les progrès du 

 ursing an Canada en 1955. 

Encyclopedia Cunad;ana 

Vne nouvelle édition de J'Encyclopedia Ca- 
nadiana est en \'oie de préparation. L'édition 
actuelle date de 1930. Une Íois de plus, l'A.LC 
a été priée de préparer un article sur la pro- 
fession d'infirmière au Canada. Cet article, 
traitant des débuts de notre profession et re- 
latant les progrès accomplis (l'année en année, 


cl été soumis, Cette nuuvelle éditiun contiend,";a 
donc des renseignements de toutf' clernière 
heure sur Ie nursing au Canada. 

L'lzistoil'e de l'A .f.E.O. 

\u cours de la semaine ÙU 12 ani I pruchain, 
I' Association des Infirmières enregistrées de 
rOntario . tiendra son assemblée annuelle à 
I'Hôtel Royal York, à Toronto. Un colloque 
sur les relations o..térieurcs aura lieu avec Ie 
concours de ::\1. John Fry, conseiller en rela- 
tions extérieures de I' A,r.C. et aura pour 
sujet: "Racontons notre histoire"; on y dis- 
cutera les principes généraux des relations 
extérieures et leurs applications dans les dif- 
férents champs d'activité (Ie l'infirmière. 

Quelques Nouvelles Tendances dans Ie Nursing 
en Hygiène Publique. 

) L Y A PLVSIEt."RS ANKÉES, on considérait 
comme une perte de temps que de centrer 
nos efforts 
ur Ie contrôle des maladies 
chromques. Maintenant, nous savons qu'il est 
possible de prévenir et de traiter nomhre de 
ces conditions. 
En tant Que collahoratrices importantes 
dans les programmes pour la prévention des 
maladies, les infirmières hygiénistes des 
services de santé, des industries et des écoles 
ont contribué d'une manière unique à presque 
chaque phase dn travail de santé de la com- 
Durant les vingt dernières années, des 
changements dans Ie domaine de la médecine 
clinique et de la pratique du nursing se sont 
upérés les uns à la suite des autres, avec 
une rapidité grandissante. Les sulfamidés, 
les antibiotiques, la médication cndocrinienne, 
"Ie syndrôme du Stress," les composés 
comme l' A.C.T-H. et la cortisone, plusieurs 
tests biochimi(jues nouveaux pour Ie diag- 
nostic, Ie traitement et Ie contrôle des ma- 
ladies, tout cela était inconnu il y a vingt 
Pour celles d'entre nous, de l'hygiène 
publique, qui avons eu notre expenence à 
l'hôpital il y a plus de dix ans, les déve- 
loppements SUl"venus dans Ie nursing et la 
formation en nursing pcuvent nous sembler 
bien différents et même intrigants Le nur- 

Préparé par L'Ecole des Infirmières 
hygiénistes de l'Université de 

lattison, Berwyn F" American 
Inurl1al nf XUYsiuf], août, 1954, p, 986, 


sing d'hygiène publique fut également sujet 
à des ch;mgements de techniques et eut à 
subir des contraintes pour ces changements, 
comme Ie nursing en médecine clinique, 
quoique, peut-être à un degré moindre. Nous 
avons été sûrement moins conscientes du 
changement car nous a vOnS vécu au jour 
Ie jour a\TC la marche des progrès, Con- 
sidérons, cependant, quelques-unes de ces 
nouvelles tendances du nursing en hygiène 
publique qui se sont dével()ppées depuis les 
dernières années et qui semblent importantes 
à i'avenir ùe J'hygif>ne puhlique. 

I >\1 .\IJIE

11 y a plu
 de vingt ans, alors que les 
maladies ùévastatrices étaient les maladies 
contagieuses aigués, personne ne cro} ait que 
Ie contrôle des maladies chroniques put oc- 
cuper une place prépondérante, dans un 



pression était "que rien de plus ne pouvait 
êtrc fait," pourquoi alors perdre clu temps? 
Durant ces dernières années. nous avons 
constaté Que plusieurs choses puuvaient 
être faites sans "perdre notre temps." Un 
clépistage dès Ie ùébut est maintenant Ie 
facteur clef dans Ie contrôle de plusieurs 
maladies chroniques, Kaus n'attendons plus 
(jue I'évolution soit avancée à un point tel 
que des symptÓmes alarm ants ou des com- 
plications surgissent avant Que Ie patient ne 
demande I'assistance médicale. Camme exem- 
pIe: par l'éducation de la population au 
sujet des dangers du diabpte et des groupes 


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qui peuvent tout particulièrcment en ...ouf- 
frir, par I'accès facile des services dispo- 
nibles qu'offre la communauté pour un 
diagnostic précoce de la maladie, une attitude 
entièrement nouvelle est apparue. 
L'infirmière hygiéniste, par sa part active 
dans les campagnes de dépistage des cas, 
par sa connaissance des types de diabète et 
encore plus, par sa fonction traditionnelle 
d'éducatrice du diabétique et de sa famille 
quant aux moyens à prendre pour vivre 
d'une manière satisfaisante avec cette ma- 
ladie, a contribué grandement à la préven- 
tion, non de la maladie elle-même, mais des 
mortalités et des incapacités qui autrement 
auraient pu en résulter. 
Avec I'accroissement de la longévité de la 
population et l'élimination des maladies 
aiguës qui habituellement causaient la mort 
à I'âge mûr, Ie cancer, comme Ie diabète, 
a pris une place de plus en plus importante 
dans les cadres de la santé. lci aussi, I'une 
des approches les plus nouvelles est de se 
baser sur des enquêtes épidémiologiques. Une 
connaissance des formes de cancer les plus 
fréquentes, la possibilité de dépister les in- 
dividus les plus prédisposés à souffrir des 
types de cancers malins, et l' opinion du public 
à ce sujet, tout cela contribue à la solution 
du problème. 
Un autre exemple d'un procédé préventif, 
de grande envergure développé durant les 
dix dernières années, est Ie dépistage des tu- 
meurs pulmonaires, des maladies du coeur 
aussi bien que de la tuberculose, par des 
 en masse, des poumons, c'est- 
à-dire par des programmes organisés sur une 
haute échelle. lci etlcore, il y a de nouvelles 
techniques qui supposent une interprétation 
différente et beaucoup de compréhension de 
la part de I'infirmière afin qu'elle puisse 
tenir les gens de sa localité au courant de 
ces développements. 



Cette sphère a pris une importance nou- 
velle dans les cadres du nursing en hygiène 
publique au cours des dernières années, 
Tout comme Ie psychiâtre moderne qui 
dispose maintenant d'un ensemble de mé- 
thodes thérapeutiques cfticaces dans Ie traite- 
ment des maladies mentales, de même Ie 
praticien d'hygiène publique a en mains de 
nouvelles armes pour la prévention de plu- 
sieurs troubles émotifs et des mésadapta- 
tions. Les modes "d'introduction de l'agent 
immunisateur" contre les troubles émotifs 
peuvent être: la consultation pour enfants 
sains. la consultation psychologue-parents- 


enfants, l'éducation sur les ongmes habi- 
tuelles des troubles émotifs et des mésadap- 
tations ou, tout simplement, Ie contact 
personnel et les discussions de I'infirmière 
visitant un domicile, un parent ou un enfant. 
Mais si ce sont là les modes d'application 
vous devez vous demander: qu 'est-ce donc 
que I'agent immunisateur? En un mot, c'est 
la compréhension. 
Comprendre pourquoi les gens réagissent 
de la façon dont ils Ie font; comprendre de 
quelle manière les divers comportements se 
développent durant l' enfance; comprendre 
comment, dans nos contacts avec les patients, 
nous réagissons envers eux et, ensuite, com- 
ment ces réactions peuvent affectcr Ie patient. 
Toutefois, comprendre les développements 
émotifs et les réactions n'est pas chose facile. 
Quelques-uns peuvent y parvenir naturelle- 
ment; d'autre, avec de l'intérêt et de la 
sympathie peuvent y réussir: et d'autres, 
fort probablement n'y parviendront j amais. 

lais dans Ie champ du nursing en hygiène 
publique, il est sûrement désirable, que nous 
nous efforcions d'y parvenir, 
Chaque fois que nous aVllns une entrevue 
avec un patient, chaque fois que nous visi- 
tons un domicile, chaque fois que nous 
dirigeons une clinique, l'application de cette 
compréhension des réactions personnelles des 
individus ne fera que rehausser la valeur de 
toutes les aut res choses que nous faisons. 
Et ceci ne s'applique pas seulement à I'en- 
fant. Persuader un tuberculeux d'accepter 
l'hospitalisation, l'encourager à rester à l'hô- 
pital même à la suite d'un séjour prolongé, 
inciter Ie patient atteint de poliomyélite à 
travailler fort afin de parvenir à redonner 
la vigueur à ses muscles, ou bien rcdonner 
I'espoir et Ie désir de vivre à la personne 
atteinte d'une maladie chronique sérieuse, 
dans tout cela nous avons b2soin de com- 
prendre les réactions personnelles des indi- 
Peu importe si oui au non nous désignons 
ce procédé sous Ie nom de "relations interper- 
sonnelles," pourvu que nous employions ces 
techniques régulièrement chaque jour, de 
part et d'autre, 
L'approbation des mesures par lesquelles 
nous pouvons établir un système déterminé 
pour classifier ces connaissances et les trois 
moyens de pouvoir les employer plus fré- 
quemment, est I'un des nouveaux dévelop- 
pements, mais non les méthodes proprement 

Ceci cst un champ d'action tout à fait 
nouveau, dans un programme de santé com- 



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MARCH. 1936 . Vol. 52. No. 3 


munautaire avec lequel Ie nursing en hygiène 
puhlique est déjà intimcment lié. 
La part du nursing dans tout programme 
de défense civile quel qu'il soit est naturel- 
lement une des plus importantes. Des cas 
sinistres sembI abIes et différen
s de ceux que 
nous sommes habituées de traiter vont nous 
être présentés en nombre incroyable. A I'hô- 
pita!. I'improvisation d'installations médicales 
et Ie traitement de ces cas sinistres seront 
étahlis d'une manière or1hodoxe. 
fais tout 
Ie problème concernant Ie nombre et l'orga- 
nisation d'installations médica!es et l'entraÎ- 
nement du personnel de manière à ce qu'il 
soit présent et puisse collaborer au moment 
d'tme urgence est un prohlème communau- 
C'est l'un de ces problèmes communau- 
taires que Ie" infinnières hygiénistes ont très 
bien sulutionné dans Ie passé. Cela ne dif- 
fère pas tellement des programmes com- 
l11unautaires organisés pour I'immunisation 
antidiphtérique ou les imprO\'isations con- 
nues des infirmières des centres ruram.. qui 
consistent à établir des cIiniques à des 
endroits qui ne furent jamais destinés à une 
telle installation: c' est Ie m
me genre de 
problème òans I' éducation des groupes que 
I'infirmière hygiéniste a résolu au moyen 
de classes aux mères et à d'autrcs groupes. . 
C'est maintenant une part de la responsabi- 
lité de la collectivité aussi bien que I'est 
Ie contrôle de la tub
rculose et I'hygiène 
II y a une participation spécifique de la 
part des infirmières hygiénistes lors d'un 
désastre civil. Dès les premiers instants, il 
est probable que leurs premières fonctions 
seraient d'appliquer les principes fon<lamen- 
taux du nursing. 1lais, plus tard, elles 
seraient appelées à établir des unités d'infir- 
meries dans Ics centres ò'évacuation, à orga- 
niser des cIiniques si une gré.nde partie de 
la population devait être protégée contre la 
typhoïde ou Ie tétanos, et fournir des centres 
pour Ie soin de
 enfants afin d'éviter la perte 
inutile de ct'ntaines de bébés. 


L'éducatinn òes groupes est aussi un nou- 
veau champ d'action dans Ie nursing en 
hygiène publiqut', du moins, en ce qui con- 
cerne I'évolution de ses applications, Avec 
I'accroissement de la population et les besoins 
grandissants de certains groupes spéciaux 
en matière de santé, et avec Ie territoire 
bien òéfini qu'a à desservir I'infirmière 
hygiéniste, I'éducation des groupes est de 


plus en plus employée. Ccrtainement, que 
I'éducation de groupe n'est chose nouvelle 
pour les infirmières hygiénistes, mais il y a 
quclque chose de plus que I'éducation du 
groupe dans Ie progrès de ce processus, 
Auparavant, une infirmière em un méòicin 
faisait une conférence r1evant un groupe de 
parents au sujet des problèmes de leur 
enfants ou encore, des coniérences à un 
groupe d'adultes sur les risques de cancer, etc. 
Récemment on a démuntré qu'en ce qui con- 
cerne particulièrement les maladies émotives, 
il est important de créer I'intérêt chez les 
participants afin de leur faire une part active 
au programme d'éducation de leur groupe. 
C'est un besoin pour les indi\'idus de discuter 
leurs problèmes. de parler de leur inquiétudes 
et d'entendre r1'autres qui sont dans la même 
situation faire de la surte. 
Cette participation personnelle aide un 
individu à réaliser que ses prohlèmes et 
réactions ne òiffèrent pas tellement des pro- 
blèmes et df'S réactions de nomhre òe per- 
",onnes qui sont dans la même situation. Et 
peut-être qu'une grande part du succès de 
la participation de I'indi\'idu à I'éducation 
d'un groupe vient du désir (l'aider autrui: 
cela semhle être Ie facteur principal qui 
res sort ò'un tel procéòé. Ceci et probable- 
m.:nt nombre d'autres facteurs sc greffent 
à lIne toute nouvelle technique pour les tra- 
vailleurs en hygiène publique, celle-ci requé- 
rant I1n entrainement spécial mais pouvant 
produire des résultats incroyables si elle est 
employée ò'une manière satisfaisante. 


La nécessité pour l'infirmière scolaire ou 
industrielle de s'intéresser à la santé indivi- 
duelle au foyer aussi bien qu'à I'école et à 
I'industrie n'd pas à être discutée de nouveau. 
En cnrrélation. il existe une seconde ten- 
dance qui est certainement très bonne: c'est 
la coopération entre les hôpitau"\( et les ser- 
vices communautaires. Pendant trop d'années, 
I'infirmière en service à I'hôpital ne devaii 
s'occuper que du patient lorsqu'il était hos- 
pitalisé. Depuis long temps. on a accepté Ie 
principe que Ie patient devrait être considéré 
comme un individu, et son séjour à I'hôpital, 
simplement C0111m(' till incident sun'el1U òans 
les cadre
 de sa vie habituelle, En maintes 
circonstances cept"ndant, les infinnières n'é- 
taient pas inform
es sur la manière de relier 
les prohlèmes du patient hospitalisé à ceux 
de son foyer: elles n'étaient pas au courant 
non plus des ressources cnmmunautaires qui 
peU\-ent aider à résoudre ces problèmcs une 
fois retourné chez lui, 


The Doctor's Office Nurse 

Being "gal Friday" to a busy M.D. is 
enough to keep any girl on her toes. It's 
a tribute to nurses that they still find time 
to keep well informed on the many 
subjects pertinent to their profession. 
And that'swhere the lederle Representa- 
tive can be of help- by keeping the office 
nurse up to date on products she's often 
called upon to handle. Ask the lederle 
man about these next time he calls! 

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Combined Aluminum Phosphate- 
Adsorbed PUROGENATED*, lederle's 
famous, widely-used, triple immunizing 

MARCH. 1956 . Vol. 52. No. 3 

ACHROMYCThT* Tetracycline Pedi- 
atric Drops and Oral Suspension, two 
special pediatric forms of the foremost 
antibiotic, both cherry flavored. 
LEDERPLEX * Vitamin B Compound 
Liquid, a complete formula, derived 
from pure beef liver. 

RHULICRF AM * Analgesic - Anes- 
thetic, a soothing, cooling cream for poi- 
son ivy, poison oak, insect bitesand minor 
skin irritations. 





Mall1tena11l que ùe
 infirmières hygiélllste
coordonnatrices font partie du personnel du 
nursing de l'hôpital on veut que Ie per- 
sonnel administratif ait de l'expérience dans 
les organisations de santé communautaires, 
cette fâcheuse conception de considérer Ie 
patient hospitalisé comme une personne à 
 est près de sa fin, Beaucoup 
reste à faire, mais un commencement a été 
Dne autre expérience intéressante pour 
plusieurs infirmières hygiénistes est "l'é- 
change mondiaì" des idées sur la pratique 
du nursing, eÀpérience rendue possible par 
l'échange d'infirmières venant ù'autre pays. 
Ce programme a été secondé par I'Organisa- 
tion Mondiale de la Santé, par Ie Conseil 
International des I nfirmières, I' Association 

des Infirmières canadiennes et des organi- 
sations privées. 
De cette manière, nous pouvons peut-être 
aider certains peuples moins privilégiés à 
améliorer leur santé par de meilleurs soins, 
et nous pouvons certainement apprendre de 
celles qui viennent de pays où certains ser- 
vices du nursing sont hautement développés. 
Mais Ie plus important pour nous est que 
nous y gagnons une nouvelle façon d'appré- 
cier ces progrès que nous considérons comme 
octroyés. C'est seulement en entendant ra- 
conter de vive voix les conditions de santé 
des pays moins fortunés et Ie manque de 
facilités modernes pour les services médicaux 
et ceux du nursing en ces pays, que nous 
pouvons situer clairement notre contribution 
à la santé de la population de notre pays. 

Alberta S.N.A. 

The Student l\urSl's' .-\ssociation of this 
province has developed a program of activ- 
ities which should produce a group of well- 
informed young women. Their interests 
range through citizenship, professional duties 
and responsibilities. student recruitment and 
promotion of interest in professional organ- 
A film strip and booklet On nursing are 
currently being considered as projects in 
providing material for recruitment. A study 
of provincial association and CN.A. ob- 
jectives is contemplated. It is especially in- 
teresting to note that, in connection with 
this study, the possibility of dominion regis- 
tration examinations is to be explored. 
In these days of extensive travel, Canadian 
nurses are constantly seeking information 
regarding registration and working condi- 
tions in other provinces and countries. The 
association plans to make such information 
available to its memhers through the efforts 
of its Graduate Nurse Activities committee. 
The question of financial support, often 
a problem to nursing students, may be 
partially solved by a projected survey of 
the bursaries and scholarships presently 
available through governmental and other 
sources. An interest is also being t;lken in 
increasing the effectiveness and uni formity 
of student government, Professional duties 
and responsibilities are best discharged when 
the individual nurse has a proper perspective 
of herself as a citizen of a community. \Vith 
that object in mind. students are being 
encouraged to get to know each other bettcr 


on a provincial and national level. They are 
given the opportunity to participate in ac- 
tivities affecting the profession as a whole 
rather than just the individual school. The 
Inter-Hospital Relations Committee directs 
its efforts solely toward this goal. A news- 
letter committee has undertaken the respon- 
sibility of publishing three or four editions 
annually so that all students may be kept 
aware of developments in the various schools 
of nursing. 
The association plans to hold its annual 
convention in May, 1956. The progress of 
this ambitious group should be an inspiration 
to similar organi7ations across Canada. 

In many parts of the world, the most 
severe limitation upon improved medical 
care is the woefully inadequate numbers 
of trained doctors and nurses and the scar- 
city of facilities for high quality medical 
education, Although there are many fellow- 
ship opportunities which can be used 
for medical training abroad and although 
many are studying abroad at their own ex- 
pense, the number of doctors and nurses 
who can be trained outside their own coun- 
tries is pitifully small in rdation to the 
need. Good medical schools are needed . . . 
both to assist in training the medical personnel 
required and to bring the resources of scien- 
tific medicine specifically to bear upon the 
diseases and other health problems of the 
local environment. 
- The R ocl.
ef('lI('r Foul/dation, 
.-11111/101 Report 195+ 


and now 


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incorporating a catalyst. 


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Extra Strength 

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Casts made from Gypsona Extra are harder 
and tougher than ordinary casts and yet they 
require fewer bandages. 

Gypsona Extra casts are highly resistant to 
damage by water and body secretions. Repair 
and replacement costs are often eliminated. 

Fewer bandages mean lighter casts and 
greater comfort for the patient. Better func- 
tional treatment is possible. 

Gypsona Extra casts are thinner and give 
greater clarity in X-Ray photographs. 

Gypsona Extra bandages are clean to handle 
because the plaster loss on immersion is 
N.B. No cases of skin allergy have been re- 
ported from any patient taking part in the 
clinical trials of Gypsona Extra. 

Economy - With all their advantages Gypsona Extra casts actually cost 
no more because they require fewer bandages and need fewer 
Gypsona Extra is available in the following sizes: 4" x 3 yards 
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Standard Gypsona is still available for use in those cases when the special qualities 
of Gypsona Extra are not required. 

MARCH. 1956. Vol. 52. No. 3 


Convention Personalities 

Adclaidp (
Ia('donald) Sin('lair, o.B.E., 
\\ ho is eJo..ecutive assistant to the Deputy 

1inister of X ational \\" elfare, Department 
ational Health and \Velfare, is very 
\\ ell known to hundreds of Canadian women 
\\'ho served wi th the Royal Canadian Navy 
during \Vorlò \h."ar II. As director of the 
\Y.RC.K.S., with the rank of captain, Mrs, 
Sinclair playeò a major role in the develop- 
ment and over-all supervision of this efficient 


. , 


: '-
} ' 

(Bradford Brachrach, Ottawa) 

Following the organization of the Cnited 
Nations. l\1rs. Sinclair became the Canadian 
delegate to UNICEF, a post she still holds. 
She was chairman of UNICEF's program 
committee from 1948 to 1950 and chairman 
of the Executive Board in 1951 and 1952. 
She was delegate to the UNESCO meetings 
in 1447 and alternate delegate to the UN 
General Assembly in 1950, 

frs. Sinclair's interest in the problems 
currently facing the nursing profession has 
a solid íoundation in her long years of study 
and work in the field of social work and 
political science. In tribute to her leadership 
in these fields, two universities have awardecl 
her honorary degrees. Her own alma mater, 
the Cniversity of Toronto, where she se- 
cureò her M.A, in 1925, presented her with 
an honorary LL.D. in 1946. Six years later, 
Laval University at Quebec made Mrs. 
Sinclair an honorary Doctor of Social 


Another lIutstanding speaker during the 
convention this year will be Margaret G. 
Arnstpin, chief of the Division of Nursing 
Resources of the Cnited States Public 
Health Service. Graduating from Pres- 
byterian Hospital, New York City, in 1928, 
Miss Arnstein turned immediately to public 
health nursing, the field wherein she ha
given such conspicuous leadership over the 
years. She secured her M.A. from Teachers 
College, adding later her !\f,P,H. from Johns 
Hopkins Cniversity. When she had com- 
pleted the work for the latter degree, major- 
ing in epidemiology, 
1iss Arnstein became 
communicable disease consultant in the New 
York State Department of Health. She 
moved on to become director of the program 
for public health nurses at the L"niversity 
of Minnesota. During the three years she 
was there she collaborated with Dr. Gaylord 
Anderson in writing a textbook entitled 
"Communicable Disease Contro!." 
11iss Arnstein returned to New York 
City as district consultant of the State 
Health Department. In 1941, she was loaned 
to the U.S.P.H,S. to set up the first program 
of federal grants to schools of nursing - 
the precursor of the Cadet Nurse Corps 
program. She was also state nurse in the 
Office of Civil Defence at that time. Given 
leave of absence to join UNRRA, Miss 
Arnstein spent 15 months in the Middle 











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Babies are our business. . . our only busincss! 


Niagara Falls, Canada 

MARCH, 1956 . Vol. 52. No. 3 















NEW EXCLUSIVE! More good-tasting 
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Mixed Fruit. Blend of apples, pear
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Beef Noodle- Hearty combination of 
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Vegetable Soup- Nourishing combina- 
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Chicken Noodle-Delicate, easily dip:ested 
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t IIrganizing refugee camps 111 Greece 
and Jugoslayia. 
Entering the D.S, Public Health Service 
in 1946 as assistant to the chief of the Divi- 
"ion of nursing, Miss Arnstein moved into 
her present position three years later. She 
was loaned to the \Yorld Health Organiza- 

tion for t\\O months during the winter of 
1950-51, during which time she prepared a 
manual entitled "Guide for National Studies 
of :K ursing Resources." The purpose of this 
manual was to assist nations to study their 
own nursing sen"ices 111 their broadest 


Babies are Human Beings, by C. Ander- 
son Aldrich, M.D. and Mary M. Aldrich. 
122 pages, The Macmillan Co. of Canada 
Ltd., ïO Bond Street, Toronto 2. Onto 
2nd Ed, 1954. Price $2.95. 
Rr'l'iC'i.ced by J1iss Nancy Pearson, Infant 
Clinical Supervisor, Montreal Children's 
Hospital, ]1011 trea I. 
Dr. and Mrs. Aldrich have for many 
years studied child growth and development 
and its implications for the better under- 
standing care of children. The revised edition 
of "Babies are Human Beings" follows the 
same theme as the original book. It is even 
more fascinating, useful and practical. Dr. 
Aldrich has delved into the fields of medi- 
cine, physiology, psychology, philosophy and 
education in order to gain some insight 
into the phenomenon of growth and its im- 
portance in understanding the behavior of 
children. In the early years of childhood, 
mental and physical functions cannot be 
separated. To the degree to which the in- 
fant's early needs are considered rests his 
future ability to feel secure in a changing 
In the early chapters the physical ap- 
pearance and behavior of the newborn infant 
is described. All babies are different and 
variations in behavior call for individual 
management. Dr. Aldrich endeavors to in- 
terpret the reasons for such wide differences 
in each baby's feeding habits, sleeping pat- 
terns, elimination and social responses. Fin- 
ally the effect of this early understanding 
on the older child are mentioned briefly 
because "to leave the infant high and 
dry at two years of age would ignore 
growth's ultimate purpose, the attainment of 
"Babies are Human Beings" is written 
primarily for parents but nurses and all 
others dealing "vith infants and young chil- 
dren should find this book full of common 
sense and useful information It will help 


to further their understanding of these young 
human beings. 

Gynecology for 
enior Students of 
Nursing, by John Cairney, D.Sc., F.R.A. 
C.S, 211 pages. N. M. Peryer Ltd., Christ- 
church, New Zealand. 1954. 
Reviewed by Jfrs. Jean Baker, Clinical 
Instructor. IV rstnn Hospital, T01'onto, 
The author states in the preface that his 
aim is to present a reasonably complete sur- 
vey of modern gynecology with sufficient 
explanation to make it intelligible to the 
senior student or graduate nurse. At the 
same time he wished to restrict the volume 
to modest dimensions. 
Since Dr. Cairney is in Australia, there 
is bound to be a diversity in the manner of 
treatment of certain conditions. For example, 
while he infers that the treatment of car- 
cinoma of the uterus is open to controversy, 
he makes little reference to the possible 
value of irradiation. In the chapter on gen- 
eral postoperative treatment, some differ- 
ences are striking. Ambulation is remark- 
ably late when compared to our present 
practices. Treatment and nursing care of a 
patient following vaginal surgery is so gen- 
eral as to be almost valueless. The chapter 
"Carcinoma of the Reproductive Tract." 
proved quite disappointing. It appears to be 
an incomplete outline. Primary carcinoma 
of the ovary is omitted entirely. 
Otherwise the material seems complete 
and lucid. The chapters appear in good 
sequence. His presentation is clear and 
forceful. The explanation of meanings and 
derivatives of names of organs and associ- 
ated terms are particularly enjoyable. Dr. 
Cairney has dealt with each of them logically 
when the term first appears. Another feature 
of special interest is the chapter on "Preg- 
nancy, Labor and the Puerperium." Its in- 
clusion seems quite reasonable since many 









.-oA l.- 

Our Navy 
Needs Your 
Nursing Slcill 








,L.- ......... 

/' ./ 











- '. 

- ,

' :; 

"', ..",. 

I ' 


CN-t -56 






A Naval Nurse is an important nurse - caring for the health of 
Canada's fighting sailors. 
She leads an eventful life - with opportunities to engage in special 
fields, both medical and surgical and others - to travel - to serve 
her country - to enjoy the status and privileges of an Officer in 
Canada's senior service. 

OoJr expanding Navy has openings now in its Nursing 
Service - for provincially-registered graduate nurses who 
are Canadian citizens or British subjects, single and under 
35 years of age. 
Apply today! Upon entry you will be offered a permanent or short 
service commission with officer pay, allowance for uniforms, full 
maintenance and other benefits including 30 days annual leave with 
pay and full medical and dental care. 
As a Naval Nurse, you'll find real opportunity to advance in your 
profession! For full information apply to, 




Ro al Canadian Nav 

MARCH. 1956. Vol. 52, No. 3 


gynecologic disorders occur as a result of 
Or in conjunction with pregnancy. 
As methods of training differ from coun- 
try to country, his book might be suited to 
the Australian student or graduate. That it 
would be of special value to Our advanced 
students is doubtful. He has, however, suc- 
ceeded in producing a more complete account 
of the subject than is usually found in text- 
books of surgery for nurses. For this reason, 
this book would be of value in a general 
reference library for students and graduates, 

Demonstrations of Operative Surgf'ry, 
A Manual for General Practitioners, 
Medical Students and Nurses, by Hamilton 
Bailey, F.R.CS., F.A.CS, 387 pages, The 

facmillan Corapany of Canada Ltd., 70 
Bond Street, Toronto 2, Ont. 2nd Ed. 195-t 
Price $.UO. 
Rc'Uic'll'cd b)' Sister Paul of the Cross, 
Surgical Supcr'i.'Ïsor, ClwrlottetO'lc't1 H os- 
pi/ai, Clwrlotteto'll'll, P.E.I. 
This second edition consists of artistically 
written and beauti fully illustrated material. 
The work is divided into eleven sections. 
The first is entitled "General Principles" 
and deals with description of instruments 
and surgical equipment, their proper use, 
care and sterilization. The folio,.. ing ten 
sections, divided according to body systems, 
consist of description and illustration of 
more than 70 common operative procedures_ 
The descrip:ions are prefaced by very 
interesting clinical summaries which answer 
the question: " V\Thy is this operation being 
done?" The descriptions are given in a 
"Iiving narrative" which paints a very vivid 
mental picture of the various procedures 
carried out by the surgeon. These are re- 
enforced by convenient I.} placed and clearly 
demonstrative illustrations in black and 
white as well as color where indicated. The 
most amazing feature of this work lies in 
the enormous amount of detail possible in 
such a comparatively small volume. Nothing 
is left in doubt regarding the reasons for 
doing even the simplest procedure. 
One cannot fail to highly recommend this 
text for reading and repeated reference 
hy general practitioners, medical students 
and nurses for whom it was so capably 

The Birth of Industrial Xursing, by Irene 
H. Charley, S,R.N. 224 pages. The Mac- 
millan Company of Canada Ltd,. 70 Bond 
Street. Toronto, Onto 1954, Price $1.80. 
Re'l..icwed b}' .11iss Theresa Greville, Can- 
ada p(lcl
ers Lid.. If'inllipeq, ,Uallitoba. 


Here is a book primarily intended to be 
of use to those concerned with occupational 
health services. The book is replete with 
well documented information on the growth 
and expansion of nursing services to men 
and women on the job, particularly in Eng- 
land. Phillippa Flowerday is given the honor 
of being the first industrial nurse - ac- 
cording to the modern concept. 
Nursing services in England are de- 
d: In the mines, in the civil service, 
in air transport, on British railways, in the 
hopfields and among the fisher girls, etc. 
This book is international in outlook and 
information. It should prove to industrial 
nurses everywhere that their problems to 
obtain the best care for men and women 
at their place of work are common basic 
ones which have to be met with wide 
knowledge and understanding. Above all, a 
brand of courage and integrity not always 
demanded in other branches of nursing is 
required, It \\'ould be false optimism to as- 
sume that industrial nursing service has 
reached its Golden Age. Nurses everywhere 
have to keep up the services started under 
difficult conditions and improve and adapt 
their nursing skills .to changing needs. This 
book should be an inspiration to all nurses. 

Essentials of Pediatrics, by Philip C 
Jeans. A.B., E. Howell Wright, B.S., and 
Florence G, Blake, M.A. 808 pages. ]. B. 
Lippincott Co., 2083 Guy St., Montreal. 
5th Ed. Price $4.75. 
Reviewed b)' leaJl A. Cummins, Head 
Nurse and Clinical Instructor, Hol)' Cross 
Hospital, Calgary. Alto. 
The present co-authors have preserved 
the wisdom of the late Dr. Jean's long ex- 
perience in the field of pediatrics while 
making the changes necessary to bring the 
contents up-to-date. Care has been taken 
to include all of the subject matter suggested 
in the curriculum for schools of nursing 
prepared by the National League of Nursing. 
This new edition carries much new ma- 
terial on the psychologic development of the 
child from birth through adolescence, This 
is dealt with in Unit Two, under the head- 
ings of growth, development, care and 
Unit Three discusses in detail the nurse- 
child and nurse-parent relationship, The 
authors have made an exceptionally good 
effort to view illness through the eyes of 
the child and his parents, that the nurse 
may better understand their reactions, A 
new chapter pertaining to fluid and drug 


administration 111 a variety of common 
childhood illnesses has been included. Fluid 
balance and electrolyte therapy are clearly 
presented. l:nit Four is confined to the dis- 
orders of the newborn. It is designed to 
help the nurse recognize the more significant 
factors with which she must concern herself. 
The more common conditions found in chil- 
dren are discussed under various body 
Unit Five deals with modern. up-to-date 
information on nutrition and nutritional 
This fifth edition of a nursing classic 
maintains the high quality \\e have come to 
expect of this book. Its information is still 
sound, scientifically accurate and complete. 
Its thinking is adjusted to the changing 
concepts of pediatric care. It offers the 
graduate and student nurse a comprehensive 
coverage of the entire field of pediatric 

Curriculum Study in Basic Xursing 
Education, by Ole Sand, Ph.D. 225 pages. 
G. p, Putnam's Sons, 2 West 45th St., 
New York City. 1955. Price $3.75. 
Reviev.;ed by Miss iVf, Jean Wilson, Asst. 
Professor, School of Nursing, Universit)I, 
of Toronto, Toronto, Onto 
A five year curriculum research project 
is being conducted at the University of 
Washington School of Nursing. The objec- 
tive is to determine the kind of curriculum, 
and the length of time required to educate 
an effective professional nurse in terms of 
what is best for society. Dr. Sand, the direc- 
tor of the project, presents this report on 
the developments during the first year and 
a half. 
The ten chapters present, in a well or- 
ganized form, methodology, formulation of 
objectives. a philosophy and theory of learn- 
ing, and selection of learning experiences 
in the clinical area. The relationship of gen- 
eral aed professional education and the 
social and natural sciences with clinical 
nursing is discussed. A theory of evaluation 
and a description of how the faculty works 
together follo\\ s. !\ ext steps to be taken are 
The maj or purposes of the report "are to 
describe the tasks upon which one faculty 
is working, and how the faculty is working 
together to accomplish these tasks in the 
 that other schools of nursing, both 
collegiate and hospital, may find suggestions 
for the study of their own curriculum" 
Instructors and administrators of nursing 

MARCH. 1956. Vol. 52. No, 3 


, .. 




. ..( 



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education \vill find the concise, step-by-step 
presentation of material and the detailed 
exhibits in the appendix of as"istance toward 
this end. The reader will wish to see ensuing 
reports. It will be of great interest to follow 
the further developments in this five year 
research proj ecl. 

Patterns of Patient Care, Some Studies 
of the Utilization of Nursing Service 
Personnel. 266 pages. The 1Iacmillan Co. 
of Canada, Ltd., 70 Bond St., Toronto 2, 
ant. 1955. Price $4.50. 
Revicwcd b)' 
M iss Ida J 011n50n, Di,'cctor 
of Nursing, Royal Alcxandra Hospital, 
Edmonton, Alta. 
This is a very realistic presentation of 
the nursing needs psychosocial and 
physical - of the patient and the supportive 
care that is given to meet these needs as 
they arise. 
The data given on studies made to date 
in relation to patient care and nursing per- 
sonnel is very informative. The chapter 
entitled "The \Vard, The Patients and The 
Workers," serves as an introduction for the 
designing of the group pattern. The respon- 

sibilities of the professional nurse, the prac- 
tical nurse, the nurse's aide and the ward 
clerk are indicated also. 
Kine patterns of patient care are described 
and evaluated, These give a basis for the 
construction of a master staffing pattern. 
Tables showing the average number of 
minutes of nursing care required by medical 
and surgical patients plus the formula for 
obtaining the number of persons - profes- 
sional and non-professional - required of- 
fers constructive assistance to those planning 
nursing service coverage. 
The authors. in the chapter "The Way 
Ahead," give labor-saving devices and im- 
plications for the hospital administrator, the 
director of nursing service and the head 
nurse. The appendix contains valuable statis- 
tics obtained from the study of nursing 
activities, personnel policies and orientation 
In the words of the authors "This blue- 
print for patient care will require develop- 
mel1t of new patterns of nursing service." 
The material presented will be invaluable 
for planning patterns of patient care in the 
challenging and promising future. 

In the Good Old Days 

(The COllodion Nurse - March, 1916) 

As the library in the nurses' home was 
meagre an arrangement was made with the 
city public library that the nurses' home 
would be a sub-station of the library. It 
was opened with 100 new books of fiction 
which are replaced each month with a fresh 
supply. This arrangement has made the 
library a mecca for tired student nurses. 
* * * 
Particular attention should be paid to 
providing suitable outdoor exercise for night 
nurses. They are apparently less inclined 
to make the effort than those on day shifts. 
* * * 
The papers for registration examinations 
in Manitoba and Nova Scotia are included 
in this issue. The questions reflect the dif- 
ferences in the demands made on nurses 40 
years ago and today. How would you answer 
these questions? 
"A person is found unconscious, to what 
may the condition be due?" 
"How would you decide that a patient 
was pregnant about the fifth month?" 
"What are the symptoms of typhoid 


hemorrhage? What IS the result? What is 
the treatment?" 
"Give full directions for making beef tea 
with exact reasons for each step." 
* * * 
The attack rate of typhoid fever among 
nurses has b
en calculated to be f rom eight 
to twenty times as great as amOng the 
civilians living in the same community. By 
the use of vaccine the typhoid rate can be 
reduced at least 75 per cent. Inoculation 
should be compulsory for every nurse in all 
general hospitals. 
* * * 
Myopia or short sight is rarely present 
at the beginning of school life but it gradu- 
ally increases so that at the age of 16 almost 
half the children have some degree of 




Until the last few years the general age 
requirement for admission to training was 
23. It is a grave question whether the ad- 
mission of young, immature girls of 18 or 
19 to hospital wards and to the heavy phys- 


ical demands and the o,.erwheiming respon- 
sibilities and anxieties of such work as 
inevitably awaits them there by day or by 
night, should be considered, 
* * * 
A surwy has shown that public health 
work is still in its infancy. A fifth of the 
communities make no provision for inspec- 
tion of school children; over a fourth make 
no effort to educate in health matters; nearly 
three-fourths have no housing laws; over 
six-se,'enths have no program against the 
venereal diseases; over a half have no proper 
organization to combat infant mortality; and 
less than a quarter have a coherent program 
for the control of tuberculosis. 
* * * 

Care of lz}'þodrr11lie 11cedles - Keep the 
needles in equal parts of almond oil and 
alcohol in ,,-ide-mouthed bottles. 

aNT ARia 

The following are staff changes in the 
Ontario Public Health Services: 
ApI)ointments - JeGlI Thomson (Toron- 
to \Vestern Hosp., Cniv. of Toronto gen. 
course) to the Lambton Health Unit. Jean 
]fcLaren (Royal Vic. Hosp., McGill Univ. 
:Montreal) to the Porcupine H.U. H enrietfe 
Ducharme (St. Luc Hasp" 1Iontreal, Cniv. 
of 1Iontreal) to the Prescott and Russell 
H.U. Jessie Renton (Stobhill Hospital, 
Glasgow, Scotland, e. of T. gen. course) to 
the Sault Ste. 
farie B.H. Ruby (Irvine) 
Graham (Toronto Gen. Hosp. and U. of T. 
gen. course) to the Scarborough Township 
B.H. TVinnifred Crockett (Health Visitor 
and Queen's Institute of District Nursing) 
to the Toronto Dept. of P.H. L)'la (Groat) 
Kendall (T.G.H., U. of T. gen. course) 
to the \Yelland and District H, U. 
Resignations - Lois (Leeson) McCml- 
llell from the Elgin-St, Thomas H.U. June 
McKo}' and Flore11Cl! (Sþarling) Gralzam- 
Smith from the Kent Co. H.U. Anl1 Co<wn 
and Catherine 
Murroy from the Lambton 
H.U. Jean (Llo}'d) Lorimer and Jean Sugg 
from the Leeds and Grenville H,U. Isabel 
(Ta}'lor) Oli-l..'er from the Middlesex Co. 
School Health Service. Mari/)'l1 Bushnell, 
Violet (Sa11l) Joe, Beulah Malin and Gisele 
(Meloche) M erealltini from the Ottawa 
B.H. A!abel Bourne, Madeleille des La 11 des, 
]/advnllo (Hurtubise) Richer from the 
Porcupine H.U. Mary Barbie and lUary 
Sheller from the Stormont, Dundas and 
Glengarry HoD. 

MARCH, 1956 . Vol. 52, No. 3 




banishes beauty 

brings relief 

No \\ oman can maintain her poise and 
beauty \\ hen pain occurs. Veganin \ViII 
help you to prompt, welcome relief, not 
just at specially difficult times, but 
every time pain occurs. 
Veganin contains no caffeine. . . there 
is no attendant dru\Vsiness. 
Veganin provides .. Stronger" relief 
since it contains approximately 8 grains 
of anti-pain medication. Recommended 
by physicians and dentists. Available in 
handy tub
s of lO's and 20's for pocket 
or purse. 



., " 



,,--v i- ') 




So much more 
than merely 
a mouth rinse 

Lavoris acts both chemically 
and mechanically to break up 
and flush out the germ-harbor- 
ing, odor-producing mucus ac- 
cumulations from mouth and 
throat. It stimulates capillary 
circulation with attending im- 
provement of tissue tone and 


 ,,,,\ V"""" 

- >0\; 

.) , 


Pleasing, spicy taste 
makes it 
easy to use, 






.. '. ............. 


.. . <'0..1\ . ' 
': I

. . '---, 

 . ",,,to 1 
. . \()"t"il' v.t ,1 I' 
'- \ 
,.."" 0 9 ...... ß , 
 ... .
. ". . ' ,,) .,....


\ ., 
1Þt' cÞ" 

 ,." ,,(I' 

..s o(l'é"'t
-{ /:: 
. ,\\
-'( o
,. ,'...... ,."o

,,,,,0 0 0 ..toO ..' ,,"" ,,""...'" 
 0<<; ..0 0 .... . 0 ,." () 
..." ..j>. 
 0..'(;,0 .' 


 ."-.1 0 :",0:.- 

... , 



TheAmouthwash that tastes good and does good,' 

It's not the Alcohol, it's the Toothpick 

C OCKTAIL PARTIES are more dangerous than 
you think. 
fix alcohol, an upper den- 
ture, canapes and club sandwiches and the 
chances are that a potentially lethal weapon 
will be swallowed before the evening is over. 
ANew York physician describes the com- 
mon wooden toothpick - so commonly used 
in canapes and cocktails and to hold a club 
sandwich together - as a dangerous missile. 
Though the human digestive tract seems 
capable of dealing with almost anything - 
people can swallow toys, shoe buckles and 
whole dentures and nothing happens - a 
toothpick is a different matter. It is extra- 
ordinarily dangerous because besides being 
long and sharp at both ends, indigestible 
and unable to turn corners, it is also invisible 
to x-rays. Once swallowed it has a fairly 
good chance of impaling some part of the 
digestive tract on its way through. No one 
is able to diagnose the trouble until the 
patient is on the operating table. People 
with upper dentures should be especially 
careful since the denture covers the part 
of the mouth most apt to pick up the pre- 


scnce oi foreign objects, Alcohol can also 
ane<;thetize the oral mucosa, 
- X c'((' V ork Statc Journal 
of ill cdicine 

* * * 

Dramatic results are being achieved in 
the treatment of tension-produced pain 
through use of a new drug, EquaniI. Tension 
headache, psychosomatic pain associated with 
gastric distress and other nervous disorders 
have all been successfully treated. 
No evidence of habit formation nor drug 
tolerance has developed. An interesting 
feature is the lack of drowsiness the mor- 
ning following the previous night's dosage. 
Long-time users have not required increased 
doses to gain effects but have even reduced 
the amounts. The drug has also been found 
useful in keeping alcoholics sober after with- 
drawal treatment and has much value in 
accomplishing withdrawal with a minimum 
of discomfort. 
- Bureau of Industrial Service 
(CG1wdo) Lid, 


Fatigue Factor in Peptic Ulcers 

F ATIGUE MAY BE the key to a baffling 
aspect of one of man's commonest ail- 
ments, the peptic ulcer. Physicians have 
known for years that ulcers follow a 
seasonal pattern but they have never been 
able to decide on an exact reason. Now, a 
noted Scottish surgeon reports that then: 
is a v. eekly, even a daily cycle in ulcer 
cases, and he believes the best explanation 
may be overwork. 
Reporting in the B ritis/Z ][ edical Jour/wi 
on a study made of more than 2,000,000 
people, Dr. R. A. Jamieson, of the Univer- 
sity of Glasgow, states that the pains and 
other symptoms of peptic ulcers increase 
on Friday and decline on Sunday. He also 
found that serious complications, such as 
internal bleeding and perforation of the 
walls of the stomach or duodenum, are 
more likely to occur late in the day when 
a person is tired than in the morning or 
during the night. Supporting the fatigue 
theory, Dr. Jamieson points out, is the fact 
that the highest incidence of perforation in 
western Scotland Occurs in December when 
"many of the artisan class work overtime 
in the week Or two before Christmas in 
order to earn cxtra ,,';!gcs to cO\'cr Christ- 
mas expenses." The lowest incidence, Dr. 
J ;
mieson noil s, is during the month of July 
when Scots get more rest and recreation. 
The incidence begins to rise again in the 
fall and after the December peak maintains 
a fairly consistent level from January to 
A slightly different pattern of seasonal 
incidence is reported by two U.S. doctors, 
R. S, Boles and M. P. \Vesterman, who 
made a five-year study in Philadelphia. 
They, too, found that ulcer incidence was 
lowest in the summer. However, they also 
report that incidence of stomach ulcers is 
highest from January to July while that 
of duodenal ulcers hits two peaks, one in 
March, the other in November. 
Iost au- 
t,horities agree that 85 per cent of all peptic 
ulcers are duorlenal. 
Fatigue also figures in a study made of 
English aircraft workers by Dr. J, A. 
Smiley. In a report of the Royal College 
of Physicians, Dr. Smiley pointed out that 
workers who have the most accidents "are 
far more liahle to pcptic ulceration than 
their fellows" and are absent more often 
for a variety of reasons including fatigue 
neurasthenia, However, Dr. Smiley inclines 

r-IARCH. 1956. Vol. 52. :-\0. 3 

't \e t P þ.\ t& 
do" our 
affec.t Y P \ø 
' or 
V4ork.... . 



and . 

-'f -Ih 
" t'" J '117T(.. 
p::Jk ")n A ur fJru 
21- Tablet R Jl' 
np in tube of 1 2 for pccke 
or p'lfse, and econ')my size.. of 40 and 
1 r r for home use 

. JtOMt&eo. 

...... '. I 

" ::I




"It . 

. '0 

" .' 


\ , 



t. ....\.;.t..; 

4 ., 
. h 


, #
' 0<", . 
" .,';; 

. .....''/1;00,. 














to the belief that emotional stress is respon- 
sible for the fatigue as well as the ulcers 
and accident proneness. 
Although fatigue, stress, emotional dis- 
turbances and bad diet may be invol ved in 
the development of an ulcer, the single direct 
culprit is hydrochloric acid. \Vhen this acid 
is present in excessive Quantities, far greater 
that those required to digest food, it tends 
to attack the lining of the stomach or the 
duodenum. The resulting open SOre is the 

lcdical scientists have developed a num- 
ber of approaches to cope with excessive 
Quantities of hydrochloric acid in the diges- 
tive system. Surgery Or so-called anti- 
cholinergic drugs may be employed to act 
on the nerves that stimulate its secretion. 
However, such measures may be too radical. 
The more rational and widely accepted ap- 
proach is treatment with antacid drugs. 
While some of these antacids may do more 
harm than good by causing "acid rebound" 
i.e. only more acid production, others such 
as Gelusil, effectively control excess acid, 
through direct neutralization and absorption, 
within the natural limits of stomach acidity. 

* * * 

Le sage songe avant Que de parler à ce 
Qu'il doit dire; Ie fou parle et ensuite songe 
à ce qu'il a dit. 



Officers elected for 1956 are as follows: 
Mrs. E. Coombes, president; Mrs. L, Clapp, 
vice-president; E. Cook, secretary-treasurer; 
Miss E. Baker, representative to The Cana- 
dian Nurse. Guest speakers at recent meet- 
ings have been D. Percy, Chief Nursing 
Consultant to the Dept. of National Health 
and We1fare and Dr. Hutton, University 
Hospital, Edmonton. 



The Question of the chapter name was dis- 
cussed at the January meeting. In line with 
the work done in other areas, proposed 



Two-year prograrr for graduate nurses holding McGill Senior Matriculation (or 
its equivalent) or three-year program for candidates holding McGill Junior 
Matriculation. Students may elect to do the major part of their work in one of 
the following areas: 
Teaching & Supervision in Hospitals & Schools of Nursing 
Administration in Hospitals & Schools of Nursing 
Supervision & Administratioa in Public Health Nursing 

Students who elect Teaching and Supervision may specialize in one of the 

Medical-Surgical Nursing, Psychiatric Nursing, 
Teaching of Sciences, Maternal & Child Health (Studenfs 
may choose either Pediatric or Obstetric Nursing as a 
major field of interest). 

Candidates who possess McGill Junior or Senior Matriculation or equivalents 
may be granted a diploma at the completion of one year of study in the 
School. Candidates working for a diploma may elect to study Public Health 
Nursing or Teaching and Supervision in anyone of the above clinical areas. 
for further information write to: 
Director, McGill School for Graduate Nurses, 
1266 Pine Ave. W., Montreal 25, Que. 

revisions of bylaws were studied and sugges- 
tions made, The importance of obtaining 
compulsory registration was once more 
The third meeting of the year was held at 
the Associate Clinic in January \\ ith 27 
members present. Plans for a Bursary Tea 
in Fcbruary are under the direction of D. 
The guest 
peaker was "Mrs. Selby- 
\Yalkcr. She gave an interesting comparison 
of the nursing profession with teaching, 
secretarial work. dietetics and librarv science. 
Her first experiences as a probationer 
brought back man) memories to all present. 
The annual meeting of the chapter had an 
attendance of 14 with 
Irs. Goodwin pre- 
siding. A.n invitation has been extended to 
the nurses of Turner Valley to join this 
chapter folIowing the disbanding of their 
own organization. 
The folIowing slate of officers will serve 
for the year: 
lrs. K. Irving, pres.; "Mrs. 
K. \Yhite, vice-pres:; 
Irs, ). Dougherty, 
sec.; R, Sarsons, treas. 

MARCH. 1956. Vol. 52. No. 3 



At the last meeting of the chapter a nom- 
inating committee was selected to draw up 
a slate of officers for the coming year. A 
resume of proposed bylaw revisions was 
given by 
1iss Jorgensen. Nursing aides 
attended as honored guests On this occasion 
and participated in the Christmas program 
that followed the business session. 

The slate of officers for the commg year 
is as follows: Mrs. A. :Mason, president; 
:Mrs. E. Rainbow, past president; 11rs. G. 
Hatson and 
Ics. 1. Bro\\ ne, vice-presidents; 

lrs. B. \\T ethered and S. :\larak. secretar- 
ies; K. Leask, treasurer. The annual Valen- 
tine dance is to be held on board S.S. 
f. Delaney is in charge of ar- 


The following slate of officers has been 
elected for this year: 
lrs. Ross, pres.; 


?teø 1t
Edited by Walter Modell, Associate 
Professor, Clinical Pharmacology, 
Cornell University Medical College. 
An alphabetical listing of drugs in 
common use, giving the principal 
characteristics of each, major uses, 
absorption, actions, administration, 
dosage, antidotes against poisoning, 
etc., 1956. $2.25. 
By Walter Modell, and Doris J. 
Place, Instructor in Uedical Nursing, 
Cornell University-New York Hos- 
pital School of Nursing. A textbook 
of pharmacology and therapeutics 
for nurses. The materia medica section 
has been greatly enlarged. Second 
edition, 1955. $5.50. 


Furnish Nurses 
· at any hour · 

TELEPHONE WAlnut 2-2136 
.27 Avenue Road, TORONTO S. 


j ':> EFFiciency 

'{ . 





CASH'S Loomwoven NAMES 

Permanent, ealY Identification. Ealily lewn on, or a"acbecl 
with No-So Cement. From dealers or 
CASH'S Belleville 5, Onl. 
CASH'S: 3 Doz. $1.80; 9 Doz. $3.00; NO-SO 
NAMES: 6 Doz. $2.40; 12 Daz. $3.50; 25c per tube 


\Vilson, 1st vIce-pres.; Mi:>s Caplette. corr. 
sec.; Mrs. Miller, rec. sec.; Mrs. Oxley, 
treas. The annual dinner meeting is to be 
held late in March at the Rossland High 
Suggested new bylaws are to be studied 
by a committee under the leadership of 
Mrs. Morris, and presented to the members 
at a subsequent meeting. A report from the 
public health committee indicated that no 
further progress had been made in procuring 
polio vaccine. The appointment of Miss 
Oliver to the public health staff was an- 
nounced. It was reported with regret that 
doctors' lectures had been discontinued due 
to poor attendance. 
Following the business session, the film 
"Zinc Die Casting" was presented by Mr. 
Beinder of Cominco. He explained its con- 
nection with industry in Trail and provided 
the members with an excellent opportunity 
to see this facet of industrial life. 

V A I>;" COlJ \'EI{ 

St. Paul's Hospital 

The final report of the bazaar held late 
in December is a tale of both social and 
financial success. It is expected that there 
will be a clear profit of over $600. The 
January meeting was both interesting and 
original. Dr. Gladys Cunningham who has 
spent many years in China was the guest 
speaker. Her topic was "Medical Experi- 
ences in the Orient." In keeping with the 
theme, the refreshments consisted of Chinese 
delicacies as well as American dishes. Grad- 
uates of other hospitals, presently on staff, 
attended as guests. 
S. P. Kolehmainen and I. M. Konrad 
were the recipients of the silver trophies 
and orchid corsages offered by the associa- 
tion to fhe outstanding member of each divi- 
sion of the graduating class. 



Salk polio \'accine - its safety and effec- 
tiveness - was discussed by Dr. James T. 
Lunn, director of public health, as guest 
speaker of the Graduate Nurses' Associa- 
tion. Statistics and verifying statements all 
point to the advisability of polio vaccination 
programs. One million Canadian children 
received the injections without a single 
mishap. The greatest degree of immunity 
was achieved by giving two injections a 
month apart and a third, seven to twelve 
months later. Future plans for Canada's 
vaccine program are already well-advanced 
under the direction of the Department of 
National Health and Welfare. Members of 
the nursing profession were urged to be as 
influential as possible in educating the public 
n:garding the advantages of polio vaccina- 
tion. The care in preparation exercised by 
the Connaught Laboratories, Toronto has 
ensured a safe supply of vaccine for Cana- 
dian users. 
Prenatal lectures are being ..ponsored by 


the Health Unit of the city. Interested per- 
sons are to apply to the unit at City Hall. 
Dr. G. Coghlin, acting medical director of 
the sanitorium, was guest speaker at a subse- 
quent meeting. He showed slides pertaining 
to his work which v,,'ere enjoyed by all. 

General Hospital 

The library in the new nurses' residence, 
which will shortly be completed, is to be 
furnished by the members of the alumnae 
association as their project for the coming 
year. Plans have been made for a permanent 
office for the association in the present 
residence and a part-time stenographer has 
been appointed. 
Graduates from other schools presently 
on staff have been extended a guest mem- 
bership. They were welcomed at the annual 
Christmas meeting. The following officers 
have been elected for the coming year: J. 
Whiteford, president; Mrs. G. Kent, first 
vice-pres.; E. Henderson, recording sec.; 
Mrs. G. Maclean, corresponding sec.; A. C. 
Foster, treas, 

l\"E\V BRFl\'S\\'ICK 
"S.O.S. - Same Old Service" ",as the 
very original topic chosen by Sr. St. Joseph 
as the theme of her address at a recent 
chapter meeting. She stressed the patient- 
nurse relationship and the necessary qualities 
of good nurses. M. Archibald, provincial 
secretary-registrar, also participated in the 
program. She gave detailed information in 
regard to the new type of registration cards. 
B. Seamen who extended greetings from the 
national office of the V.O,N, was an honored 
guest. C. Pichette reported on the annual 
meeting held in :Moncton. 
The December meeting took the form of a 
Christmas party. C Pichette was the hostess 
on this occasion. Several members canvassed 
for and assisted with the Red Cross blood 
donor clinic. 


C HAT II -\ 

Public General H ostital 
In December, a cheque for $1.092 was 
presented to 11r. Proctor Dick, chairman of 
the hospital board, as the final pa) ment of 
the alumnae association's pledge to the build- 
ing fund. The nurses of Chapter one, Blen- 
heim, Ontario donated $600 towards the 
$5,000 pledge. The money has been used to 
completely furnish a case room in the new 
maternity wing. Officers elected for the year 
are: Mrs. G. Brisley, pres., "Mrs. H. Reid, 
Miss Winnifred Fair, vice-pres.; M. Camp- 
bell, recording sec.; Mrs, G. Pritchard, 
corresponding sec.; }'Irs. C. \Vm, Case, 

MARCH, 1956 . Vol. 52. No. 3 

 ;.;:::::::: :::;:: ::::: ::::: :::: ::




". , 









· Superior Styling 
· Good fit 
. Skilled workmanship 
. Wear-proven fabrics 

All this is the result of . . . 
High intention . . . Sincere 
effort . . . and intelligent 

These principles are a must 

(PlIvln by laboratory test). 

Write for yeu, ELLA SKINNER UNIfORM 
catalogue TODAY. 

The Label of Qual;ty 

768-770 Bathurst St., Toronto, Ont. 


Philadelphia, Penna. 

The largest eye hospital in the 
United States offers a six-month course 
in Nursing Care of the Eye to Grad- 
uates of Accredited Nursing Schools. 
Operating Room Training is scheduled 
in the course. 

per month for four months and $175 
per month for the next two months. 
. REGISTRATION FEE is $15 which 
takes care of pin and certificate. 
· Classes start March 15th and Sept. 
15th. Ophthalmic nurses are in great 
demand for hospital eye departments, 
operating rooms, and ophthalmologists' 

For information write to 
Director of Nurses, 
'Vilis Eye Hospital, 
1601 Spring Garden Street 
Philadelphia 30, Penna. 


Offers to qualified Registered Nurses 
a 16-week supplementary course in 


with instruction and practice in the 
general surgical, neurosurgical, plastic, 
orthopedic, gynecologic, urologic and 
ear, nose and throat operating room 
services. Maintenance and stipend are 

For information !JI'1"ite to: 

Director, School of Nursing 
The Johns Hopkins Hospital 
Baltimore 5, Maryland, U.S,A. 




A general meeting held at the new St. 
Paul's church was attended by 115 members, 
Canon ]. H. Geoghagan, rector, gave the 
invocation. Mayor Bernadette Smith brought 
greetings from civic aut horities and Dr. H. 
Baker extended a welcome from the Ontario 

Iedical Association. 
The guest speaker, Miss A. Reid, president 
of the R.N.A.O" outlined the historical 
development of nursing education. She stres- 
sed the self-sacrifice and toil which had 
been necessary to achieve present goals and 
which would be required in making further 
progress. I. Lawson, public relations sec- 
retary with the R.N.A.O., outlined the new 
bylaws for the members. Plans were made 
to send a delegate from the district to the 
biennial convention in \Vinnipeg. 
Tom Patterson of the Stratford Shakes- 
pearean Festival was the guest speaker fol- 
lowing the dinner. He spoke especially of the 
contribution that the festival has already 
made to Canadian culture. 



TV omen's College Hospital 

The annual meeting and election of officers 
was held early in January. Late in the same 
month a January Nite was held at the Royal 
York Hotel with a drawing for a hope chest 
as a special feature. A student loan fund has 
been established as an alumnae project and 
members are being asked to contribute to- 
wards this. 



Prince County II os pi tal 

1ildred Slackford has b
en appoin- 
ted supervisor of the Old Prince County 
Hospital. This unit has been opened for the 
accommodation and care of patients with 
chronic illness, and is a division of the 
present general hospital. 



A regular meeting of the English chapter 
was held in the K orton residence of the 
hospital in December. The students joined 
the members in viewing two very interesting 
films following the business session. 

Sl1erbrookc Hospital 

The annual fall dance of the alumnae as- 
sociation was held at the New Sherbrooke 
Hotel in November with a good attendance. 


In December a choir of forty graduates and 
students carrying lighted candles, sang 
Christmas carols for the patients and then 
gathered in Korton residence with friends 
for a Christmas party. Graduates of 1954 
and 1955 presented a very fine television 
set for use in the residence. 
A Christmas tea and sale sponsored by 
the Students Council helped to swell the 
funds needed to send three students to the 
biennial convention in \\ïnnipeg this year. 
H, Parnell \\ as a recent visitor to the hos- 
pi tal. 



The annual chapter banquet was held in 
December. A delicate arrangement of yellow 
mums and tall tapers formed the centrepiece 
for the head table. The banquet room itself 
was illuminated only by soft candlelight. 

fiss Edith Shepperd, Centralized Teach- 
ing Program, introduced 
fiss Hazel Keeler, 
professor of nursing at the University of 
Saskatchewan, as guest speaker. Her inter- 
esting comments and movie reels of her 
recent trip to Europe were enjoyed by all. 

Cit}, Hospital 

The student Nurses' Association with the 
graduate nursing staff held their annual 
Christmas party in mid-December in the 
Residence, During the evening :Mr. and Mrs. 
J. E. Armstrong showed colored movie 
reels of recent events around the hospital, 
including graduation and capping. The high- 
light of the evening was the arrival of Santa 
Claus who presented gifts to many of those 


In December of the past year Miss 
\Vilkins and Miss Lillian Lynch brought 
27 years of service to a close with their 
retirement from the staff of the city health 
fiss \Vilkins obtained her pro- 
fessional education at the Regina General 
Hospital. In 1928 she joined the immuniza- 
tion branch of the city health services. Miss 
Lynch is a graduate of the \Vinnipeg Gen- 
eral Hospital. During the first \V orld \Var 
she served in France and Belgium. In 1928 
she, too, joined Regina's health staff s
first on the staff of the public school board 
before her transfer to the city health depart- 

In 1895, Charles D. Seeberger coined the 
word "escalator" to describe his moving 
stairway. The word was likely derived from 
the Latin word "scala" meaning ladder. In 
1898 the first moving stairway was set up 
and when it was moved to France to be 
exhihited at the Paris Exhibi tion of 1900, it 
was labelled "escalator." 

MARCH. 1956 . Vol. 52. No. 3 




for Staff and Supervisory positions in 
various parts of Canada. 
Applications will be considered from 
Registered :t\ urses without Public 
Health training but with University 
entrance Qualifications. 


Apply to: 
Director in Chief, 
Victorian Order of Nurses 
for Canada, 
Ottawa 4, ant. 


To take place on May 16, 17 and 
18, 1956 at Halifax, Yarmouth, Am- 
herst, Sydney and .Antigonish. Re- 
Quests for application forms should be 
made at once and forms MUST BE 
returned to the Rcgistered Nurses' 
Association of 
 ova Scotia by April 
16,1956, together \vith:- 
(1) Diploma of School of Nursing 
(2) Fee of Ten DollQ1's (S10.00) 
No un(lergraduate may write unless 
he or she has passed successfully all 
final School of K ursing examinations 
and is within six (6) \\ eeks of comple- 
tion of the course of Nursing. 



Calling All 
Graduate Nurses 

· How would you like to 
work and live in the 
heart of Manhattan? 

voluntary, general hospital, 
offers you this opportunity. 

· Why not en joy these 
benefits offered by 

BASE SALARY - Begins at 
$260 per month, without ex- 
perience. Experience quali- 
fies for higher starting salary. 
INCREMENTS - Start after 
first 6 months and continue 
BONUSES - $40 for evening 
and $20 for night duty. 
VACATION - 4 weeks annu- 

HOLIDAYS - 10 annually. 




For further information 
CJrite to: 
59th Street West, 
New York City 





Saint John General Hospital 


Degree in nursing education with 
experience required. 

New Educational Department 
opening in March, 1956. 

Expected registration 200 students. 


Know your China Better 

The world is indebted to the Chinese for 
the origin of chinaware. Historical records 
show that it was produced extensively ill 
China as early as 87 B.c. That explains the 
origin of the name "China". In Italy, it was 
called "porcelaine" because of its resem- 
blance to porcellana, a lustrous sea shell. 
Four fundarpental raw materials are used 
today. First, china clay or kaolin, the orig- 
inal substance is used. In early times a large 
deposit of this material was found in China 
and was known to the Chinese as "Kaoling" 
meaning high hill. Hence kaolin today 
designates all pure clays which are white 
when burned . . . A smaller proportion 
of a more plastic day, called ball clay, is 
added to facilitate the forming of the ware. 
Feldspar combines with the other substances 
and fuses together in the firing process. 
Quartz holds up the body structure of the 
china and gives it unusual strength. 
- Canadian Hospital, FEBRUARY, 1955 

The world's largest orthopedic hospital for 
children is operated by the Canadian Red 
Cross in Calgary. 




Nursing Assistants or Practical Nurses 

required for 

";eduat 'l1UÚa1e 
eatd, Sewtee4 

Oshweken, l-Ianitowaning, lVioose Factor) and Sioux Lookout, Ont.; 
Hodgson, Pine Falls and Nonvay House, l\Ian.; Fort Qu'Appelle, North 
Battleford, Sask.; Edmonton, Hobbema, Gleichen, Cardston, 1Iorley 
and Brocket, Alta.: Sanlis. Prince Rupert and Nanaimo, B.C. 

Outpost :K ursing Stations, Health Centres and field positions in Provin- 
ces, Eastern Arctic, and North-\Vest Territories. 

(1) Public Health Staff Nurses: up to $3,300 per year depending upon 
qualifications and location. 
(2) Hospital Staff Nurses: up to $3.120 per year depending upon quali- 
fications and location. 
(3) Nursing Assistants or Practical Xurses: up to $185 per month, 
depending upon qualifications. 
· Room and board in hospitals - $30 per momh. Statutory holidays. 
Three weeks' annual leave with pay. Generous sid\. leave credits. Hos- 
pital-medical and superannuation plans available. Assistance may be 
provided to help cover cost of transportation. 
· Special compensatory lea\"e for those posted to isolated areas. 

For interesting, challenging, satis/)'ing 'i.('ork, appl}' to: 
Indian and Northern Health Services at one of the fol1owing addresses: 
(1) 4824 Fraser St., Vancouver 10, B.C.; 
(2) Charles Camsell Indian Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta: 
(3) 10 Travellers Building, Regina, Sask.; 
(4) 522 Dominion Public Building, \Vinnipeg, l\lanitoba: 
(5) Box 292, North Bay, Ontario; 
(6) 55 "B" St. Joseph Street, Quebec, P.Q.; 
(7) lVloose Factory Indian HospitaL i\loosonee, Ontario. 


Chief, Personnel Division, 
Df"partment of National Health and \\'elfare, 
Ottawa, Ontario. 

MARCH. 1956. Vol. 52. No.3 


Positions Vacant 

ADVERTISING RATES - $5.00 for 3 lines or less: $1.00 for each additional line. 
U.S.A. & Foreign - $7.50 for 3 lines or less.. $1.50 for each additional line. 
Closing date for copy anò canceIJations: 10th of the month preceding the month of 
publication. All letters shoulò be addressed to: The Canadian Nurse, 1522 Sherbrooke 
St. W., Montreal 25, Que. 

Director of Nursing & Nursing Education for 160-bed General Hospital. Postgraduate 
course in administration or equivalent experience required. Salary open Applications 
should give details of education, qualifications & experience, Apply Administrator, 
The Victoria Public Hospital, Fredericton, N.B. 

Matron {Registered Nurse} for private nursing home, please write Dr. Francis' Private 
Hospital, Ganges, B,C. 

Supt. of Nurses immediately for 57-bed hospital. Salary open depending on training & 
experience. Gen. Duty Nurses also required. Good salary & personnel policies. New 
aD-bed hospital opening in 19S6, Apply M. M, Barber, R.N., Administrator, Portage Hospital, 
Dist. No. 18, Portage la Prairie, Manitoba. 

Operating Room Supervisor for operating suite - 4 rooms. 180-bed hospital. Good 
salary and personnel policies. Postgraduate course and experience preferred. Apply 
Miss B. A. Beattie, Director of Nursing, Public General Hospital. Chatham, Ont. 

Operating Room Supervisor. Night Supervisor & Staff Nurses. Good salary & personnel 
policies. Living accommodations available, Apply Director of Nurses, General Hospital, 
Parry Sound, Ontario, 

Psychiatric Nurse to assume position as Head Nurse & Clinical Supervisor of new 
38-bed Psychiatric Unit in a SOD-bed General Hospital. An excellent opportunity for 
a Psychiatric Nurse who wishes to assume leadership in developing the policies, pro- 
cedures & teaching program of this new Psychiatric Unit. Patients treated only by 
psychiatrists. The most modern facilities & treatment methods. Cooperative administra- 
tion. Bachelor's Degree required plus Psychiatric experience. Salary commensurate with 
experience & abilities. Write Director of Nursing, Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio 

Supervisor of Nursing (Dept. of Public Health) to supervise the activities of a group of 
nurses engaged in a well-rounded public & school nursing & education program. Appli- 
cants should possess certificate in Public Health Nursing, a background of successful 
experience & supervisory ability. Current salary: $295-$315 per mo. Employee benefits 
include S-day wk., 3 wk. vacation, sick leave, pension plan, etc. Forward detailed appli- 
cations to Personnel Office, City Hall, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. 

Central Supply Room Supervisor to organize & direct dept. in new 250-bed hospital. 
Experience in operating room &/or central supply desirable, Salary according to education 
& experience. Apply Supt., Children's Hospital, Winnipeg 4, Manitoba, 

Obstetrical Supervisor (l) preÍerably with postgraduate course, Day Supervisor (l) with 
experience, Operaiing Room Scrub Nurse (l). General Duty Nurses (2) for new 144- 
adult bed phs 32-bassinette hospital. Good salary & personnel policies, Apply Director 
of Nurses, Plummer Me
orial Public Hospital, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

Obstetrical Supervisor {Experienced} for night duty, 11-7, Salary: $230 with board, 
room & laundry. Write to Director of Nurses, Misericordia Hospital, Haileybury, Ont. 

General Supervisors. Operating Room Nurses and General Duty Nurses for new ISO-bed 
hospital. Starting salary for Registered General Duty Nurses $230 with annual increases 
to $40. 1112 days per mo, cumulative sick leave; 40-hr. wk; 28 days vacation; 10 statu- 
tory holidays. Apply: Supt. of Nurses, Trail- Tadanac Hospital. Trail, B,C. 

Obstetrical Supervisor {experienced} for modern, fully accrediteå 117-bed General 
Hospital with university-affiliated school of nursing, Postgraduate education desirable. 
Salary dependent on qualifications, Location 45 miles from Buffalo & Rochester, 40-hr. 
wk. Retirement plan, Educational aid. Apply Director of Nursing, Wyoming County 
Community Hospital. Warsaw, N,Y. 



Due to the opening of a new wing in a well-equipped, new 1 25-bed hospital in 
Suburban Toronto. Enjoy the congenial working conditions of a smaller institution with 
the advantages of locating in metropolitan Toronto. Residence accommodation optional. 

GENERAl DUTY $205 - $275 monthly 
HEAD NURSES $225 - $295 monthly 
SUPERVISORS $240 - $310 monthly 


Operating Room Supervisor for Ontario active surgical of lOa-bed hospital. Approx. 
1,800 cases annually. Vacation after 1 yr. of service. Sick leave, statutory holidays & 
Blue Cross Plan. Postgraduate diploma desirous but not necessary if experience is 
adequate. Apply The Director of Nursing, Cottage Hospital. Pembroke, Ont. 
Operating Room Supervisor (1) &, Nursing Arts Instructor (1) for 1 la-bed hospital. Apply 
Supt., The Charlotte County Hospital. S1. Stephen. N,B, 

Assistant Evening Supervisor for hospital with School of Nursing. Moving to new 250-bed 
hospital shortly. Apply Director of Nursing, Children's Hospital, Winnipeg 4, Man. 
Head Instructor for Training School to teach Sciences. 86-bed hospital; 30 students. 
Complete maintenance provided in comfortable suite. Apply, stating qualifications & 
salary expected, A. J. Schmiedl. Sec. Manager, General Hospital, Dauphin, Man. 

Clinical or Nursing Arts Instructor for university-affiliated school of nursing in modern 
hospital, pleasantly located 45 mile3 from Buffalo & Rochester. Starting salary: $3,900. 
40-hr. wk. Retirement plan. Apply Director, School of Nursing, Wyoming County Com- 
munity Hospital. Warsaw, N.Y. 
Instructor for school of nursing - Applications are invited for 138-bed hospital. This 
school is affiliated with Montreal hospitals, the teaching schools associated with McGill 
University. For particulars apply Matron, King Edward VII Memorial Hospital. Bermuda. 
Instructor to teach anatomy ar..d physiology, microbiology first term, followed by sur- 
gical nursing lectures and clinical supervision on surgical wards. Starting salary: $255; 
$10 for 2 yrs. experience; $10 yearly increments; 1112 days sick leave, cumulative; 
10 statutory holidays; 40-hr. wk; 1 class per yr. in September. Apply to: Director of 
Nurses, Royal Inland Hospital, Kamloops. B.C. 
Obstetrical Clinical Instructor for School oi Nursing with capacity 195 students attached 
to expanding hospital of 571 beds. B.S. Degree in Nursing Education preferred or at 
least 3 yrs. experience & working towards degree. Located in "all American City" of 
120,000 in North Eastern Ohio with educational, industrial, recreational & agricultural 
primary interests. Salary commensurate with qualifications. Write Director of Nursing, 
Aultman Hospital. Canton, Ohio. 

Nursing Arts Instructor for School of Nursing, with capacity 195 students, attached to 
expanding hospital of 571 beds. B,S. Degree in Nursing Education preferred or ot least 
3 yrs. experience & working toward degree. Located in "All American City" of 120,000 
in North Eastern Ohio with educational, industrial, recreational & agricultural primary 
interests. Salary commensurate with qualifications, Write Director of Nursing, Aultman 
Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

Clinical Instructor (2) for 222-bed hospital. Beautiful new nurses' residence combined 
with teaching unit. Present enrollment 57 students. For further inforrr.ation apply Direc- 
tor of Nursing, S1. Joseph's General Hospital. Port Arthur, Ontario. 
Clinical Coordinator to be responsible for rotation of student nurses. Applications to be 
made to The Director of Nursing, Miss Ida Johnson, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Ed- 
monton, Alta, 

Assistant Head Nurses for children's orthopedic hospital. Good personnel policies. Pen- 
sion plan available. Apply Director, Shriner's Hospital for Crippled Children 1529 
Cedar Ave., Montreal. 

MARCH, 193G . Vol. 52. No.3 





General Staff Nurses for Medical, Surgical, Obstetrical and Pediatric Services. 
Forty-four hour week. Salary $210 to $260 gross per month. Differential 
for evening and night duty. Residence Accommodation if desired. 

Apply to: 

Assistant Head Nurses. Surgical. ObstE'trical &, General Duty Nurses for 355-bed General 
HospitaL Starting salary: $260, $270 for afternoons & nights. Apply Director of Nursing 
Service, St. Vincent's Hospital. 2447 N.W. Westover, Portland 10, Oregon, 

Supervisor of Public Health Nursing for generalized program m City of 43,000. 5-day wk., 
1 mo. vacation with extra time at Christmas or Easter. Cumulative sick leave. Pension 
plan, Blue Cross & P.S.I., Workmen's Compensation. Transportation provided or allow- 
ance. For further information please write supplying details of training & experience 
to Dr. J. P. Wells, M.O.H., Peterborough, Ont. 

Supervisor &, Public Health Nurses (qualified) for Porcupine Health Unit, 5-day wk. 
4 wk. vacation. 18 days sick leave annually. Car provided. Good working conditions, 
Apply Secretary, Porcupine Healt!.1 Unit, 164 Algonquin Blvd. E., Timmins, Ont. 

Public Health Nurse Grade I. British Columbia Civil Service, Dept. of Health & WeHare. 
Starting Salary $255, $260, $266 per mo., depending on experience, rising to $298. per mo. 
Promotional opportunities available. Qualifications: Candidate must be eligible for regis- 
tration in British Columbia & have completed a University degree or Certificate course in 
Public Health Nursing. (Successful candidates may be required to serve in any part of 
the Province.) Cars are provided. 5-day wk. in most districts. Uniform allowance. Candi- 
dates must be British subjects; preference is given to ex-service women. Application forms 
obtainable from all Government Agencies, the Civil Service Commission, 544 Michigan 
St., Victoria, or 411 Dunsmuir St., Vancouver 3, to be completed & returned to the Chairman, 
Civil Service Commission, Victoria. Further information may be obtained from the Director, 
Public Health Nursing, Dept. of Heaith & WeHare, Parliament Bldgs., Victoria, B.C. 

Public Health Nurses with Certificate, permanent. Nurses with R.N. temporary for Polio 
Program. Apply Mr. J. Silvester, Personnel Officer, York Township Health Dept., 2700 
Eglinton Ave. W., Toronto 9, Ont. 

Public Health Nurse for the Peace River Health Unit. Duties to commence Aprill/56. Salary 
in accordance with Provincial schedule. Apply Sec, Health Unit. Peace River, Alta. 

Public Health Nurses for generalized program in Seaway Development Area, Minimum 
salary: $2,700 with allowance for experience. Group insurance & Blue Cross available 
Good transportation policy. Apply R. S, Peat, M,D., Medical Oíficer of Health, S, D. & 
G. Health Unit, 104 Second St. W., Cornwall, Ont. 
Registered Staff Nurses, immediate appointments, in 51 I-bed newly enlarged and finely 
equipped general hospitaL Duty assignments in medical, surgical. pediatrics, psychi- 
atric, obstetrics, or contagion units. Northeastern Ohio stable "All-American City" of 
120,000, In centre of area of recreational, industrial. and educational friendly activities. 
Living costs reasonable. Within pleasant driving-distance advantages of metropolitan 
Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio and Pittsburg, Pa. Friendly, cooperative work relations 
and conditions. Progressively advanced personnel policies. Starting salary: $240 per 
mo. with 4 merit increases. Paid vacation, sick leave, recognized holidays, premium 
pay, sickness insurance and hospitalization program, retirement. Contact: Director of 
Personnel, Aultman Hospital. Canton, Ohio, by letter or collect telephone 4-5673. 

Registered Nurses for General Duty. Initial salary: $200 per mo.; with 6 or more months 
Psychiatric experience, $210 per mo. Salary increase at end of 1 yr. 44-hr. wk,; 8 statu- 
tory holidays, annual vacation with pay. Living accommodation if desired. For further 
information apply Supt. of Nurses, Homewood Sanitarium, Guelph, Ont. 




Required by 


To organize a surgical unit of 100 beds. Good personnel policies. 
Salary: $240 to $300 per month. 

Apply to: 

Registered Graduate Nurses for General Duty for 650-bed Tuberculosis Hospital. 10 mi. 
from downtown Toronto. Gross starting salary: $93 bi-weekly, less $15.23 for room, 
meals & laundry. 3 annual increments. 44-hr. wk., 8 hr. day, broken hrs. 3 wk. vacation 
after 1 yr., 9 statutory holidays. Hospital bus service to & from city. Apply Supt. of 
Nurses, Toronto Hospital, Weston, ant. 

Registered or Graduate Nurses for General Duty (2) for modern 20-bed hospital. Salary 
& increments in accordance with S.R.N.A. recommendations. I mo. vacation & sick time 
with pay after I yr. service, Separate staff residence. Apply Sec,-Man. Riverside 
Memorial Hospital, Turtleford, Sask. 

Registered Nurses (3) immediately for 36-bed General Hospital in southern Manitoba. 
Starting salary: $2!0 per mo. with 3 wk, vacation with pay 1st. yr. employment; 4-wk. 
vacation thereafter, All statutory holidays. Regular sìck leave, 50% Blue Cross payments. 
Apply Supt. of Nurses, Hospital Dist. No, 24, Box 330, Altona, Manitoba, 

Registered & Non-Registered Nurses, X-Ray &, Lab, Technician for General Hospital. 
Gross salary for nurses registered in Gnt. equivalent to $233.85 per mo. Good personnel 
policies, new facilities. 8-hr. rotating shifts; 44-hr. wk.; I-day off 1 wk. & 2 the next. 
1112 days holiday & sick leave per mo.; 8 legal holidays per year. Up to $40 travelling 
expenses & increase paid after 1 yr. service. Semi-private Blue Cross with M.O.S. 
coverage. Full maintenance is provided including room, board & laundering of uniforms. 
Apply Supt., Lady Minto Hospital, Cochrane, ant. 

Registered General Duty Nurses for 18-bed hospital. Salary: $240 less $30 perquisities with 
yearly increase of $10 per mo, 44-hr. wk, Vacation with pay, all statutory holidays, liberal 
sick leave. For further information please telephone collect to Miss H. Moore, Matron, 
Union Hospital, Oxbow, Sask. 
Registered Nurses. Salary: $225 per mo, gross. 5-day wk. Single room residence. 20 
miles east of Toronto. Apply Supt., Ajax & Pickering General Hosp., Ajax, ant. 
Registered Nurses (2) for new 30-bed hospital. Apply Matron, Creston Valley Hospital, 
Creston, British Columbia, 

Registered Nurses for Psychiatry. Student affiliation or postgraduate work preferred. 
For information apply Director of Nursing, Victoria Hospital. London, ant. 

Registered Nurses for 82-bed accredited hospital. Gross Salary: $210-$230 per mo. 44-hr. 
5 1 h-day wk. with no split shifts. 30 days vacation with pay after I yr. of service plus 
statutory holidays. Room in a comfortable residence & laundry of uniforms provided 
at $10-$12 per mo, Apply Supt. of Nurses, Union Hosp., Canora, Sask. 

Registered Nurses - General Staff, Operating Room, Psychiatric for 300-bed General 
Hospital with new wing opening in April. Starting salary: $220 per mo. with annual 
increment for 3 years. For turther particulars apply Director of Nursing Services, Metro- 
politan General Hospital, Windsor, ant. 
Graduate Registered Nurses for general duty for 118-bed General Hospital along the 
shores of Lake Michigan, 25 mi. from Chicago. Base salary $300. Good personal policies. 
Apply Highland Park Hosp" Foundation, 718 Glenview Ave., Highland Park, Ill. 
General Duty Nurses for 40-bed hospital. Salary $250, full maintenance $45. 42-hr. wk., 28 
days annual vacation plus 10 statutory holidays. Rotating shifts, cumulative sick leave, 
selí-contained residence. Apply Director of Nursing, General Hospital. Princeton, B.C. 

MARCH, 1956. Vol. 52, No.3 


University of Alberta Hospital 
Edmonton, Alberta. 

Requires General Duty Nurses. Salary range: $190-$215 per mo. plus 2 meals 
& laundry. 40-hr. wk. to be instituted not later than March 31 st, 1956. 
Rotating shifts, 21 days vacation, statutory holidays, other benefits. 

For further information apply 


General Duty Registered Nurses &, Certified Nursing Assistants for 50-bed hospitaL 
44 hr. wk, For further information apply Supt. of Nurses, Genenl H"')spital. Cobourg, Ont. 
General Duty &, Surgical Nurses for 64-bed acute treatment, fully accredited hospital 
in Northern California. Excellent living conditions. Close proximity to vacation areas 
for leisure time, Full details at or.ce on salaries, working conditions, paid holidays, 
paid vacations, paid sick leave & other benefits. Please apply Directn:r of Nursing 
Services, Clinic Hospital, Woodland, California. 
General Duty Nurses for 30-beå General Hospital. Excellent working conditions, per- 
sonnel policies & recreational facilities, Apply Miss M. I. Baker, Supervisor of Nurses, 
Joyce Memorial Hospital. Shawinigan Falls, Que 
General Duty Nurses for 114-bed hospital. Salary: $220-$250 with $5,00 increments every 
6 mo. 44-hr. wk., 3-wk. annual vacation, statutory holidays etc. For further particulars 
please apply to Director of Nurses, Union Hosp., Swift Current, Sask. 
General Duty Nurses for small hospital. Salary: $200 per mo. plus maintenance. 8-hr. day, 
44-hr. wk., statutory holidays as outlined by R.N.A.O. Travelling expenses refunded after 
12 mo. service. New nurses' residence under construction. Apply Lady Minto Hospital, 
Chapleau, Ontario. 
General Duty Graduate Nurses for well equipped 72-bed hospital on B,C. coast. Salary: 
$222 per mo. less $25 full maintenance, Semi-annual increments. 28 days vacation plus 
10 statutory holidays after 1 yr. Apply Matron, St. George's Hospital, Alert Bay, B.C. 
General Duty Nurses for Medical, Surgical, Pediatrics, vbstetrics. Good salary & per- 
sonnel policies. Apply Director of Nursing, Victoria Hospital. London, Ont. 
General Duty Nurses for all departments. Gross salary: $210 per mo. if registered in 
Ontario $200 per mo. until registration has been established. $20 per mo. bonus for 
evening or night duty; annual increment of $10 per mo. for 3 yrs. 44-hr. wk., 8 statutory 
holidays, 21 days vacation & 14 days leave for illness with pay after 1 yr. of employ- 
ment. Apply: Director of Nursing. General Hospital, Oshawa, Ont. 
General Duty Nurse for well equipped 80-bed General Hospital in beautiful inÌand valley 
adjacent Lake Kathlyn, Boating, fishing, swimming, golfing, curling, skiing. Initial salary: 
$240, full maintenance, $40. 44-hr. wk. vacation with pay. Comfortable, attractive nurses' 
residence on grounds. Rail fare advanced if necessary, refun.ded following 1 yr, service. 
References required. Apply Bulkley Valley Dist. Hospital. Smithers, B,C. 

$2,430 - $3,1 20 

Application forms, available at your nearest Civil Service Commission Office National Em- 
ployment Service & Post Office, should be forwarded to the Civil Service Commission, 
25 St. Clair Ave., E., Torento 7, Ontario. 




The Grenfell Mission operates four Hospitals & seven Nursing Stations in 
northern Newfoundland & on the labrador. Here is a wonderful opportunity 
for valuable experience & an adventurous life. If you are making plans for 
next year, why not consider this splendid service still carried on in the name 
of a great man? 

For full information please write 


General Duty Nurses. Salary: $230-270, $10 increment for experience. 40-hr. wk. 1 1 12 days 
sick leave per mo, cumulative; 10 statutory holidays, (1) mo. vacation. Must be eligible 
for B.C. registration. Apply Director of Nurses, Royal Inland Hospital, Kamloops, B.C. 
General Duty Nurse (1) immediately. Salary: $220 per mo. less $45 for full maintenance 
in new modern nurses' home. 40-hr. wk. 28 days vacation after 1 yr. service. 10 statutory 
holiday" Fare refunded after 1 yr. Apply V. H. Collins, Sec.-Treas., General Hospital, 
Golden, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurses for l6S-bed Sanatorium, 44-hr. wk. 4-wk. vacation, statutory holidays. 
Apply Director of Nursing, Niagara Peninsula Sanatorium, St. Catharines, Ont. 
General Duty Nurses. All shifts, no rotation. Starting salary $290. increases to $349 plus 
shift differential of $10. Specialty services, Ob-Peds-Tb-Isol $10-$15 extra. 5 day wk. 3-wk. 
vacation end of 1st yr. 11 statutory holidays each yr. Nurses' home available at $15 per 
mo. Ideal location, short distance from San Francisco or mountain resort areas. Apply 
Director of Nurses, Stanislaus COUr.lty Hosp., 830 Scenic Drive, Modesto, California. 
Graduate Nurses for 29-bed General Hospital - 2 posi.tions open. Beginning salary: $250 
per mo. 2-wk. vacation with pay. Sick benefits, Blue Cross Hospitalization & Social 
Security Benefits. Apply BU5iiness Manager, Otis Hosp., Inc., 441 E. Market St., Celina, Ohio . 
Operating Room Supervisor. Starting Salary: $300 per mo" Graduate Nur"es for 100-bed 
W Qst Coast General Hospital. Salary: $250 per mo. less $40 for board, r
sidence, laundry. 
3 annual increments; $10 per mo. night duty bonus. 1 mo. vacation with full salary after 
1 yr. service. 1112 days sick leave per mo. cumulative to 36 days, Transportation allowance 
up to $60 refUI!ded after 1 yr. Apply Director of Nursing, General Hospital, Prince Rupert, 
Graduate Nurses (3) for 24-bed hospital. Salary: $230 per mo. if B.C. registered; less 
$40 board, lodging, laundry. 1 mo. vacation after 1 yr. on full pay. 1112 days sick leave 
per mo. cumulative. Apply, stating experience to Matron, Terrace & District Hospital. 
Terrace, British Columbia. 
Graduate Nurse" (2) for 64-bed hospital 250 mi. northwest Edmonton. Good train & mail 
service. Salary as recommended by R.N .A. of Alberta, increments of $5.00 every 6 mo. 
for 2 yrs. $30 room & board. Transportation allowance up to $50 after 1 yr. service. 
28 days paid vacation after 1 yr. plus 10 statutory holidays. 1112 days sick leave per 
mo. Apply Sr. Superior, Providence Hospital, High Prairie, Alta. 


Position vacant August 1956. Modern classrooms & facilities. Present student 
enrolment 54, New 85-bed nurses' residence to be opened in fall. Salary 
commensurate to qualifications. liberal personnel policies. 



MARCH, 1956. Vol. 52, No.3 


See Quebec With Employment Rather Than A Tourist Visit 

Why Unique? 

Jeffery Hale's Hospital 
Only English speaking hospital & training school in 
Quebec City 

For information write: 


Graduate Nurses for duty on Obstetrical, Medical & Surgical Wards, Personnel policies 
as recommended by the Assoc. of Nurses of the Prov, of Quebec. Please apply Director 
of Nursing, Queen Elizabeth Hospital of Montreal. 2100 Marlowe Ave., Montreal 28, Que . 
Staff Nurses for 600-bed General 6". Tuberculosis HospItals with School of Nursing. 
Salary: $288-$341. Shift, special service & educational differentials, $10. 40-hr. wk; 3-wk. 
vacation; II holidays; accu::1Ulaiive sick leave. Apply Associate Director of Nursing 
Service, County General Hospital, Fresno, Califomia. 
Staff Nurses 6". Operating Room Scrub Nurses for 22S-bed General Hospital, 20 mi. north 
of New York City. Salary: $240-$280. $20 extra for O.R. duty & permanent evening 
duty; $lS for permanent night duty. Apply Director of Nursing, St. John's Riverside 
Hospital. Yonkers, N.Y. 
General Staff Nurses for 400-bed Medical & Surgical Sanatorium, fully approved student 
affiliation & postgraduate program. Full maintenance. Recreational facilities. Vacation 
with pay. Sick benefits after I yr. Blue Cross coverage. Attractive salary; 40-hr. wk. 
For further particulars apply Supt. of Nurses, Nova Scotia Sanatorium, Kentville, N,S, 
General Staff Nurses for fully accredited, private teaching hospital located On Lake 
Michigan, just north of Chicago. Saiary range: $303-$328.70. Shift bonus, $26 after- 
noons & $17 nights. S-day, 40-hr. wk. Progressive personnel policies. Excellent cafeteria 
& attractive rooms at reasonable rates. Please indicate type of service preferred. 
Apply Director of Nursing, Evanston Hospital, 26S0 Ridge Ave" Evanston, Illinois, 
Operating Room Nurses. immediate appointments, for Sll-bed newly enlarged and 
finely equipped hospital; 10 operating rooms now completed. Northeastern Ohio stable 
"All-American City" of 120,000. In centre of area of recreational, industrial and educa- 
tional friendly activities; living cost reasonable. Within pleasant driving-distance 
advantages of metropolitan Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, and Pittsburg, Pa. Friendly 
and considerate working associates and conditions. Progressively advanced personnel 
policies. Starting salary: $240 per mo. with 4 merit increases. Paid vacation, sick leave, 
recognized holidays, premium pay, sickness insurance and hospitalization program, 
retirement. Contact Director of Personnel, Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio, by letter or 
collect telephone 4-S673. 
Operating Room Nurses, preferably with experience, for 7S-bed hospital. Operating unit 
consists of 2 theatres, emergency treatment & recovery room. Apply Supt., Carleton 
Memorial Hospital, Woodstock. N.B. 



Gross salary commensurate with experience, 28 days vacation after one 
year, 8 statutory holidays, sick leave accumulative to 60 days; Residence 
accommodation available at reasonable rates. Hospital has recently completed 
a well equipped and staffed wing with extensive renovation program pro- 
gressing in the old section. 





invites applications for STAFF and RDMINISTRATIVE positions in HOSPITAL, PUBLIC HEALTH 
. The majority of opportunities are in OUTPOST SERVICES in British Columbia, 
Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. 
. Commensurate salaries for experience and qualifications. Transportation arrange- 
ments under certain circumstances. Bursaries are available for post-graduate 
For furtner particulars apply: 

Baker Memorial Sanatorium. Calgary. Alberta. offers to Graduate Nurses a 6-mo. post- 
graduate course in Tuberculosis. Maintenance & salary as for general staff nurses. 
Opportunity for permanent employment if desired. Spring & Fall Classes. Further 
information on request. 
Operating Room Scrub Nurses with experience for !lew operating suite near completion, 
finely equipped. Salary open depending upon preparation or experience. Desirable 
working conditions, Travel expenses if necessary. Apply Supt. of Nurses, Union Hospital, 
Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, 

Operating Room Nurses (2) for 60-bed General Hospital. Apply Superintendent, Leam- 
ington District Memorial Hospital. Leamington, Ontario. 

Nursing Arts Instructor to direct teaching program & teach I'lursing arts Clinical Instruc- 
tor (1) to teach psychiatric nursing on male wads, C
inical Ins
nctor (1) to teach 
psychiatric nursing on female wards. Instructor to be responsible for psychiatric nursing 
affiliation program. Salary: $290 to $345 per mo. Graduate Nurses preferably with 
psychiatric preparation. Salary: $235 to $275 per mo. 1450-bed active treatment hospital 
conducting an accredited school of nursing, 44-hr. wk. Residence with board, if desired, 
$30 per mo. Excellent holiday, sick leave & pension ber.efits. Apply, stating qualifica- 
tions & experience, Supt. of Nurses, Provincial Mental Hospital. Ponoka, Alta, 
Public Health Nurses (qualified). Generalized program in urban area, Starting salary: 
$2,900-$3,200 depending on experience. Annual increment $150. Transportation provided. 
5-day wk. Pension Plan. Hospitalization & sickness insurance available. Apply A. F. 
Mackay, Board of Health, City of Oshawa, Ont. 
Registered Nurse for 10-bed hospital. Duties to commence March 17, Salary: $175 plus 
full maintenance. Regular increments in salary. Attractive living accommodation. Apply 
Miss Ivy Buckley, Matron, North Norfolk-MacGregor Medical Nursing Unit, Dist. No. 18A, 
MacgregOl, Man. 
Staff Nurses for 100-bed hospital. Gross salary commences at $2.100, Apply Supt. of 
Nurses, Western Memorial Hospital, Corner Brook, Newfoundland. 
General Duty Nurses. Good personnel policies. Apply The Superintendent, Espanola 
General Hospital, Espanola, Ont. 


Required for All Departments in 

For further information apply to 

MARCH, 1956 . Vol. 52, No.3 


OfficiaJ Directory 

270 Laurier Ave., 'V., Ottawa 

Presidpnt. , . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . 
Past President"... ... .. 
First Vice-President,..... 

Miss Gladys J. Sharpe, Western Hospital. Toronto 2B, Ont. 
Miss Helen G. McArthur, 95 \Vellesley St. E., Toronto 5, Onto 
Miss Tnmna G. Hunter, Metropolitan Health Com., City Hall, 
Vancouver, B.C. 
Miss Alice Girard, Hôpital St. Luc, Lagauchetière St., Montreal, Que. 
Miss Muriel Hunter. Provincial Health Dept., Fredericton, N.B. 
Miss M. Pearl Stiver, 270 Laurier Ave. W., Ottawa. 

Second Vice-President..... 
Third Vice-President. . . . . . 


Presidents of Provincial Associations- 
Alberta.. ..... ....,.,...... Miss Elizabeth Bietsch, General Hospital, Medicine Hat. 
British Columbia.......... Miss Alberta Creasor, 1645 West 10th Ave., Vancouver 9. 
::Uanitoba. .... ... _ . ." ..... Miss Mary Wilson, Ste. 18, Lenore Apts., Lenore St., Winnipeg. 

ew Bruns\\ick. .......... Miss Grace Ste\oens, Box 970, Edmundston. 
:Newfoundland.... .... .,... Miss Elizabeth Summers, 55 Miitary Rd., St. John's. 
N o\"a Scotia. . . . . . . . , . . . . . . Mrs. Dorothy McKeown, 79% Allen St., HalifaÀ. 
Ontario................... Miss Alma Reid, McMaster University, Hamilton. 
Prince Edward Island.... Sister Mary Irene, Charlottetown Hospital, Charlottetown. 
Quebec................ .... MIle Eve Merleau, Apt. 52, 3201 Forest Hill, Montreal 26. 
Saskatchewan............. Miss Mary MacKenzie, St. Paul's Hospital, Saskatoon. 

Religious Sisters (Regional RepresentatiOltJ- 
l\Iaritimes.. .... .... ... ... Rev. Sister Helen Marie, St. Joseph's Hospital, Saint John, N.B. 
Quebec..... ............... Rev. Sister Denise Lefebvre, Instltut Marguerite d'Youville, 
] 185 St. Matthew St., Montreal 25. 
Ontario... .... ............ Rev. Sister M. de Sales, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto 2. 
\Vestern Canada........... Rev. Sister Mary Luclta, St. Joseph's Hospital, Victoria, B.C. 

Chairmen of National Committees- 
Nursing Service........... Miss Alice Girard, Hôpital St. Luc, Lagauchetière St., Montreal. Que. 
Nursing Education........ Miss Evelyn Mallory, School of Nursing, University of British 
Columbia, Vancouver 8, B.C. 
. & Publie. . . . . . . . 
Relations.,.,........., Miss Evelyn Pepper, Rm. 726, Jackson Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 
Legislation &. B
'-Laws.... Miss Helen Carpenter. 50 St. George St., Toronto 5, Onto 
Finance................... Miss Trenna G. Hunter, Metropolitan Health Com., City Hall, Van- 
couver, B.C. 


Alberta Ass'n of Registerpd Xurses, Mrs. Clara Van Dusen, Ste. 5, 10129-102nd St., Edmonton. 
Registered Nurses' Ass'n of British Columbia, Miss Alice L. Wright, 2524 Cypress St., Van- 
couver, 9. 
"}Ianitoba Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Miss Lillian E. Pettigrew, 247 Balmoral St., Winnipeg. 
New Brunswick Ass'n of Registered Xurses. Miss Muriel Archibald, P.O. Box 846, Fredericton. 
Ass'n of Registered Nurses of Newfoundland, Miss Pauline Laracy, Cabot Bldg., Duckworth St., 
St. John's. 
Registered Xurses' Ass'n of Nova Scotia, Miss Nancy H. \Vatson, 301 Barrington St.. Halifax. 
Registered Nurses' Ass'n of Ontario, Miss Florence H. Walker, 515 Jarvis St., Toronto 5. 
A&s'n of Nurses of Prince }
dward Island, Mrs. Helen L. Bolger, 188 Prince St., Charlottetown, 
Asociation of Nurses of the Pro\ince of Quebec, Miss Winonah Lindsay, 506 Medical Arts Bldg" 
Montreal 25. 
Saskatchewan Registered Nurses' Ass'n, Miss Lola Wilson, 401 Northern Crown Bldg., Regina, 


Canadian Nursps' Asociation: 270 Laurier Ave. West, Ottawa. General Secretar)'-TreaSJlrer, MIss 
M. Pearl Stiver. Secretary of Nursing Education, Miss Frances U. McQuarrie. Secretary of NJlrsing 
Service, Miss F. Lillian Campion. Assistant Secretary, Miss Rita MacIsaac. 
International Council of Xursps: 1, Dean Trench St., Westminster, London S.W. 1, England. 
Executiõ'e Secretary, Miss Daisy C. Bridges. 





. ' 









,,--... " 








, ' 
... . 11 t 
1 11 f\.


Pleasantly-flavoured, fat-free, water. 
soluble Infantol Drops is a concentrated 
form of the well-known Infantol 
Liquid. Both afford complete 
protection against vitamin deficiencies 
in infants and children. 

of a 













Supplies '\ itamins A, D, C, Bt, B 2 , and niacinamide. 
Daily dose: 5-10 drops. 
15 and 30 cc. dropper bottles. 




} '.. 



to 1 
f ø 11 
1 11 Of'S 


H 0 R N E R 


APRIL, 1956. Vol. 52, No.4 


, · 



APRIL 1956 

255 \\' HY A. TTEND THE 
VENTION? ..........'.............."... Sr. Theresa Carmel 
257 SASKATCHEWAX AND ITs PEOPLE ........'...... Christian Smith 
262 FLUID BALAXCE .....................,..........................,...........C. N. Partington 
OF THE PATIENT .............,...........,.....,....... Robcrt M. Frumkin 
264 IN 
266 BA1'WL'S RING ............ P. Foster, A. JJ cLeod, J. Pal/Taman 
and D. Shouldice 
268 LE SERVICE SOCIAL ET LE CANCER ...... Ghislainc Chamard 
TEACHING ,'..........,.....'................................ Henrietta J. Alderson 
276 A VE
FOR GRADUATE NURSES ....................................... AIo)'ra Allen 

Editor and Business Manager 

Assistm.t Editor 

The views expressed 
in the various articles 
are the views of 
the authors and 
do not necessarily 
represent the policy 
or views of 
nor of the Canadian 
Nurses' Association. 

Subscriptitm Rates: Canada & Bermuda: 6 months $1.75; one year, $3.00; two years, $5.00. 
Student nurses - one year, $2.00; three years, $5.00. U.S.A. & foreign: one year. $3.50; two years, $6.00. 
In combination with the American Journal of Nursing or Nursing Outlook: one year, $7.00. 
Single copies, 35 cents. 
Make cheques and money orders payable to The Canadian NJlrse. 
Detailed Official Directory appears in June & December. 
Please give one month's notice of Change of Address. 
Authorized as Second-Class Mail, Post Office Department. Ottawa. 
National Advertising Representatives: W. F. L. Edwards & Co. Ltd., 34 King St. E., Toronto I, Onto 
Member of Canadian Circulations Audit Board. 
15ZZ Sherbrooke Street, West, Montreal 25. Quebec 





need NIVEA 

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Frequent washing and contact with strong anti- 
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Nivea Creme contains a substance called 

Eucerite that replaces the skin's natural oils - 
helps keep your hands smooth, soft, supple and 
protected from the drying effects of frequent 
washing. Nivea is an ideal "all-purpose" cream 
to soothe, protect and condition the skin against 
chafing and irritation. Keep your skin, and that 
of your patients in good condition with Nivea. 





...., '.. 
...., ., 

Available in J oz. and 2 oz. tubes 
and 4 oz. and J 5 oz. Jars 


APRIL, 1956. Vol. 52, No, 4 


BetøeeAe ()

Have you put a ring around the 1956 
CN A convention dates on your calendar? 
That last week in June is going to be an 
interesting, invigorating and satisfying expe- 
rience for the hundreds of nurses who join 
the trek to \Yinnipeg. Our guest editor this 
month, Sister Theresa Carmel, who is pedi- 
atric supervisor at St. Joseph's Hospital, 
Saint John, N.H. gives us some of the 
answers to the Question "Why do nurses 
go to conventions?" 
Very direct and convincing reasons are 
also contained in the tentative program that 
will be found on page 283. You were intro- 
duced last month to two of the guest speak- 
ers. Well known names of other prominent 
participants will convince you that you can- 
not afford to miss this outstanding event of 
the biennium. 

* * * 
As everyone knows, the nurses of Sas- 
katchewan and Manitoba are ioint hostesses 
for the convention this year. Christian Smith 
has written the first of three stories that 
will appear in consecutive issues to acquaint 
you with the people, the progress and the 
promising destiny of these flourishing mid- 
western provinces. Next month Manitoba's 
story wiII be unfolded followed in June by 
a description of one of the friendliest cities 
on the continent - \\Tinnipeg. Remembering 
that the convention dates coincide with the 
longest days in the year, we are looking 
forward with you to the glories of the sun- 
sets, the long, lovely twilights, the pteasures 
that just being in \Vinnipeg will bring. 
* * * 
Those of you who have read and received 
thoughtful encouragement from the articles 
that have been published in recent months 
discussing aspects of religion in the life of 
the nurse, will be pleased to learn that the 
second non-denominational conference for 
nurses is being held April 27-29 at Five 
Oaks Christian Workers Center near Paris, 
Ont. This conference is open to all nurses 
who are interested in learning how their 
personal lives may be enriched, how they 
may face their problems with a more real- 
istic appreciation of their Christian steward- 
ship. Sixty-five people can be accommodated 
overnight but last year the residence was 
filled to capacity so application must be 
made immediately. 
* * * 
At the spring meeting of the Executive 


Committee of the CNA, some time was 
devoted to the Question of the present prac- 
tice of holding special church services for 
nurses early in May each year. We were 
reminded that they were instituted originally 
as a memorial to our colleagues whose lives 
were lost in the 'wars in which our country 
has engaged. Their primary purpose was to 
give each of us an opportunity to rededicate 
ourselves to the service of humanity. 
Somewhere along the road 5ince the first 
such special church services were organized, 
some of the original intent seems to have 
been side-tracked by recurrent eulogies of 
the early founders of our profession. Per- 
haps the fault has been with the committees 
that have made the arrangements for the 
services with the clergy. Perhaps the prox- 
imity of the anniversary of the birth of 
Florence Nightingale to the date selected 
for the service has been a factor. 
Let us, this year, place the emphasis where 
it belongs. If the nurses in each community, 
who are making the arrangements for the 
church services, will give their clergymen 
the definite theme: rededication, they will 
find him sympathetic and cooperative. 
* * * 
Last month you read the interesting ac- 
count of the way in which the new course 
for teachers of science subjects evolved at 
McMaster University. In this issue Henrietta 
Alderson gives us the inside story on how 
the new pattern of teaching has developed. 
Can you imagine starting your course in 
anatomy and physiology with a study of the 
central nervous system? 
* * * 
Requests are received fairly frequently 
from schools of nursing Íor back issues that 
they require to complete certain year's copies 
for binding. As often as we can we fill these 
orders from our reserve supply. Periodically, 
we get requests for certain issues of which 
our supply is exhausted. Just now, we can- 
not fill the order received for the January 
and June, 1945 issues. Unless you are treas- 
uring them, will some of you share these 
issues with these schools? Please send the 
copies to the Journal office: 1522 Sherbrooke 
St. West, :Montreal 25, Que. 

He who has not forgiven an enemy has 
not yet tasted one of the most sublime en- 
j oyments of life. 






"4 >,' .... 



J\Ieat proteill as ,veIl retailled 
as lllill\:. proteil1..." 

E VE;\J premature infants digested. utilized 
and retained the proteins and fat in 
 prepared :\leab for Babies according 
to Sisson. Emmel &. Filer, "'Ieat in the Diet 
of Prematures", Pediatrics, 7, 89 (1951). 

The authors state, in part: "
Ieat protein is 
as "ell retained and utiliæd as milk protein 
by the premature infant and is therefore as 
safe and effi('ient a source of protein as milk, 
The fat aLsllrption IIf the prematurf' infant is 
not signifi('antl
 altered when the milk in 
the diet is partly or \\ holl y replaced by meat 
fat or meat fat and olive oil." 

SlÓft'S \1mts for Bahies was the original 
product of this kind placed on the market. 
Prepared from (In(
 fine, lean meat, the food is 

APRIL. 1956 · Vol. 52, 
o. 4 

cooked and milled to a fine purée. The te.>..ture is 
soft, moist and easily fed in formula or for initial 
spoon feeding just as it comes from the can. There 
are seven kinds for variety and special conditions: 
Beef, Lamb, Pork, Veal, Lil'er. Heart. Lit'er and 
Bacon, and also Swift's Egg Yolks for Babies, 
Salmon Seafood (or Babies and the chopped 
Swift's lUeats for Juniors. 


Meats for Babies 


most precious product 





5 W 1fT CAN A D I A N CO. , L I M I TED. 


1teø 'P

Edited by DEAN F. N. HUGHES 
PUBLISHED THROUGH COURTESY OF Canadian Pharmaceutical] ourna1 

Manufacturer-H. Powell Chemical Company Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 
Description-Each tablet contains: Bone flour 0.5 gm. (Containing: Calcium 33.71'0, 
phosphorus 15.16%, fluorine 0,05%). vitamin D 500 LD. 
Indications-For the prevention and correction of calcium and phosphorus defi- 
ciencies. Indicated in prenatal care, lactation, convalescence, malnutrition and as a 
dietary supplement for growing children. 
Administration-3 to 6 tablets daily. Tablets may be chewed if desired. 
Manufacturer-Mowatt & Moore Limited, Montreal, Que. 
Description-Each compressed and scored tablet contains: Corophyllin-N (hydroxy- 
ethyItheophylline) 100,0 mg., pentaerythritol tetranitrate 10.0 mg., rauserpen-alk. (reser- 
pine) 0,25 mg. 
Indications-For the symptomatic and prophylactic treatment of angina pectoris, 
especially where high blood pressure, anxiety and tension are important therapeutic 
Administration-One tablet 3 to 4 times daily or as directed. 

Manufacturer-Homemakers' Products Corp., Toronto. Distributor-John A. Huston 
Co. Ltd., Toronto. 
Description-Contains: Di isobutyl cresoxy ethoxy ethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium 
chloride 0,0671'0. 
Indications-A medicated lotion to eliminate and prevent ammonia dermatitis. 
Administration-Apply at every diaper change and after bath 

Manufacturer-Herdt & Charton, Inc., Montreal. 
Description-Powerful pain sedative containing 101'0 ethylene diamine salicyla
1.25 0 10 methyl salicylate, camphor and chloroform. 
Indications-Rheumatic, arthritic, muscular and neuralgic pains. Pulmonary and 
broncho-pulmonary action. 
Administration-Apply ointment on affected area several times a day, 

Manufacturer-Pfizer Canada Division of Pfizer Corporation, Montreal 9, Que. 
Description-Each tablet contains 50 mg. of terramycin and 250 mg. of neomycin 
Indications-For preoperative bowel ster ilization. 
Manufacturer-John Wyeth & Brother (Canada) Ltd., Walkerville, Ont. 
Description-Each scored tablet contains 400 mg. Equanil (2-Methyl-2-n-propyl-l, 
3-propanediol dicarbamate) (Meprobamate), an anti-anxiety agent with muscle-relaxing 
properties, acting on the central nervous system. 
Indications-Anxiety and tension states, neurological conditions where muscle spasm 
is a factor, muscle spasm due to rheumatic conditio!ls, certain convulsive disorders. 
Administration-One tablet (400 mg,) 3 times daily and, if indicated, one hour 
before retiring, 

Manufacturer-Ciba Company Limited, Montreal. 
Description-Methyl-phenidyl acetate, a mild central nervous stimulant and anti- 
depressant of a chemical type, unrelated to either caffeine or the amphetamines. In its 
mode of action it occupies an intermediate position between them. It brightens the 
patient's mood gently, alleviatir.g depression and increasing mental performance, thus 
giving the patient more confidence and self-assurance, Has no significant effect on 
either blood pressure or pulse rate and produces no excessive central nervous system 
stimulation, It does not produce euphoria, depress the appetite or produce reflex let- 
down on cessation of therapy. 
Indications-Depression, apathy, anxiety states, discouragement, chronic fatigue, 
weakness, postpartum depression, depression after infectious illness, after effects of 
alcoholic abuse, convalescent or geriatric depressive psychoses and where the am- 
phetamines are contraindicated, 
Administration-Average dose is 5 to 10 mg. 2 to 3 times a day. This may be in- 
creased or decreased depending upon the individual response, 

Tire Journal prescnts Phannaceuticals for illformation. .lo"rurses understand that only a ph:ysician may prescribe. 



seasoned 1 


for î "....
-.. (

- ... 
I ,..... - -:. "- 
... ì 

f ø 
and .,. 
dependability 4 


Since glass, like wood, changes with age, thermometers 
need to be "seasoned" before release. Every B-D Thermometer 
is kept for four to six months in seasoning vaults before final 
rechecking. This eliminates the possibility of inaccurate 
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Each B-D Thermometer undergoes 70 operations, including 
36 inspections and tests, before final certification. 



In Canada 

APRIL, 1956 . Vol. 52, No.4 



School of Nursing 


A Four-Calendar-Year Course designed to prepare students for all 
branches of community and hospital nursing practice and leading to the 
degree, Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.Sc.N.J. It includes studies in the 
humanities, basic sciences and nursing. Bursaries, loans and scholarships 
are available. 

A Two-Year Course designed to prepare graduate nurses to teach basic 
sciences in schools of nursing and leading to the degree, Bachelor of 
Education in Nursing (B.Ed.N.). It includes studies in the humanities, the 
physical, social and biological sciences, teaching and nursing education. 
Bursaries are available in both years of this course. 
For additional information, write to: 
School of Nursing, Hamilton College, 
McMaster Univers;ty, Hamilton, Ontario. 

Manufacturer-Lederle Laboratories Division, North American Cyanamid Limited, 
Montreal. Que. 
Description-2.4,6,-tris-(ethylenimino)-S-triazine, an ethylenimine derivati\ e. Its reac- 
tive groups are closely related to the nitrogen mustards. Grooved tablets 5 mg. 
Indications-Similar to those for nitrogen mustard therapy. Indicated in the treat- 
ment of chronic lymphatic leukemia, leukolymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease and 
chronic myelogenous leukemia. Has advantages over nitrogen mustard in that it can 
be given by mouth. It causes only occasional nausea or vomiting. Patients can, in 
most cases, be treated adequately on an ambulatory basis. 
Administration-Should be taken in the morning with plain water on an empty 
stomach. Food should be withheld for 1 hour afterwards, since the drug tends to be 
inactivated in an acid medium and is reactive with organic materials. The usual initial 
single dose of the drug is 2.5 mg. Some patients, especially those with chronic leukemia, 
may be especially sensitive and require not more than I or 2 mg. weekly. Complete 
blood count, including platelet estimation, should be taken weekly or more frequently 
for all patients receiving the drug. 
Caution-Physicians should give the drug personally to the patients and should 
not dispense more than I week's supply at a time. This drug is highly toxic. 

Manufacturer-Frank W. Horner Ltd., Montreal. 
Description-Each tablet contains: Sulfamethylthiadiazole 0,25 gm., sulfacetamide 
0.25 gm. 
Indications-For urinary tract infections, amenable to sulphonamides. This combina- 
tion provides high solubility, prompt urinary levels and low acetylation. 
Administration-Adults, I or 2 tablets 3 or 4 times daily. Children, according to age. 

The Journal presents pharmaceuticals for information. Nurses understand that only a physician may prescribe. 



1. leading to the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.S.N.J: 
An integrated programme which includes preparation for staff positions 
in public health nursing as well as the fundamentals of teaching, super- 
vision and administration and their application to clinical nursing. Students 
are required to select one advanced clinical nursing course-i.e., Medical- 
Surgical, Obstetric, Pediatric, or Psychiatric Nursing. 
Students with an appropriate Senior Matriculation can complete the 
Course in approximately two years. Those with Junior Matriculation require 
approximately three years. 
2. leading to a Diploma in Public Health Nursing: 
A ten-month course which prepares for staff positions in public health 
3. leading to a Diploma in Clinical Supervision: 
A ten-month course which prepares for hospital positions that entail 
teaching, supervisory and administrative activities. Students are required 
to select one of the advanced clinical nursing courses listed above. 

N.B.: The School of Nursing also offers, for high school graduates with University Entrance, a 
Basic Professional Course leading to the degree of B.S.N. 
For further information write to the 



I. Basic Degree Course in Nursing (B.Sc.>: 
This course provides study in the 
humanities, basic sciences and nursing, 
and prepares the graduate for com- 
munity and hospital nursing practice. 

II. Degree Course for Graduate Nurses 
A two-year program designed to pre- 
pare the nurse for positions in 
Education and Public Health Nursing. 
The program includes courses in the 
humanities, basic sciences, supervision, 
teaching and public health nursing. 

III. Diploma Courses for Graduate Nurses: 
One year diploma courses are available 
to registered nurses who wish to pre- 
pare for positions in Kursing Educa- 
tion and Public Health .ì\"ursing. 

IV. Certificate Course in Advanced Practi- 
cal Obstetrics: 
A four and one half month course of 
study and supervised clinical ex- 
perience in the care of the mother and 
the newborn infant. 

For information aPPly to: 

APRIL, 1956 . Vol. 52, No.4 



The following one-year certificate 
courses are offered: 

1. Public Health Nursing. 

2. Teaching and Supervision in 
Schools of Nursing. 

For information apply to: 
School of Nursing Education 
University of Manitoba 
Winnipeg, Man. 





leading to B.Sc.N. with special- 
ization in the finol year. 


Nursing Education 

For information apply to 



Courses for Graduate Nurses 

Term 1955-56 

The School of Nursing offers one-year 
diploma Courses in the following fields: 

1. Public Health Nursing. 

2. Teaching and Supervision in 
Schools of Nursing. 

The Director, 
School of Nursing 
Dalhousie University 
Halifax, N.S. 




THE NOVA Scan.... HOSPITAL offers to 
qualified Graduate Nurses a SlX- 
month certificate course in Ps:}'clziatric 

. Classes in June and December. 

. Remuneration and maintenance, 

For further information app/)' to: 

Superintendent of Nurses 

 ova Scotia Hospital 
Drawer 350 
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia 



Offers to Graduate Nurses a Six- 
Month Course in Tuberculosis Nursing, 
including Immunology, Prevention, 
Medical & Surgical Treatment. 
1. Full series of lectures by Medical 
and Surgical staff. 

2. Demonstrations and Clinics. 

3. Experience in Thoracic Operating 
Room and Postoperative Unit. 

4. Full maintenance, salary & all staff 

5. Classes start May 1st and Novem- 
ber 1st. 

F or information apPly to: 




School of Nursing, Montreal 


l.A four-month clinical course in 
Obstetrical Nursing. 
2. A two-month clinical course in 
Gynecological Nursing. 
Salary-After second month at 
General Staff rates. 

For information apply to: 

Director of Nursing 
Royal Victoria Hospital 
Montreal Z, Que. 


HOSPITAL offers six-month courses in 
Theory and Practice in Psychiatric 
Nursing to Graduate Nurses in good 
standing in their Own province. 

Classes - Spring and Fall. 

Complete maintenance or living-out 
allowance, meals in hospital and uni- 
form laundry for the first three months. 
General duty rates the second three 

For further informatioJJ write to: 
Miss H. M. Lamont, Director of Nursing, 
Royal Victoria Hospital. Montreal 2, Que. 
or Miss Kathleeen Marshall, Supervisor of 
Nurses, Allan Memorial Institute of Psy- 
chiatry, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal 
Z. Que. 



The Hospital for Mental Diseases 
Brandon, Manitoba, offers a 6-month 
Diploma Course in Psychiatric Nursing 
to Registered Nurses. 
Applicants accepted in September of 
each year. Salary while taking course: 
$Z05 per mo. less $25 per mo. for full 

Upon completion of course nurses are 
eligible for positions on Permanent 

F or further information apply: 
Superintendent of Nurses, 
Hospital for Mental Diseases. 
Brandon. Manitoba. 

APRIL. 1956 . Vol. 52. No. -l 


Offers to qualified Registered Grad- 
uate Nurses the following oppor- 
tunities for advanced preparation: 
1. A six-month Clinical Course in 

2. A six-month Clinical Course in 
Operating Room Principles and 
Advanced Practice. 

These courses commence in JANUARY 
and SEPTEMBER of each year. Main- 
tenance is provided. A reasonable sti- 
pend is given after the first month. 
Enrolment is limited to a maximum of 
six students in each course, 

F or further information please write to: 



Medical School and Hospital (Organized 1881) 


The Pioneer Postgraduate ftl edicallnstitution in America 


We announce the follo'l1rÏng Courses (Six M onths J Duration) for Qualified 
Graduate Nurses: 
No. 1. Operating-Room Management and Technic. 
No.2. Medical-Surgical Nursing - Supervision and Teaching. 
No.3. Organization and Management of Out-Patient Department 
(Clinics in all branches of Medicine, Surgery - including Industrial 
Nursing - and Allied Specialties). 
Courses include: lectures by the Faculty of the Medical School and 
Nursing School; principles of teaching ward management; principles of 
supervision; teaching and management of the specialty selected. Positions 
available to graduates of these courses. Full maintenance is provided. 
F or information address: 
The Directress of Nurses, 343 West 50th Street, New York City 19 

Philadelphia, Penna. 

The largest eye hospital in the 
United States offers a six-month course 
in Nursing Care of the Eye to Grad- 
uates of Accredited Nursing Schools. 
Operating Room Training is scheduled 
in the course. 
per month for four months and $175 
per month for the next two months. 
. REGISTRATION FEE is $15 which 
takes care of pin and certificate. 
. Classes start March 15th and Sept. 
15th. Ophthalmic nurses are in great 
demand for hospital eye departments, 
operating rooms, and ophthalmologists' 

F or information write to 
Director of Nurses, 
Wills Eye Hospital, 
1601 Spring Garden Street 
Philadelphia SO, Penna. 



Offers to qualified Registered Nurses 
a 16-week supplementary course in 


with instruction and practice in the 
general surgical, neurosurgical, plastic, 
orthopedic, gynecologic, urologic and 
ear, nose and throat operating room 
services. Maintenance and stipend are 

FOT infoT1K4tion 'f.CI1'"Ïte to: 

Director, School of Nursing 
The Johns Hopkins Hospital 
Baltimore 5, Maryland, U.S.A. 



In the southwest corner of Saskatchewan, known as the "chinook 
belt", there are nursing vacancies at the following hospitals:- 

2 G.D. Nurses $230-260 


2 G.D. Nurses 
Salary under review 

Matron $280 
G.D. Nurse $255 

O.R. Nurse $250-280 
G,D. Nurse $230-260 

further details of excellent conditions of service may be obtained from the 
Director of Nursing at the individual hospital or from the undersigned:- 



The Alun1nae Association 
of the Kingston General Hosw 
pital, Kingston, Ontario, IS 
pleased to announce that a $500 
Scholarship will be awarded this 
year to a memher who has had at 
least one year's experience and 
who wishes to take post-graduate 

Please state course desired and 
make application, before )'lay 21, 

Miss Marion Dealy 
Nurses' Alumnae 
General Hospital 
Kingston, Ontario 

APRI'L. 1956 · Vol. 52. No.4 


Courses for Graduate Nurses 

Term 1956-1957 

The School of Nursing offers 
Diploma Courses in the 
following fields; 
(1) Public Health Nursing. 
(2) Teaching and Supervision 
in Schools of Nursing. 

For illformation write to: 

The Director 
School of Nursing 
University of Saskatchewan 
Saskatoon, Sask. 













They've heard 

the call for 

· (Homogenized 
Mldufe of VitaminS 
A. O. Blo Bl. Bli. C and 
I'hcollnamlde. AbbotU 

5-cc. teaspoonful 
of VI-D 4. YLIN 




. "". If< 
V,I , . I 
&.. if! PíI" 
lir dnchJ '" 
rb.c 1It' 
. tJl: 


'. ,:,
 ?- . '. J L 
'I . ""'->

:v ' 
 .' r 
 . ... 
. .... f 
( ..- 






IF youngsters freeze up at vitamin time, melt away 
their resistance with VI-DAYLIN. 
Every lip-smacking spoonful of VI-DAYLIN carries a 
full day's serving of seven important vitamins-including 
3 mcg. of body-building BI2. And with synthetic vitamin 
A, there's not a trace of fish oil to dampen its delicious 
VI-DAYLIN needs no pre-mixing, no droppers, no re- 
frigeration. Mother can pour it as is - serve it with milk, 
juices or cereal - and store it where she wishes. Won't 
you compare the taste? You'll see why VI-DAYLIN lures 
the little patients (and their Mommas) at one sight of 
the spoon. In 90-cc. and 8-fluid ounce bottles. 



THf CflnflDlfln nUßSf 






Why Attend the CNA Convention? 

111 Il Y .\TTEXD the CX A Conyention? 
II Doe
 that sound as if we were 
questioning the value of the national 
conn'ntion? Far from it! It is merely 
an inyitation to weigh once more those 
yalues to he derived from membership 
in the CX A and attendance at the 
 Canadians we ha ,-e every reason 
to he proud of our heritage. \Y-e rejoice 
in the 
olidaritv and the wholesome 
character oi ou
 nation. From union 
our country derives it
 strength. So 
too from union on a national basis our 
profession will be consolidated. It is 
not a question of attempting to fit all 
to one moulrL but rather of gaining 
from the complex compo--ition of our 
associ;:ttions that richness of character 
that will make the Canadia"n contribu- 
tion to our profession worthy of our 
Calndian ideals. 
1 IO\\- is thi
 to he accompl1 shed ? 
Tn these da,-s ,,-ith --0 man\" facilitie
for COlll11lUIlicatioll it is not -difficult to 
disseminate ideas once they h;1\-e he en 
cOI1Cei,.ed. applied. and proyen to he 

Sister Theresa Carmel IS Clinical 
Supen-isor of Pediatrics at St. Joseph's 
aint John, X.B. 

APRIL. 1956. Vol. 32. Ko. 4 

of ,,-orth. For their initiation there 
is nu greater stimulus than contact 
with uther minds whu. recognizing 
needs and intent on making progress, 
are reack to sacrifice, tu yenture, to 
giye .ac1e([uate leadership. That minds 
of such calibre he gi\ en opportunity to 
infìuence others through puhlished ar- 
ticles and national conn>ntions is one 
function of our national associations. 
\Yhere the 
eed ma\- fall and fruit maY 
he produced is not 
to be anticipatelÍ, 



 \ C \R:\IFI. 


but whenever and wherever growth of 
new ideas is evident, the national 
association can arrange for, or even 
provide, facilities for research. At least 
it can offer a common ground where 
tht" discussion of possibilities may be 
examined from all angles and where 
discriminating minds may suggest. 
show up weaknesses, point out diffi- 
culties, emphasize possibilities and 
probabilities. Here the enrichment of 
any project may have its beginning. 
Here the recognition of the contribu- 
tions of member associations, or those 
of the various fields of nursing may 
prove an incentive to others to take the 
initiative. Here provision for the soli- 
darity of our progress is a
A strong national body is a safe- 
guard for the profession. Through it. 
wrongs may be righted, rights main- 
tained. and progress directed. The 
authority of the many is deferred to, 
and the voice of the national body 
After these considerations do we 
need to ask why we should attend the 
C!\A meeting? It is evident that such 
attendance will giye us : 
(1) A sense of belonging to a profes- 

A Thought for Spring 

slOn that is serving our Canadian 
nation according to _ our Canadian 
ideals, and pride in its accomplish- 
(2) A knowledge of new ideas of 
value that are focusing the attention 
of those who are studying the results 
of research in our field, 
( 3) Constructive criticism of the proh- 
lems confronting us in our progress. 
( 4) Stimulation to rouse us to make 
our contribution to this progress and 
to consolidation of our profession in 
our individual spheres and through our 
( 5) Valuable contacts with those who 
serve in various capacities similar to 
our own. There are those who feel 
that as much is to be gained in these 
meetings as in formal assembly and 
that casual comparisons and contrasts 
are productive of great results. 
(6) A broadening of our outlook with 
greater maturity and solidarity in our 
convictions and hence a greater power 
to influence and control. 
Ordinarily we reap what we sow. 
\ Y e get from conventions in propor- 
tion to what we bring to them - old 
adages worthy of consideration. 

The Flower Growers Twenty-Third Psalm 

The Lord is the grower of my flowers; 
I shall not want; 
He rests my tired muscles through the very color of his green la'\vns ; 
He leads me. rested to the setting out of larkspur ; 
He restoreth my soul while I plant columbine and phlox, 
Though the shadow of despair fall upon my garden path, 
I shall not fear. 
Thou art with me in sunshine and in shadow; 
In my gardening tools I sense Thy comforting rod and Thy staff ; 
Thou preparest a feast of beauty for me in the presence of a too mechanizerl world; 
From season to season my cup overflows 
Its wealth of daffodils and tulips. of pansies and roses, of marigolds, delphinium, asters, 
Hold the balm of Thy goodness and of Thy mercy; 
Sharing Thy love and the flowers of the garden with others 
I find myself already dwelling in Thy boundless and eternal gardens! 



Saskatchewan and Its People 


O NE DAY in Toronto a man telephoned 
the all-knowing T.T.C., which oper- 
ates the trams and buses. He said: 
"l\Iy wife and I haven't seen a sunset 
since we left Saskatchewan. Can you 
tell us how to get to one?" 
"Just a minute," said the girl who 
answered. A man came on the tele- 
phone. He was understanding and 
"There's nothing to it," he assured 
the westerner. "Take a car going north 
on Y onge, get off at Lawrence Park, 
take a bus going east. Just tell the bus 
driver what you want and he'll let you 
off at the right place." 
This onCe the T.T.C. was wrong. 
The Lawrence Park bus driver left 
the westerners off at a certain inter- 
section. Darkness was settling in. In 
a few minutes the little expedition was 
smack up against the seven-foot brick 
wall of some bigwig's estate. It was 
evident that no sunset could be wit- 
nessed here and they returned home 
sadly. . 
Later. excursions out of Toronto 
led them to open country, limited sky- 
lines, and nothing in the way of the 
sunsets one experiences evening after 
evening in wide-open Saskatchewan. 
There they light up the whole horizon 
amI high into the sky, a glorious bl.aze 
of color, which persists eyen after the 
sun has disappeared oYer the edge of 
the earth. 
N ostalgia led the prairie folk back to 
the great flat prairie proyince, but it 
wasn't only the geography that tugged 
at their hearts. "It was also the cli- 
mate," the man explained. "You can 
cope with cold weather, dry cold 
weather, such as we haye in Saskat- 
chewan. Provided there's no hrisk 
wind, 35 below in Saskatchewan is 
pleasant compared with zero weather 
in Toronto or Vancou, er. And it's 
infinitdy better than the hot humid 

l\Ir. Smith is Director of Health Edu- 
cation, Saskatchewan Department of 
Public Health. 

APRIL. 1956. Vol. 52. No.4 

weeks in summer when Toronto sweats 
under a leaden sky which seems like 
a hot, steaming blanket." 
"ìVlost of all. it's the people," his 
wife added. .. Not that we found T 0- 
ronto and other eastern places un- 
friendly. Canadians are Canadians any- 
where. But westerners have a special 
quality of friendliness. 
"And they have a way of getting 
things done," her husband went on. 
"That's why our boys and girls have 
no difficulty finding jobs when they go 
either east or west from the prairies." 
Geography, climate, and people - 
Satkatchewan. But principally people! 
One can get nostalgic for the long 
cool evenings and cooler nights, when 
it never really gets pitch dark, or for 
the crisp lovely mornings when the 
meadow larks sing their songs bril- 
liantly for the motorist speeding by at 
60 m.p,h. 
One can have fond memories of the 
short winter afternoons, too, the quiet, 
cold Sunday afternoons, when the light 
fails early and there are long shadows 
on the snowdrifts. 
There is longing, too, for the seem- 
ingly endless gravelled roads, straight 
as a bricklayer's plumbline, with dis- 
tant eleyators poking over the horizon 
to mark another little town. ).Jot very 
good roads. really, hut so very much 
the Saskatchewan for which the exile 

, t
, i 
-" .> t! 



-.....,,- , 

. ... 



1. ...;.r 

IV ovdcoc//s Falls. Saskatclzc'i,-'all. 


H ea\'en know
 why people live in so 
many of the little towns except for 
sheer necessity to earn a living. Or is 
it that they find there other satisfac- 
tions? \\'h
at keeps a doctor in some 
shabby little place, a druggist, a nurse, 
teachers, merchants. and others? \Vater 
so often comes from wells. The plumb- 
ing generaliy is outdnors. Cntil just 
yt'sterda\- méU1\' of the towns had no 
The answer is. of course. that it's 
people that make a community, and 
when it comes to people, the folks in 
Saskatchewan make up for all the 

hortcomings and crudities of the en- 
vi ronmen t. 
\ \ -hite people came to this part of 
Canada more than 20U years ago, 
attracted originally hy the wealth in 
furs. Last year Saskatchewan cele- 
hrated its golden anniversary. marking 
50 years of membership in the Cana- 
dian confederacy as a ful1-iledged prov- 
ince. But the footings and foundation 
of Saskatchewan were in place long 
hefore 1903. There is a tendency to 
regard Saskatchewan as one o( the 
youngest of the prm-inces. Actually. 
the trading post of Cumberland House, 
today the site of an outpost huspital 
and of educational facilities for north- 
ern residents. was established hy the 
Hudson's Bay Company in 1774.
 It is 
said that this was hefore there was 
a white person living- in what is now 
The fur traders came on the scene 
early in the eighteenth century - 
daring, aclycnturous men representing 
riyal interests, and competing for the 
furs the [ndians harvested In' the tens 
of thousands, The country \\"
s peopled 
lw various Indian trihes - intelligent 
friendly, proud. It was the Indians who 
often kept the white traders from 
perishing. There was plenty of f nod on 
the prairies. where the great buffalo 
herds roamed. There was little food in 
the chief fur country. the rocky north. 
where traders oft
n liye(l 
winter on fish and nothing else, unless 
some wandering Indians could he per- 
suaded to hunt for them. 
From the traders the T ndians oh- 
tained \\'eapons and tools. blank('ts and 
tobacco. and they also got rum and 
disease. The earliest of four devastating 
epidemics of smallpox occurred in 1734 
and it was attrihute(l variously to 


English traders from Hudson Bav. 
Canadian traders from French Ouehe'c. 
and to Indians who moved north from 
Iississippi river system. where 
thev had heen in contact with white 
Smallpox played havoc with the 
[nclian people. The fourth oi the epi- 
demics, lasting from 1 X6X to 1870, was 
estimated to haye killed 
ome 2,50U 
people - J ndians and whites. It was 
st,)pped with the help of yaccine 
brought in hy the Hudson's Bay COl11- 
pany ami strict quarantine measures 
introduced in 1870 by the X orthwest 
Territorial Council appointed that year. 
The explorer Palliser, who trayersed 
this country three times, noterl on his 
final expedItion in 1854 that smallpox 
was C0111mon among the Indians. 
Tuberculosis, likewi
e gin-'n the 
T ndian people by the inyaders, ap- 
peared in three great epidemics and 
helped further to decimate the natives. 
\\That disease had not done, hunger 
helped to finish, when in 1882 the last 
of the great buffalo herds moyed south 
neYer to return. \Yanton slaughter at 
the instance of greedy white traders 
finished off the one staple supply of 
food, clothing and shelter (Ill which the 
prairie people could depenrl. 
_ \lthough uur western Indians were 
not brutally dispossessed and extermin- 
ated in the \Va\' that so many of their 
brothers were 
 in the south: the end 
results were similar: yery few Indians 
were left. Only in rect.'nt Years has an 
awakened national consc
ousness led 
to a rehahilitation of the 1 ndian. and 
tnda\- his numbers are increasing. 
.\1though increasing numbers of 
hardy settlers hegan to take up land 
in Saskatchewan earlier. it not 
until after the Saskatchewan Rebel1ion 
of 1885 that the peopling of the prov- 
ince-to-he took on the nature of a rush. 
Settler:, came from eastern Canada. 
from northern areas of the L nited 
States. and from the British Isles and 
e,-en T part of Europe. 
1 t - has h('en interesting to lin> 
through the period since the first gene- 
ration immigrants arrived here until 
todav when their sons and grandsons 
are in every way Canadian in outlook. 
. an
d p
rfonnances. accepting 
community responsihility. adorning the 
learned professions. 
. \mong the immigrants were people 



ì 1,' 
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t t t., i,_ 
II' .r 


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. .

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;';;"'. ;'. ja ,. .ii, ,. 

 I' II II ÎI II ïi 
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 I'"'''' II 
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it .. Ii 



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.!; -' 

. .a::;' 1"' , , 
, .' . 
. -4,. /. 
. "* At P"'. '. 
. -'-7
t .1 

Lcgislathre Building, Regina, Saskatchc'i.,'an. 
from the teeming industrial centres of of what could be and faith in their own 
the British Isles, peasants from Central abilities to hring it ahout. these people 
Europe, Germans from town and farm, could never have Íounded here in so 
Doukhobors and :\Iennonites from short a time the modern society now 
European Ru:-,sia, and folks from all existing. 
the Scandina\"ian countries. :\Iany an early pioneer lived in a sod 
The central Europeans were differ- hut until he cuuld afford lumber for 
ent. and it was thought at first that a frame dwelling. Life was primitive 
they would never assimilate. But the v and hard in many ways. It is difficult 
 nen'fthell'ss, through their son
..; to picture what J it \
-as like only a 
and daughters. The last vestiges of generation ago. ,\ hen one realizes 
feelings against them seemed to dis- that todav 30,000 of Saskatchewan's 
appear during ""arId \Yar II when it 112.018 fanns, with a totaL cultivated 
was common to read that some acreage of -1-0 million, have electrical 
squadron leader with the name of power. 
Kowalsky or Hrynk had gone down in .-\5 the people filll'd in the great 
flames to keep Canada free. rolling prairie. familil's hecame less 
Todav it is hard to find more Cana- isolated. Schools and churches became 
dian, more loyal citizens than soml' of a necessity, and pet>ple had to be found 
the sons and daughters of central or trained to preach and to teach. Such 
Europl'an immigrants, loyal, that is, to needs led to the founding of the Gni- 
the idl'als and \ alul's which Canadians '"ersitv of Saskatchewan, unh- three 
hold in common a
 a heritage from the years Jafter this area became a l)rm-ince 
t\\"o nations that originally settled this :\.foreover. there are toda\' -L500 
countrL Loval to the crown, too, as schools 
nd 7.3-1-5 qualitie(l active 
evidenced \"hen the late King George teachers. 
YI and Oueen Elizabeth visited Sas- Roads and conllnunication

 in 193Q. 
The people who settled Saskat- 
chewan had hefore them a tremendous 
undertaking, fraught with hardships 
and disappointmcnts. \ \ïthout a dream 

.-\11 photographs used in this article 
are through the courtesy of the Saskat- 
chewan Government Photugraphic Ser- 


APRIL, 1956 . Vol. 52, No.4 




. < 










. .. 
.""':-". .,.+ .;i..?.. 

-:+ .....-: 

.: ::" ..v 

Saslwtclz("l('an Air Ambltlance over Regina. 



::"'..;: ... :"':

essential. Today there are some 120,000 
tem-owned telephones in the prov- 
ince. Indeed, the first automatic dial 
telephones in Canada were installed in 
Saskatoon in 1907. Saskatchewan still 
has a highway and market road prob- 
lem, but today there is the longest 
highway system in the world, with 
1.230 miles paved and 6,400 gravelled. 
These roads were a marketing neces- 
sity, enabling the rural population to 
dispose of produce and buy necessities. 
Over these roads they travel to Sas- 
katchewan's eight cities, 97 towns, 378 
villages. Distances are a factor in the 
high ratio of motor vehicles. This last 
year there were more than 160,000 
Í)assenger cars and almost RO,OOO f.arm 
trucks in the province. 
All this is indicative of the tre- 
mendous development that has taken 
place in a relatively short time, in spite 
of the frustrations and clelavs of bad 
years. :Mostly it has been rÍlacle pos- 
sihle because 
askatchewan people are 
men and \vomen of prompt action for 
the common good and with a highly 
developed sense of mutuality - a fam- 
ily feeling, as it were. 
Out of this came Saskatchewan's 


"' ..", 

.. ... 

,:.;; <"./ 


t. --;:,"" : .+..


highly developed marketing and con- 
sumer couperatIves. Thirty years ago 
the fanners learned that there was 
strength in union and set up their 
marketing pools, with a present total 
membership of more than 300,000. 
A little later they began to organize 
consumer cooperatives, of \vhich there 
are now 422 with 160,000 members. 
At the same time the people thuught 
that the chartered banks were good as 
far as they went, but they wanted to 
own banks and control credit facilities; 
refore they have set up 281 creùit 
In the earlier years farmers were 
urged to diversify rather than depend 
sole1\- on grain production. An in- 
teresting sideshow ..vas the develop- 
ment of Saskatchewan's honev indus- 
try. Saskatchewan's white honey is 
highly popular in eastern Canada and 
in Europe. In lQ55 the honey crop 
totalled 3,315,000 pounds. 
Even a certain diversification in 
agriculture did not give the province 
the economIC stabilitv it needed. The 
remedies have come ålong lately in the 
exploitation of natural resources - 
minerals, such as natural sodium sul- 


phate, potash, and uranium, and the 
spectacular growth of the oil and gas 
industry. Today there are about 5,000 
oil wens under license and last October 
the average daily production was well 
over 40,000 barrels of crude oil. 
It is interesting to observe how. 
along with all this growth, the health 
and vigor of the people have been 
maintained and improved. In the early 
days there were smallpox, typhoid, 
diphtheria to contend with. and the 
primitive environmental conditions 
\vhich were conducive to the spread of 
epidemic diseases. All three diseases 
are virtually non-existent today. The 
early emphasis in public health work 
was on safe food, including milk, safe 
water, safe disposal of wastes. 
_-\mong the many fields in which 
Saskatchewan ha
 given leadership is 
that of public health. The guiding 
principle has been to share one 
another's burdens for the common 
good. Out of this came the legislation 
to prO\'ide for the diagnosis and treat- 
ment of all tuherculosis patients at 
public expense. a. step taken just as 
the great depression of the thirties 
settled do\\ n on the province. A year 
tater there were the first steps toward 
treatment of cancer at puhlic expense, 
which became an actuality in 1944. 
In 1944, too. the care and treatment 
of the mentallv ill and of the mentallv 
retarded hecal11e a prm'incial respori'- 
sihility, and early in 1945 the province 
undertook to pay all the medical, sur- 
gical, hospita1. dental. and phanna- 
ceutical bills of those least able to do 
so for themseh-es - the old age and 
blind pensioners and their dependents. 
widows and deserted families. or fam- 
ilies of incapacitated breadwinners, the 
prO\.ince's dependent children. and 
finally. inrligents - then numhering 
25.000. now close to 35,000. 
In 1946 legislation enanled the erec- 
tion of public health units, (known as 
health regions, prohahly because of 
their large areas) to include the ne- 
cessary population. There are eight 

* * * 

Animal and vegetable oils oxidize readily. 
Rags, waste, excelsior and similar materials 
containing as little as five per cent of some 
of these oils will ignite spontaneously under 
favorable conditions. 

- SaId}' N c'ws Letter 

APRIL. 1956. Vol. 52. No.4 

such health regIOns serving 380,598 
persons in an area totalling 75,574 
square miles. Considering this de\"elop- 
ment and the municipal health depart- 
ments of Saskatoon and Regina, about 
half of the population now has full time 
modern public health service. 
\ \Thile instituting a program of hos- 
pital construction grants which have 
resulted in the province having the 
highest ratio of heds per 1,000 popula- 
tion on the continent, the province 
took steps to overcome the disadvan- 
tages of maldistributiun of medical 
and hospital care by launching the 
first public air ambulance service in 
the world. This service which takes 
emergency patients to treatment facil- 
ities has so far carried more than 
7,300 patients without a mishap. 
On January 1, 1947, the Department 
of Puhlic Health instituted its com- 
pulsory Hospital Services Plan, which 
removed the financial barrier faced bv 
many peopÌe needing hospital care. Ít 
has been widely popular. One impor- 
tant effect has been the freeing of 
Saskatchewan hospitals from hurdens 
of debt and deficit. Hospital financing 
has been stabilized. 
There have been many other im- 
portant health developments, the most 
notable of which has heen the intro- 
duction of a rehabilitation program. 
This grew out of previously provided 
care for poliomyelitis patients with 
A noteworthy feature of all these 
developments. ås in other areas of 
endeavor, has becn the part taken by 
\'oluntary societies and individuals. In 
their efforts to overcome problems and 
give their children and themselves as 
much of the good life as they can. 
Saskatchewan people have a way of 
ignoring differences of politics, religion 
and other dn'isive conditions. 
Saskatchewan's population is grow- 
ing. its economy continues to expand 
and the future is as roseate as the 
famous sunsets. 

* * * 

Anger is the most impotent passion that 
accompanies the mind of man; it effects 
nothing it goes about: and hurts the man 
who is possessed by it more than any other 
against whom it is directed. 



Fluid Balance 

. PARTINGTON, l\LD., C.H.B., 11.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

I I' DISCl'SSIX<.; the changes in fluid 
balance as it applies to the human 
body it is essential that we know the 
fundamentals of the yarious fluid sys- 
tems. Furthermore, we nlUst learn that 
all the constituents of the bloud as a 
whole bear an intimate relationship one 
to another. Each mineral in the blood 
stream hears either a positive or nega- 
tive charge and each set of minerals 
must bala-nce - it is of the imbalance 
of these minerals that we are thinking 
today. J n the following tahulation I 
have shown the yaluc of both negative 
and pusitive charges fur each of the 
minerals found in the body 
Sodium N a + 
Potassium K + 
Chloride CI - 
Bicarbonate HC0 3 - 
Protein Pr - 
Calcium Ca + + 

Ig + + 
Phosphate PO
Sulphate SO. -- 


H :::nterstitial 
Fluid K PO 
HCO] 157 
42 103 
Fr I 
5 K S9. 3- :a 
5 a Pr lb '
g r 2 

!.:illie':r-1Í valents per litre 

The first sketch, labellecl "
equivalents per litre," shows the equi- 

Dr. Partington is Director of Labor- 
atory Services at Sarnia General Hos- 


valents of the constituents of nurmal 
plasma, interstitial fluid and intracel- 
lular fluid. These three fluids are not 
at all similar as the diagram shows, 
and a 2 per cent difference in anyone 
constituent makes a great difference to 
the individual - in the potassium 
balance of the intracellular fluid, for 
instance. 2 per cent of intracellular 
potassium loss in plasma would mean 
death! 1\Iilliequivalents are merely 
gauges bv which all fluid constituents 
are compared - as we do in algebra 
- bringing various quantities to an 
x or v value. 
T1Íe minimum fluid output require- 
ments both in health and in disease 
varies considerably. Prine is of \"arious 
specific gravities. - It is important that 
all fluid output he measured accurately 
where fluid balance is to be maintained. 
\fillilllUIII Output Neccssarjl for 35 gillS. 
Spec. Gr. V ols. 
f1.032 - 1.029 473 cc. 
1},019 - 1.015 605 cc. 
1.014 - 1.010 1439 cc. 



.\s the blood tran'ls back and forth 
to the heart, it is the pressure of the 
arterial flow that forces all the fluids 
and their mineral constituents - ex- 
cept the red blood cells and proteins 
- out oÎ the arterioles and into the 
tissues. It is the osmotic power of the 
retained proteins in the ,'enioles that 
draa's bacl
 the excess and waste fluids 

Kilos or Lit-res 





80 Lean J..veraEe -!
1.0 TB wgt 
H 2 O 

'2 0 


5 L 

<08 L. 


out of the tissues and intu the ,-enioles 
whence they flow back to the heart, 
completing the circulation. 
X ow take a look at the second sketch 
where a scale of kilos or litres is 
shown. The first group of pillars re- 
presents an a yerage lean man, the 
second group a fat man. X otice that 
the quantity of plasma and extra- 
cellular fluid are much the same re- 
gardless of the size of the patient. but 
the comparatiye H 2 0 content of the 
two men is totally different. A lean 
man contains -1-3 litres of ,,-akr which, 

for his size, is Î 3 per cent of this 
whole tluid system, while a fat man, 
though his fluid content is 48 litres, 
it makes up only 42 per cent of the 
whole system. This shows the neces- 
sity of e"xtremely cardul adjustment in 
disease and also why no two people 
can be classed as similar fluid balance 
In burns, for instance, where much 
tissue is denuded of skin, the loss of 
fluids would mean a great deal more 
to a fat person because he has rela- 
tin'h- less fluid to spare. 

The Ethical Religious Needs 
of the Patient 


I K E\"ER\ (TLTURE there is some 
higher power. whether it be a tree, 
a cow, a man. or some ethereal being 
usually called Goel, which is worship- 
ped and through which man attempts 
to gain strength of mind. hody and 
soul. This kind of religion represents 
religion in the church sense. There is 
also religion in another sense, a more 
uniyersal sense. This kind of religion 
might he caned religion in the ethical 
sense. The religious person in the 
ethical sense wou!d be the altruistic 
person. This is the person who is be- 
100"eel of his fdlm,- men because he 
believes in anel practises brotherhood, 
because he is unselfishlY devoted to the 
interests of others. This kind of person 
is also the symbol of the perfect social 
being, of H 01110 socius a person who 
is supercooperatin'. who does always 
more than his share to\yard helping his 
fellow men. In short. the trulv reli- 
gious man in the ethical sense - is the 
good man, in all languages and all 
cultures. \ \lwreas the religion of the 
d111rch is a religion of worship. the 
religion in the ethical sense is a reli- 
gion of altruism. 
The role of the nurse is essentially 

:Mr. Frumkin is an instructor in soci- 
ology and the sociology of nursing at 
the Cniversity of Buffalo, Buffalo, N_Y. 

APRIL. 1956 · Vol. 52, No.4 

a religious role in this sense, in the 
ethical sense; especially when this role 
is played with all one's heart, because 
then it is an altruistic and cooperative 
role. Florence Nightingale, Dorothea 
Dix, and ::\Iargaret Sanger are but 
three, among many. nurses who were 
supremely religious in this uni\"ersal 
ethical sense. 
"-hen nur
('s are seyerelv criticized 
by patients and their famili-es it is not 
hecause they are felt to lack nursing 

kills. in the old sense with which we 
sociate such skills, hut because they 
lack thi
 uniyersal religious quality 
that eyery good and succe8sful nurse 
must haye. This religious quality in 
the nurse is shown in her genuine con- 
cern for the patient aboye all other 
interests when the nurse is ministering 
to the patient's needs. The patient is 
" aware of the presence or ab- 
sence of this quality, for it shines warm 
and hright when it is there and man- 
ift'sts itself hv darkness and coldnes
when it is absent. 
The religious needs of the patient 
centre most in the need for this kind 
of religious experience and not for the 
religious experience that we associate 
with religion in the church sense. 
There is no greater strength of mind, 
horly and soul a patient can gain than 
that which comes from a nurse, or any 


other person, who shows that he or she 
is genuinely and unselfishly concerned 
for his welfare and does everything 
in his or her power to see that the 
best can and is being done. Only when 
the nurse, or some other person acting 
in the capacity of a nurse, fails to pro- 
vide this genuine need of the patient, 
does the church functionary - the 
minister, priest or rabbi - become 
indispensable. For now the fear of 
death looms large and only faith in a 
higher power, in God, with the aid 
of the church functionary, can bring 
some peace of mind, some peace and 
strength of soul. 
Therefore, the religious needs of the 
patient centre in the need to be in fel- 
lowship with one or more human 
beings who have the patient's health 
and welfare uppermost in mind. \Vhen 
the nurse manifests this religious 
quality the patient feels that there is 
at least one person in the world to 
whom he means something, and upon 
whom he can count to help him. 

When the patient lacks this faith in 
the nurse and his fellow-men, he then 
will most likelv turn or return to reli- 
gion in the church sense. For when 
everyone and everything else have 
failed, the higher power, God, can 
always be counted on, and God may 
be reached with or without the aid of 
the church functionary. It is here that 
faith in God takes over the unfinished 
task of the nurse. Of course, when the 
nurse (and the physician) has done 
all that could be done for the patient, 
faith in God is indispensable. Like 
medicine, praying to God, putting 
one's faith in God, can help to release 
and stimulate the healing powers of 
the body. 

The patient, consequently, has two 
sources from which to seek spiritual 
strength - from the religious person 
in the ethical sense, or from God in 
the church sense. Both are important, 
and both supplement the work of each 

3Jn ßtemoríam 

Loila (Marshall) Allison, who gradu- 
ated from the Ottawa Civic Hospital in 
1928, died on September 25, 1955 after a 
long illness. 

* * * 
Annie Annstrong, a retired nurse who 
resided in Penticton, B.C., died there on 
January 6, 1956 at the age of 70. 
* * * 
Anne Bradley, who graduated from St. 
Michael's Hospital, Toronto, in 1901, died 
at Kingston, Ont., on December 25, 1955. 
After practising in the United States for 
many years, Miss Bradley joined the staff 
of the Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, 
in 1920. She retired in 1943. 
* * * 
Barbara Cecilia Day, a graduate of a 
Calgary Hospital, was killed in an accident 
in Italy on December 23, 1955. She had 
worked in Leader, Sask., for two years prior 
to going to Europe. 
* * * 
Mary Ann (Haire) Garrett, who grad- 
uated from the Sarnia General Hospital in 
1903, died there on December 3, 1955 at the 
age of 77. At one time Mrs. Garrett was 
superintendent of nurses at S.G.H. 


Evelyn (Beatty) Hanna, who graduated 
from Toronto General Hospital in 1907, 
died last winter. 

* * * 

Grace Margaret Hogg, who graduated 
from Toronto General Hospital in 1923, died 
suddenly in England on November 30, 1955. 
* * * 

Laura Holland, C.B.E., A.R.R.c., LL.D., 
who graduated from The Montreal General 
Hospital in 1914, died at Victoria on January 
15, 1956 at the age of n. Enlisting with 
the C.A.M.C. in 1915, Miss Holland was 
awarded the A.R.R.C. for her meritorious 
service in France and Salonika. Returned 
home, she qualified in social work then 
served as manager of the \VeHare Division 
of the Toronto Department of Public 
Health. She moved to Vancouver in 1928 
to reorganize the Children's Aid Society, 
becoming provincial superintendent of neg- 
lected children three years later. In 1934 she 
was made a Commander of the British 
Empire. Prior to her retirement in 1945 
she became adviser to the minister of health 
and welfare. Miss Holland was regarded 
by all who knew her as a wise counsellor, 
an unselfish worker in the service of others, 




a warm friend and. to the end, a screne and 
gallant person. 

* * * 
_-'-nnie Jackson, a graduate of a Cleye- 
land hospital. died at l(itchener. Ont" where 
she had resided for the past 50 years, on 
December 29. 1955, She was 81 years of age. 



Louisia Lagüe, infirmière graduee de 
rHôte!- [)ien de 
lontréal, est décédée Ie 11 
décemhre, 1055, Graduée en 1921. e1le fut à 
I'emploi de la Compagnie Assurance- Yie 

létropolitaine. En 1923, e1le entre à l'As- 
[atcrnelle et en 192-1- se qualifia en 
diététique à rCni,'ersité de 
lontréal mais, 
son intérêt pour robstétrique la reprit et 
pour deux ans e1le fut en sen'ice à I'Hôpital 
de la :<'liséricorde. L'Hôpital St-Luc lui 
confie en 1931. la fonction de diététicienne; 
e1le rc"ta à ce postc jusqu'en 1952, date de 
sa retraite. 

.. * '" 

Flora Liggett, who graduated from To- 
ronto G:::neral Hospital in 1909 ,lied sudden- 
ly recent I) . 

* * * 

Elizabeth Jean :\Iartin. who graduated 
from Ontariu Hospital, Kingston, in 19..f2 
died on December 29, 1955, in her 35th year. 
Holding her degree in psychiatric nursing 
from Qucen\. Cniversity, :<'liss 
[artin had 
,\ orked at SUllnyhrook Hospital, Toronto, 

\Yestminster Hdspital, London and the -\lIan 

lemorial Institute, 
* * '" 

Myrtle :\h'Elroy, who graduated from 
the Ottawa Civic Hospital in 1928, died 
suddenly on December 12, 1955. She had 
worked in the ünited States for the past 
10 years. 

* * * 

Frances :\Iilli
an, a graduate of a Buf- 
falo. X.Y., hospital before thc turn of the 
century. died at Torunto on December 31. 
1955 [olio\', ing a brief illness, Oyer 90 years 
of age, 
lilligan had returned to Toron- 
to to Ii\!:, in 192-\. when she retired from 
active 11tu"sing in the United States. 
* * * 

Barbara (Booth) :\Iorrison, formerly of 
Fort \Yilliam, Ont., died at Portage la Prai- 
lan" un January 10, 1956, a fe". months 
after she had retired. 
* * * 

Jean (\\'pbster) Morrison, who gradu- 
ated i rom the \ \ïnnipeg General Hospital 
in 190-\.. died there on January 11, 1955 at 
the age of 88, 
lrs. llorrison had been an 
acti,'e member of the alumnae association 
since 1907. 

* * * 
Lillian (Bolin) Probert, 'who graduated 
from the )'Ioose Jaw General Hospital in 
1944, died there on December 27, 1955 at 
the age of 34. 

* * * 

ister Jeanne d' Arc (Almida The- 
riault), who graduated in 19..f2 from Hotel- 
Dieu Hospital. 51. Basile, N.R died at 
Perth, K. B., in .-\ugust. 1955. 
* * * 

:\Iary Xatalie (McAulay) Taylor, a 
graduate of Halifax Infirmary, was killed in 
an automobile collision on January -\., 1956. 
* * * 

Doretta l\lae (
linchin) Traquair, who 
graduated from Princc Edward Island Hos- 
pital. Charlotteto,\ n, in 1 G18. died at 
omin, Sa.;;k, on Xoyember 8, 1955. 
* * .. 

Hilda \Villis, whu graduated from the 
Cottage Hospital. Pembroke, On1., in 19..fO, 
died at Ottawcl in January, 1955 following 
a lengthy illness, For some years she ,,'as 
empluyed in the radiology department of 
the Qua,\ a Civic Hospital. 

Celui-Ià est Ie micu)o.. sen i, qui n'a pas 
besoin de mettre Ics mains des autres au 
bout de ses bras, 

APRIL. 1956 . Vol. 52. 
o. 4 

Ce Qui fait Qu'on n'est pas content de sa 
condition, c'est l'idée chimériQue Que I'on 
se forme du bonheur d'autrui. 



Bandl's Ring 


' I RS. S
nTHJ a 20-year-old patient, 
III appeared quite healthy and well 
nourished. She was a very pleasant 
and happy individual, married for 
three years to a well-built, healthy, 
happy chap who is a C.
 .R. employee. 
:Mrs. Smith has had an appendectomy 
done, a breast tumor removed. There 
is also history of rheumatic fever in 
1943, and of an incomplete abortion 
with resulting dilatation and curettage 
in October, 1954. The complications 
of this pregnancy were: bronchitis, 
breech presentation of babe, Caesarean 
section due to Bandl's Ring, postoper- 
ative paralytic ileus. 
The prenatal period was normal 
throughout. Labor began at home 
about 12 :00 noon on September 27, 
1955, with irregular contractions every 
15-30 minutes that gradually became 
more frequent. 
On admission to hospital at 4 :25 
p.m. contractions were -every five min- 
utes, fair in quality, lasting 20 seconds 
and causing no distress. The uterus 
appeared to be relaxing normally be- 
tween contractions. The memhranes 
were intact on admission - there was 
no evident "show". T.P.R. 98-80-20 
and blood pressure 110/60. Fetal heart 
was 140 and good quality. Urinalysis 
showed a trace of albumin in a voided 
specimen. The patient was suffering 
from a coryza so was ordered on 
Wycillin 600,000 units daily and 
ephedrine nose drops q. 4 h. p.r.n. 
After twelve hours of non-progressive 
labor she was given Pitocin minims 
1 for 2 doses, 2 hours apart. The con- 
tractions subsided, then started up 

This is another of the interesting 
clinics prepared by a group of nurses 
at the Sarnia General Hospita1. 


again irregularly at first, then every 
5 minutes. They \vere fair in' quality. 
The fetal heart varied within normal 
range 120-160, but was of good quality. 
Another 12 hours passed with no 
satisfactory progress, so a consultant 
was called. On examination the fetus 
was found to be in breech position, 
right sacro-transverse, and engaged in 
the inlet. The fetal heart was on the 
right side lateral to the umbilicus but 
varied greatly as to hoth rate, rhythm 
and force - 170-180. A continuous 
induction of 500 cc. normal saline with 
1.2 cc. Pitocin was started running at 
30 drops per minute. A better labor 
was established with stronger ancl 
more frequent contractions. In spite 
of this improvement, satisfactory pro- 
gress was still not being made. 
On September 30, 1955, at 8 :00 a.m. 
an x-ray of the pelvis was taken. It 
showed a pelvis within normal limits 
with some possible marginal dispro- 
portion of the brim. At 9: 15 mem- 
branes were surgically ruptured in 
hopes of helping to speed up labor. 
The patient was found to be very 
tense, so )Jisentil 60 mgm, was given 
p.r.n. as sedation. At 3 :00 p.m. large 
quantities of meconium were passed 
and the cervix, by rectal examination, 
was thought to be fully dilated. At 
9 :00 p.m. l\Irs. Smith was taken to the 
case room to be examined vaginally to 
determine the degree of dilatation and 
with the hope of breaking down the 
breech and terminating labor. The pa- 
tient was found to be still very tense 
and the examination was unsatisfac- 
tory. A spinal anesthetic of 6 mgm. 
of Pontocaine and glucose was given 
and a vaginal examination carried out 
revealing the cervix almost completely 
out of the way. A hand, introduced 


into the uterus to attempt to bring 
down a leg, ran into a strong contrac- 
tion ring, or "Bandl's Ring," about 
the child's "middle." This ring was 
very firm and about the size of a fruit 
jar. Adrenalin was given in an attempt 
to relax it but to no avail. 
During labor the uterus becomes 
differentiated into upper and lower 
segments. The part immediately above 
the internal os is weaker in structure 
than the rest of the uterus. . \s a result 
of the gradual retraction of muscles 
of the upper two-thirds, this part be- 
comes progressively thinned out and 
is knuwn as the lower uterine segment. 
This differentiation goes on through- 
out the first and second stages of labor, 
the upper segment becoming progres- 
sively smaller and thicker as a result 
of the contraction and retraction, while 
the lower segment becomes corres- 
pondingly larger and thinner as a 
result of the pull on it by the upper 
segment. Ultimately there is a clear 
line of demarcation between the two 
segments which is called the retraction 
ring or Bandl's Ring. In normal labor 
this is not so marked as to be recogniz- 
able clinically. \Yhen labor is obstruc- 
ted this ring is inclined to contract 
around the baby causing fetal distress. 
If labor is allowed to go on, this ring 
can be seen on the abdomen as a ridge 
or depression above the symphysis. 
The higher it is the more serious the 
It was realized that a deep ether 
anesthetic. sufficient to paralyze the 
uterine muscles, would also injure an 
already damage(} infant. It was there- 
fore decided to do a Caesarean section. 
This was done immediately. A sub- 
umbilical midline incision was made 
and a baby boy delivered at 10 :16 
p.m. September 30. Ergometrine .25 
mgm. was given intravenously at the 
time of delivery of the infant. Placenta 
and membranes were separated and 
removed and found to be complete. 
\Yhole blood 500 cc. was given intra- 
venously. The uterus was closed \\.ith 
one layer of interrupted catgut sutures 
through the muscle and one continuous 
suture through the outer layers of 
muscle and peritoneum. Plain sub- 
cuticular and mattress silk sutures 
were used for the skin. The infant was 
slow to hreathe hut it seemed to re- 
spond fairly well following suctioning 

APRIL. 1956 · Vol. 52. No.4 

of trachea and stomach of fluid and 
meconium and to administration of 
oxygen by mask. On leaving the oper- 
ating room the babe's color ,vas fairly 
good. respiration fair but rapid. 
.\Irs. Smith returned from the oper- 
ating room in good condition: B.P. 
110/80, pulse 80, respirations 20, with 
whole blood running intravenously. 
She was given Demerol 100 mgm. 
p.r.n. for operative discomfort. The 
first postoperative day and night pas- 
sed with no significant happenings. 
She was allowed out of bed under 
supervision and appeared to be pro- 
gressing well. She developed a produc- 
tive cough that was troublesome. On 
the second postoperative night she 
developed a badly distended abdomen 
with elevation of T.P.R. - 102-120- 
30. She had some difficulty in breath- 
ing and her cough was troublesome. 
Following the removal of the catheter 
at this time she was unab!e to void. 
A rectal tube was inserted in an 
attempt to relieve the distention but 
no result was obtained. She was given 
a series of two- 1-2-3 enemas and a 
soapsuds enema, in the next 12 hours. 
This did not relieve the distention 
although quantities of flatus were ex- 
pelled. T t seemed as though gas was 
forming as quickly as it was being 
relieved. _ \bdominal heat was applied 
with a rectal tube inserted and much 
relief was obtained. 
A diagnosis of paralytic ileus was 
made. This is a serious form of ob- 
struction in which intestinal peristalsis 
is inhibited by overactivity of the sym- 
pathetic nervous system. It may be 
seen in cases of generalized peritonitis 
or where there has been a great deal 
of handling of the abdominal organs 
in surgery, or following a hard. long 
On her third postoperative morning 

Irs. Smith was able to void normally 
hut her ahdomen was again very hare} 
and her breathing was distressed. At 
2 :30 in the afternoon she was placed 
in an oxygen tent to relieve her hreath- 
ing and an intra\'enous of 1000 cc. 
sri glucose in saline was started. She 
began to vomit small quantities of un- 
digested food so a Levine tube was 
passed and Comco suction established. 
An electrolyte balance was done by the 
laboratory director. \Vithin the next 24 
hours a marked improvement was 


shown and gastric suction wa
continued. The ahdomen was still 
somewhat distended but soft. On the 
fourth postoperative day the oxygen 
tent was removed. 
Irs. Smith was 
gi,'en fluids by mouth which were re- 
tained. On the fifth pustoperatiye day 
the intra'Tl1ous was discontinued and 
the patient allowed out of bed. She 
had sen'ral liquid bowel movements 
which is typical of receding paralytic 
ileus. These suhsided within 2-J. hours 
Irs. Smith then made a rapid 
recovery. Discharge from hospital fol- 
lowed on the tenth postoperative clay 
with the patient feeling very \vell. 

On arrival in the nursery the baby's 
condition was poor - his color pale 
and cyanosed, his cry weak, respira- 
tions rapid and irregular. He was 
placed in an incubator with continuous 
oxygen. feet elevated to aid in mucous 
drainage. He was suctioned frequently. 
\ V eight was not recorded at this time 
e of his condition. 
Because the Bandt's Ring had been 
around the breech-presenting child's 
legs and bet\\"\:'(:n the umhilicus and 
diaphragm. the chest was pushed up 
so that it protruded abnormally. The 

abdomen was Yen" flat with almost a 
conca\ e appeara];ce: the legs were 
flexed and flaccid. The skin appeared 
extrenwh' dry and later there was 
 desquamation. possibly 
due to poor circulation. 

October 1, the babe was weighed 
- six pounds eight ounce
. T emper- 
ature at R :00 a.m. 101.6. A pediatri- 
cian saw him at this time and ordered: 
.\ureomycin 12.5 mgm. q. 6 h. as a 
pn'\Tntiye measure because of the 
frequent suctioning: nothing by mouth 
for another 2-J. hours and continuous 
oxygen. The hahe's color and respira- 
tions were improved and the tempera- 
ture normal on the second dav so 
lactose was offered q. 3 h." by bottle 
and taken quite well. Oxygen was 
(liscontinued the next da \" an(l the babe 
taken from the incubato'r. He was fed 
breast milk and complementary feed- 
ing until such time as his mother was 
able tu nurse him. 
He continued to impro\'e, his body 
taking on a normal appearance. \ \' eight 
gain was 
tl'ady despite circumcision. 
He was discharged, weighing seyen 
pounds one ounce, with the mother. A 
formula \vas prm'ided as the mother 
did not have an adequate supp]y of 
hreast milk. 

Le Service Social et Ie Cancer 


E K J AXYIER 1950, Ie Service Social 

Iédical était fondé à I'Hôpital 
Notre-Dame, grâce à la bene initiative 
ell' son directcur médical Ie Dr. Boutin. 
En mars '51. à la demande du Dr. 
L, C Simard, une travailleuse sociale 
était assignée à l'aide des patients 
cancéreux au même titre que les aut res 
départements desservis déjà: la méde- 
cine, la neurochirurgie, la pédiatrie 
et plus tard la chirurgic et l'otolaryn- 
L' origine dll service social médical 
remonte à 1905. II est l'oeuvre de 
l'éminent médccin américain, Ie Dr. 

1Il1e Chamard est travailleuse sociale 
à I'HÒpital 1\ otre-Dame, 


Cabot du 
achussetts General 
Hospital à Boston. It fut Ie premier à 
,"ouloir s'adjoindre une travailleuse 
socia.le dans Ie traitement médical des 
patients.. Le service social méclical, 
c't'st Ie service social appliqué dans un 
milieu hospitalier pour faci1itl'f aux 
patients la nll'illeure utilisation possible 
des services existanb de l'hôpital et si 
nécessaire de la communauté. 
La furmuk du Service Social en 
général et ceIle du Service Social l\Ié- 
dical ne s'opposent pas, elles COl1cernent 
touks deux des gens qui présentent 
des prohlème
: la différence est en ce 
qu'au Service Social 
rédical, les per- 
sonnes qui présentel1t des prohlèmes 
sont ell'S pnsol1ncs malades. Tous les 


services SOCIaux professionnels recller- 
chent la même fin; Ie bien-être de la 
perscnne humaine. Une autre carac- 
téristique du o;ervice social médical est 
qu'il fonctionne sur une base d'équipe 
dont Ie chef est Ie médecin. 
T.a tra,"ailleuse socia!e assignée au 
service des G1.1lcéreux fait partie de 
I'équipe de 1'lnstitut du Cancer dirigé 
par It' Dr. Simard et composé de mé- 
decins et d'infirl11ières. Cet lnstitut 
dirigc dt's c1iniques UlH,' fois par se- 
maine où les cancers de toute nature 
sont dépistés et traités gratuitement. 
En plus du gran(l dévouel11ent des 
médt-'cins, il v a aussi Ct' dévouel11ent 
s qui assurent Ie "follow- 
up" des cas, élaborent ell'S statistiques 
précieuses à un centre ell' recherche. 
J e puis dire que la travailleuse so- 
ciale d'une certaine façon fait partie 
de l'équipe médicale en assistant aux 
c1iniques où elle discute des problèmes 
sociaux des patients déjà connus ou de 
nouveaux patients référés par Ie mé- 
decin. La travailleuse sociale rencon- 
trera aussi les problèmes des patients 
que l'intìrl11ière essaie de référer pour 
tìns de contrô!e ou de traitcment et 
qui s'y retusent. Pour différentes rai- 
sons un patient peut résister aux con- 
yocations que lui adresse l'intìrl11ière; 
soit qu'il n'ait pas l'argent nécessaire à 
son transport, soit qu'il craigne Ie 
diagnosl ic elu médecin, et d'autres 
encore. Devant Ct''' difficultés, la tra- 
vailleuse sociale pnurra organiser un 
transport soit par l'entrel11i:-;e ell' chauf- 
feur bén:Y(}le ou en prncurant au pa- 
tient l'argent nécessaire à un billet de 
transport, dans d'autres cas, en inter- 
prétant Ie patient au l11édecin ou vice- 
Le Service Social 1Iédical auprès 
 cancéreux s'effectue dans un c1imat 
psychologique "I}t
cial dû à la nature 
mênw du cancer: mal insiclieux, mys- 
, reclo1.1tahle. 
T ,c cancén'ux ,'it intérieurel11ent un 
drame, il Ie vit seul la plupart du 
ÌI.:Ill}Js. II ignore son état, il est référé 
très souvent à un stacIe avancé ou 
terminal de h maladie. Le cancéreux 
est exp()sé it J'aigreur, à la dépre
morale. Son état chronique contre lc- 
que! la science ne peut rien parfois, lui 
suggèn' des sentiment" ell' rejet on de 
cnlpahilité s'il a trop retarclé à yoir 
Ie médecin. 
Du p01l1t de ,'ue de la travaiJleusc 

APRIL. 1956 . Vol. 52. 
o. 4 

sociale, Ie fait que It- patient Ignore 
sun état }Jrésente des difficu1té
ciales: Ie patient s'entretient dans un 
état d'illusioll ,'is-à-vis sa guérison, il 
s'acharnc au repos alors qu'il pourrait 
encore tra, ail1er un pen ou ai(h
r son 
entourage. il réclame la sun'eil1ance 
con stante des médecins. 
Parce que les cas sont souvent ré- 
férés au 
en"ice social à un stade 
avancé de la maladie. ils sont suiyis 
par la travaillcuse snciale jusqu'à leur 
décès. Disons que le sen-ice va au-delà 
tlu décès assez soun'nt, pour la rénrga- 
nisation du fonT. 
Enumérons ;naintenant les différents 
sen'ices que la trayaillense sociale est 
susceptihle ò.e renc1re aux cancéreux. 
Ces services qui ne sont pas exclusifs 
aux cancéreux clemandent dans leur 
cas Une ap}Jroche spécia1e à cause des 
préjugés du patient. Combien de pa- 
tients présentant une tnmeur redoutent 
l'intervention chirurgicale paITe qu'- 
elle va "réyeilier" ]e cancer. I1 y aura 
donc comme services: .. 
1. C"1l support é11lotiOlI11I1P/ deyant la 
crainte du traitement, de l'inten ention 
Ce support émotionne1, la travailleuse 
sociale l'ofhe au patient dans une à 
plusieurs entreyues se10n Ie cas. II con- 
siste en un lien de con fiance que la 
tra,-aillt:use sociale établit a,"ec Ie patient 
pour lui pcrmettre d'exprimer ses an- 
'\.iétés, ses difficultés, l'aider à les envi- 
sager et les solutionner, lci donc entrent 
en j eu les techniques propres au service 
social personnel. 
2. L'illterprétatiml de ces mêmes trai- 
tements à la famille du patient qui peut 
au bien renforcer les préjugés du patient 
ou raider à les C(Jmhattre, 
3. Lt' slIppnrt 111 oral au patient qu'il 
faut préparer à e11\'isager la mort. 
-k Le .wpp,)rt à la f/ll1lil/c de\ant Ie 
pronostic fatal chez un de <>es memhres. 
5. Lc placcl/lcllt CII illSfillttioll. 
6. L'ormmisafinl1 dcs tr(//Jsports 
pour la ,"isite it la cliniqut' ou pour Ie" 
traitemcnts de radiothérapie. Cn patient 
peut an,ir des traitcments quotidiens 
pendant plllsiellrs sC'maine
Î_ L's SOi'7
 à dnl1licilc: ce sera des 

nins de propreté, l'administratioll d'in- 
jectioll" de sédatifs ('ontre les douleurs 
rlev('l1ues ill:olérahles. Quelqucfois, la 
,"isite d'uT1 médecin de l'hcipital qlland 
Ie patient Il \.'st p!lIS ell \11c"ure eJ'(.t rc 
t ra""porté. 


8. Lcs sCY'l'ices d'zme aide-do'mestiquc 
pour permettre à la patiente d'assurer en 
même temps l'entretien de sa maison et 
la poursuite de son traitement niédical. 
Ce service est plus indispensable quand 
la patiente en traitement trouve son 
gagne-pain dans la location de chambres 
Qu'elle ne peut négliger si elle veut con- 
server ses chambres. 
9. Let réhabilitation: ce service laisse 
peut-être un peu sceptique quanel il est 
confronté avec Ie diagnostic de cancer. 
En effet dans une grande proportion de 
cas, la réhabilitation consistera en une 
aide financière qui permettra de vivre 
convenablement jusqu'au tenne fatal. 
Ces besoins que la travailleuse so- 
ciale rencontre font appel aux res- 
sources communautaires. 
J e puis dire que la communauté 
répond généreusement à la détresse du 
cancéreux. Vous avez déjà songé à la 
Société Canadienne du Cancer, au 
Cancer Aid League et aux autres or- 
ganisations sociales qui mains directe- 
ment que celles déjà citées contribuent 
aussi au bien-être du patient. La So- 
ciété Canadienne du Cancer rend des 
services sans lesquels il ne serait pas 
possible d'assister convenablement Ie 
Cette société offre différents services 
grâce à l'initiative personnelle de la 
direct rice des Services de bien-être. 
ElIe a su s'aeljoindre des auxiliaires 
cIairvoyantes et dévouées pour la for- 
mation de services teIs, Ie Centre d'in- 
formation de la rue Papineau, Ie 
Service des pièces à pansement, Ie 
Service des chauffeurs bénévoles, etc. 
La Société Canadienne du Cancer ré- 
pond financièrement aux hesoins des 
transports, remèdes et diètes spéciales, 
eIle supplémente des pensions en 

 ursing Home, aide du foyer. 
Pour illustrer un peu l'efficacité des 

tTvices renelus mentionnons en pas- 
sant que Ie Service des pansements 
prépare et envoie des pansements à 
550 patients par mois et qu'un même 
patient peut bénéficier de ce service 
gratuit au-delà d'un an et plus suivant 

la durée de la maladie. 
L'époque des Fêtes évoque encore 
Ie souvenir de Paniers de Noël à nos 
cancéreux indigents - une trentaine 
de patients cancéreux de l'hôpital 
N otre- Dame ont eu un N oël plus gai 
grâce à ces généreuses auxiliaires de 
la Société Canadicnne du Cancer. 
Le Cancer Aid League a récemment 
doté I'hôpital 1\ otre- Dame d'un don 
de treize cents dollars généreusement 
mis à la disposition elu patient can- 
Gne autre organisation sociale que 
je tiens à souligner pour ses services 
assidus et discrets, la Société ell'S 
Infinnières Visiteuses. Par les soins 
de ses infirmières à domicile, la So- 
ciété des Infirmières Visiteuses, assure 
Ie confort <Iu patient, lui est en quelque 
sorte un prolongement de I'hôpital. Le 
patient qui quitte l'hôpital et doit con- 
tinuer certains traitemel1ts, soit pan- 
sements, injections ou autre et tout 
rassuré si la travaiIIeuse sociale lui 
promet la visite de l'infirmière visi- 
tense. Et qu' elles soiel1t félicitées de 
leur diligence. Comhien de famiIles 
n'auraient pas la même acceptation du 
patient cancéreux, alité, si eIles n'a- 
vaient Ie support sympathique de 
l'infinnière visiteuse? 
Te veux aussi mentionner l'ordre des 
FiÌJes d'!sabelle qui par ses différents 
cercIes offre des dons en argent utilisés 
à compléter I'achat d'articIes dispen- 
dieux nécessaires aux malades. 
Voilà une énumération éloquente de 
services offerts aux cancéreux; je suis 
la première à m'en réjouir. Cependant, 
comme travailleuse sociale, je réalise 
de plus en plus à leur contact, que les 
patients cancéreux vivent ell'S émotions 
qu'il est difficile de saisir. Si souvent, 
leur état d'âme nous échappe; nous 
ne pouvon<; nous tromper en leur té- 
moignant une affection sincère. 
Comme infirmières et travailleuses 
sociales, nos rôles sont différents 
auprés du patient mais se rejoignent 
puisse notre désir de l'aider nous 
unit et renforce notre effort. 

A simple, 90 per cent accurate blood test 
to help determine whether a patient has 
rheumatoid arthritis has been made avail- 
able to physicians all over the country. This 
test is especially valuable in detecting the 


disease in its early stages. It depends on 
the fact that sensitized sheep blood cells 
will clump when in contact with serum from 
a rheumatoid arthritis patient. 
- Scope TVeekly 


nUßslnß EDUCATion 

Adventures In Science Teaching 


T HESE ADYEN1.TRES had their begin- 
ning in a feeling of dissatisfaction 
on the part of the writer - dissatisfac- 
tion with the quality of the teaching 
being given in the sciences. basic to 
good nursing practice. Doubt was fos- 
tered by disinterest, indifference and 
low quality learning on the pa rt of the 
students whose common complaint was 
"we don't see whv we have to learn all 
that stuff." At ::\Icl\laster. we have a 
problem not common to many schools 
of nursing, namely, that at least part 
of the teaching in basic sciences is 
diyorced from nursing practice. The 
sciences (anatomy, physiology, micro- 
biology, and introductory pathology) 
are taught in an integrated course 
during the first two years of uni,'ersity 
studies and, as such, are correlated 
with courSeS in the other science areas 
chiefly chemistry (inorganic, organic. 
and biochemistry). This means that 
during the first the students have 
no contact at all with nursing practice: 
in the second year, contact is limited 
to one day per week during th<: aca- 
demic term following a brief sumnwr 
period at the end of the first year. 
The problem simplv stated was - 
"how can we make learning meaning- 
ful under these circumstances?" For- 
tunately, we .are in a unique position, 
rclatiyelv free of traditional influences 
and with a wide measure of indepen- 
dence in planning and formulating 
teaching methods and experiences. 
Pondering on the question, common to 
some of the readers, we formulated 
three objecti\'es toward which to 
work: . 

Iiss Alderson is a lecturer on the 
Nursing Faculty of 1fc
laster Uniyer- 
sity, Hamilton, Ontario. 

APRIL, 1956 · Vol. 52, No.4 

(1) To improve the Quality of mean- 
ings, moving progressively toward a 
fuIler understanding for each individual 
and fostering self-maturity. 
(2) To help the student see how the 
subject matter functions before she 
uses it, thus arousing in her a need for 
(3) To deviate from the traditional 
learning-centred curriculum, as one edu- 
cator says "to unfix the ends." 
An institute held at the university a 
year ago on the "case .and jncid
method of teaching" stimulated think- 
ing. \Vhy could not cases and incidents 
be used in science teaching? As we 
thought of this idea \ye decided it had 
merit and could be used as a "spring- 
board" so to speak. \Ve could not, 
however, use the terms or techniques 
in the strict sense of the word. 
The method adopted, now in its 
second year of trial, is being con- 
stantly changed .and altered from the 
original plan and we are daily finding 
nt'w ways of developing and expanding 
its use. For claritv, the method as 
currently employed with our 1\'1:0 
groups of students will now be de- 
scribed in as much detail as possible: 

F or first vea r students, \\.ith little 
or no knO\
ledge of nursing prm- 
ciples, we use incidents selected from 
within their experience field. r .ast faU. 
after .an eight-week introductory period 
on a unit entitled "the cell. structural 
and functional unit of life." inyoh-ing 
basic microbiological. cytological. his- 
tological and physiological principles. 
the students were ready to move 
forward to the larger unit "making 
ac1justmems to the external el1\-iron- 


ment," inyoking the functioning of 
muscles, bones, joints, and nerves. 
an introduction to the unit the students 
came to cla
s prepared to discuss in as 
much detail as possible an incident 
invoh"ing "an experience with a fright- 
ening situation." An informal discus- 
sion ensued in which each student told 
"how she felt," "what she did" and 
"how she reacted" to the fear situation. 
The students were requested to note 
any feelings or reactions that they had 
in common with other members of 
their class. By the end of the presen- 
tation period, the following sensations 
or reactions had ueen recorded on the 
loss of emotional control - including 
hysteria, excitement; 
loss of intellectua] power - forgetting, 
repetition of words; 
loss of control - no sensation of what 
one was doing. running, collapse; 
feeling of coldness - whole body, hands 
shivering, cold clammy perspiration; 
other feelings - nausea, hollowness, 
dryness of mouth, muscles twitching, 
tension, shaking and weakness. fatigue, 
palpitation of heart. irregularity of pulse, 
increased rate, etc. 
ing from these common feel- 
ings or reactions the students discussed 
the question - "In order to under- 
stand these feelings or reactions what 
do you need to know?" ::\Iany answers 
were forthcoming, such as - 
Iler'Z'(JlfS system: brain and spina] cord 
structure and function, memory, aware- 
ness, recall of past experiences, etc. 
organs of reception - skin, ears, eyes, 
hasis of sCI1.mfinlls: coldness, shivering. 
dq ness of mouth. 
nrqalls of resþmlsc: heart and blood 
\"essels, lungs -- g-Iands - adrenal - 
1/luscles: contraction, rela,,-ation, in- 
creased blood supply, o"-ygen, etc. 
hn1les, 11lusrles a1ld jni1lts: how they 
function together, 
Then one student said "I'm lost. I 
don't kno,,- \,-hat we are doing!" The 
question was tunle(l hack to her class- 
mates by asking - "H U\y did vou 
hecome å\\"are 
f your fear ?" "\Vhat 
dic1 vou do as a res
llt ?" "\Yhv did vou 
respond that way?" They r
their fear experience, noting - in 
ans\,-er to the questions - 
(t) Ho\\- they became aware of their 


fear - what receptors functioned to 
make them aware of their environment. 
(2) \Vhat they did as a result - they 
experienced the above-named sensations 
and/or carried out certain acts. 
(3) \Yhy they responded in that man- 
ner - the receptor received the sti- 
mulus, carried it to the nervous centre, 
which in turn sent out messages to 
mediate the response. 
To make the relationship clearer one 
simple act was carried through, briefly, 
by the cooperative effort of students 
and teacher, step by step, from recep- 
tion to response. to illustrate the pos- 
sible pathway. The students nO\y faced 
the decision of where to hegin their 
study. '''ith almost unanimous consent 
they' c1ecided to hegin with the recep- 
tors - ear, eye, touch, etc. 
A]] must agree that, in this case, 
any previously outlined knowledge 
objectives certainly became recast and 
variable. ,\ - e hegan with material often 
considered so difficult 1)\' some instruc- 
tors that they lea\re it to the very end 
of the course. The students .and teacher 
managed the e"X.perience cooperati\Tely, 
the v found the area of need, located 
the- trial centres (methoc1s of approach) 
and decided the direction and plan of 
the work. The teacher of course, had 
to he wi]]ing to change some of the 
subject matter and to readjust some 
areas of previous teaching. 
You mav now ask "Ho\\" is such 
an experiel;ce evaluated? " The use of 
an incident or experience is continued 
into the examination period. Following 
are some excerpts from the mid-year 
e"X.amination to illustrate the technique: 
"1fary Jane. age 18 years, a pretty 
plump girl with hrown hair and eyes, is 
attending university for the first time 
this fall, She wears glasses for reading, 
About mid-tenn while attenùing a chem- 
istry ]ah. she cut the back of her hand 
rather badly with sumt:: broken glass- 
ware. She was given first aid by both 
the doctor and th
 nurse. For a few 
days all seemed well, then she noticed 
redness and s," eUing around the cut. 
accompanied by pain and tenderness. The 
doctor ordered her to hospital for treat- 
rnen 1." 
2. Jfar)' 'ü'orc f/í(lss{'s for readillq, (IS 
she suffered frnm hyperopia. 
(1) \Vhat is this condition? Describe 
the mechanism briefly. 
1ary's eyeball structurally consists 


of several kinds of tissue. \ Vhat is the 
function of each kind of tissue italici:;ed? 
a. sclera - 'White fibrous C01Hlccti'i.'e 
b. ciliary body - smooth muscle 
c. lens capsule - clastic c01Hlecti'i.'c 
d. conjunctiva -- simpie squamous cpi- 
e, retina - IICr'i.'OUS tissuc 
f. tarsal plates - 7.l'ilite fibrocartilage 
(3) List the structures in order through 
\\ hich a ray of light \\ ould pass in order 
to reach 
Iary's retina. \\That is the 
function of each? 
( 4) Differentiate between the function 
of the rods and the cones. 
3, The fnllO'l('illg structures of the skin 
7.cere injured b;}.' the wt. \Vhat is the 
function of each? 
(1) stratum corneum 
(2) stratum granulosum 
( 3) dermis 
( 4) sebaceous glands 
(5) hair 
6, nOhile ill hospital receh'ing treatmcllt 
Jlary dC'i/eloped an illfection of the res- 
piratory system caused by a 7.'irus. 
(1) \Vhat is a s} stem? 
(2) \\That is the function of the respira- 
tory system? 
( 3) \Vhat do you understand by each 
of the terms used in the definition of a 
\-irus - "a virus is an ultramicroscopic, 
filtrable, intracellular parasite, producing 
inclusion bodies." 
(-t) During her infection all 
food seemed tasteless. Explain. Classify 
taste sensations. ' 
Describe briefly the structure of a 
taste bud. How does it function? etc. 

Your next question undoubtedly 
will he - "\Yhere do vou intend to 
go from this point?" "The students 
have expressed unanimous desire and 
m for their course of action 
- to proceed with the study of the 
hrain and its mechanism. Following a 
l)rief introductorv class in which an 
0' en'ie\\" of the {\"twle nervous svstem 
",ill be pre
ented, the teacher ar1"d the 
students will ag-ain plan cooperatively 
to meet the 1111l11ediate problems in- 
volved in studying this more advanced 
aspect of the original problem. Thus, 
1earning- becomes a series of need- 
nces selected and developed 
through a circular learnin
toward need-fulfillment. under the 
guidance of a mature adult who mean- 
while is developing expertness in heJp- 

.APRIL. 1956 . vof, S2. No.4 

ing them unùerstand, accept, and use 
such a method. 

For more ad,'anced students who 
have had some contact with actual 
nursing practice. case histories are 
used to good advantage. The histories 
are selected if pússible from among the 
patients the students are nursing, pre- 
ferably one that is familiar to several 
students. The histories should be real. 
They are used to introduce new units 
of ,,\-ork. stimulate informal group dis- 
cussions or to provide settings for 
e\Oaluation of learning. Before giving 
an example of this kind of planning, 
I would like to emphasize that only 
introductory pathology is taught and 
discussions do not involve theorv or 
practice of any aspect of nursing. "'The 
unit on "bodv defense mechanisms" 
was introduced bv a brief summarv of 
three case históries, two of which 
follow, and the film "Bodv Defenses 

\gainst Disease." - 
Case # J. l1rs. King, age 31 years was 
first admitteò to a general hospital on 
October 17, 1955. She \'vas complaining 
of severe and intermittent pain of five 
weeks duration in her right upper qua- 
drant. \Vhile in hospital. removal of her 
gallblaòder resulted in disappearance of 
her pain. The pain recurred, however, 
within three weeks, with some evidence 
of relationship with food intake. and was 
accompanied by jaundice, nausea and 
She underwent surgery on Octoher 23, 
1955 for removal of a gallstone in the 
biliary duct. On Octoher 3D, 1955 there 
was redness around the incision with a 
drainage of yellow pus from the wound, 
T.P.R. (ad) 98 0 - 84 - 20 
October 30. 1955 - 101 0 
Culture report of drainage - staphy- 
lococcus allrelf... he11l01'j,ticlls. 
Sensitivity of organism - resistant to 
penicillin, moderately sensitive to strep- 
tomycin. highly sensitive to aureomycin, 
terram} cin. chloromycetin, and erythro- 
Case # 2. 
Ir. Hill. age 57 years. ad- 
mitted September 16, 1955. History of 
right lo\\er quadrant abscess with puru- 
lent drainage and some frank bleeding 
follov.'ing operation three weeks ago. 
Area O\"er right hip hot. red. ancl swol- 


T.P.R. (ad) 99.4 0 - 104 - 1
. .-\rea was 
incised and drained. 
Laboratory reports - 
Prc- Post- 
operatively operativel}' 
Red blood count 3,680,000 4.280,000 
\Vhite blood count 22,400 6,800 
Polymorphs 97% 
Hemoglobin 68% 730/0 
Culture and sensitivity tests - 
Coliform bacillus - highly sensItive 
to chloromycetin, resistant to all 
other antibiotics 
Streptococcus faNalis - moderately 
sensitive to aureomycin, terramycin, 
chloromycetin and erythromycin. 
Informal group discussion followed, 
stimulated by the question, "\Yhat do 
vou need to understand in order to 
Intelligently nurse these patients?" 
The teacher acted as recorder. By 
the end of the discussion period the 
foIlO\ving items had heen listed on the 
origin and properties - staphylococ- 
cus, colon hacillus, streptococcus faccalis 
resistance - patient vs organism 
antibiotics and sensitivity tests 
wound organisms -aerobic and ane- 
normal body flora - when does flora 
become pathogenic? \\That conditions 
predispose to this? 
signs and symptoms of infectioli 
reaction of the body to infection 
general vs local 
defense mechanisms - including liver 
and spleen 
causes of disease - direct \"S indirect 
antibiotics \"s antibodies 
antibodies - chemical nature, dura- 
tion, nature of activity, origin, kinds 
organisms - destruction, environmen- 
tal needs, growth on media, morphology, 
pure ys mixed culture, pathogenesis 
how microorganisms are killed 
physical agents - heat, cold, light, 
chemical agents - antiseptics and 
disinfectants. sulpha drugs 
how microorganisms enter the body, 
huw they spread within the hody, now 
they leave the body 
how the environment is made safe - 
care of òressings, instruments, wounds, 
hands, dishes 
how microorganisms are transmitted. 
Here it might he pointed out that 
it is sometimes helpful to analyze his- 


tories under three headings: 
(1) Things we already know ur under- 
(2) Things we don't know or under- 
stand but know where to find the 
(3) Things we don't know or under- 
stand and òon't know where to' 
find the answers. 
This analysis of histories encourages 
the student since she identifies areas 
in which she feels confident, while 
pointing out her deficiencies. Follow- 
ing the analysis the group planned 
cooperatively as to where, when, and 
how thev would meet their needs. In 
this case: some topics were noted to be 
covered bv formal lecture presentation, 
some by - laboratory experiences and 
others 6" informal group discussions. 
The students first decided where thev 
wished to begin - with a lecturë'- 
discussion period on the "causes of 
dis(.ase, predisposing and direct." Fur- 
ther lecture periods dealt with the 
overall results of disease - the body's 
reaction to disease, passive, specific 
(local and general) and nonspecific 
(including the alarm reaction); the 
reparative process, local and genera.l, 
including immunity and hypersensI- 
tivity, and the general principles under- 
lying disease transmission, co
prevention. Informal group dIscussIOn 
dealt with topics already somewhat 
familiar to the students, e.g.. defense 
mechanisms and antibody formation. 
A reference list of suitable readings 
,,'as made available to help in answer- 
ing questions and to stimula.te furt
thinking. Laboratory experIences In- 
cluded a study of v.;cund pathogens 
(aerohic and anerobic) , sensitivity 
testing with antibiotics. determination 
of normal hodv flora. preparation of a 
hacterial van'ine, study of commercial 
preparations of ,"accines and ar:tise.ra, 
tests einployed for the determmat.lOn 
of antibodies in the hlood sera, phYSIcal 
and chemical means of destruction and 
control and finallv the studv and eval- 
uation of a nursing procedure invol- 
ving either medical or surgical aseptic 
technique. It will be noted by many 
readers that in this study the case 
 and resulting learning process 
invoked somewhat more microbiology 
than physiology t)t
t this situation could 
''''"ell be reversed In the next prohlem 
the students attempt to solve. 

t. , 



\Vhat was achieved by these adven- 
tures? By these methods - either the 
incident or the case history - the 
students were stimulated to develop a 
"need". A need is defined as "some 
inner drive or force within an indivi- 
dual impelling him to the action 
observed by outsiders and indicating 
to them the nature of his learning.3" 
The need arose out of the interaction 
of the student with the case historv or 
the incident. It arose because 
lacked experience to meet the situation 
provided, her previous experiences 
lacking quality. she must now find new 
and more satisfying experiences to 
solve the problem_ The need will lead 
from present meanings to action, de- 
,'eloping along the way inadequate 
answers, which in turn will stimulate 
ne\\" needs, demanding new eXDeriences 
with better meanings and improved 
actions and. finally a measure of se1f- 
maturity in an organized whole. l\Iean- 
while everyone in the group has be- 
come more conscious of what, why, 
and how he selects meanings which 
are valuable enough to accept and 
retain. 2 
In conclusion may I say that this 
method has brought rich rewards both 
for students and teacher. For the 
student. it develops a goal for learning. 
She now learns because learning has 
þ,ken on new meaning; she sees clearly 
the value and use of what she learns. 
Aspf'cts of situations in which the in- 
dividual makes no response can no 
long-er exist, and in satisfying her 
need she extends the range and accu- 
racy of her meanings. Furthermore. 
she develops ability in assessing a 
problem and planning a course of 
action in terms of desirable outcomes. 
She will be the better ahle to function 
as a mature individual when she is no 
long-er under the direct guidance of her 
teachers. Finallv she has learned to 
cooperate in !!r
up actiyities, to func- 
tion as a member of a group. accepting- 
a resnonsibility for group discussion 
and the outcomes of group action. 
For the teacher, there is the reward 
of high quality learning_ Students \york 
harder and learn more than before; 
th<,y pursue topics to a level of knO\d- 
edge and understanding that you didn't 
believe possible. Discussions han' spark 

APRIL, 1956 · Vol. 52, No.4 

and enthusiasm because all participants 
are keenly interested and a!ive ; there is 
no more dozing in class. Evaluation of 
previous learning and the avoidance of 
dull repetition is easier. Teaching is no 
longer stereotyped - lesson so and so 
on such and such a day - because you 
no longer know just \\'hat each session 
will bring forth. You are helping to 
develop personalities and to assist them 
in attaining new le\-els of maturity - 
students awaken and blossom under 
the experience. Discipline is no longer 
a problem and you shed the cloak of 
authoritarianism to become a member 
of the group, all of you working 
toward a common end. 
But do not misunderstand! There 
will be moments when you wish you 
could go back to the safety of plan- 
ned, detailed lessons. Certainlv there 
\ViII be misgi\-ings and difficult(es. The 
method is time-consuming and some- 
times ,"ou will have to be satisfied with 
achievIng less, but it wiII be of a 
higher calibre. You cannot arrange 
outside help - audiovisual aids, spe- 
cial lectures, supplies and materials as 
easily. You must be sufficiently pre- 
pared in your subject matter that you 
can meet the needs and questions of 
the group at all times or at least know 
where vou can find a solution to the 
problen;s which arise. l\Ieanwhile you 
\ViII want to keep within the frame- 
work of the broad areas in your over- 
all plan and maintain a measure of 
continuity, scope and balance. You 
must be prepared to develop weIl all 
the techniques and qualities of a good 
leader - a leader who is a better 
teacher because she has helped others 
to respect their experiences and them- 
selves through application of all of the 
principles of good leader
I feel that we have just begun to 
explore this method as it applies to 
science teaching. \Ve have much to 
learn, many difficulties to surmount 
and many moments of doubt ahead_ 
Howeyer if, through the use of thi
method. \ye are able to raise the level 
of maturih' of our students. to offer 
them gTeater opportunity to discover. 
release, and develop their potential 
capacities toward evcr higher len'ls of 
self-enhanccmcnt, then we will be 
amply rewarded. For those who may 
wish to enter upon this ach"enture I 


t that they may find help in 
sfully achie\"ing their goal by 
consulting some of the references listed 
at the end of this article. To each 
;1ch-enturer - the best of luck and 
happy yoyagl' ! 
1. Hopkins, L. Thomas, The Emerging 
Self, N e\\" York: Harpers and Bros.. 
2_ Hupkins, L. Thomas, "Keeds and In- 

tereslS. :\ Sufficient Basis for the 
Elementary School Curriculum," 
SellOnlmcn's "Trek ProccL'din.CJS, 1952 
( Reprint) . 
3. Jersild, Arthur T., In Search of Self. 
Xe\\" York: Bureau of Publications, 
Teachers' College, 1952. 
4. Snygg. Donald and Combs, :\rthur 
\Y., Individual Behaviour. New York: 
Harper and Bros., 19

A Venture In Field Experience 
for Graduate Nurses 

IOYRA. ..\LLE:\, l\I.A. 

 TCr-;E, 1955. the first year of a 
1H'"'w course in teaching and ward 
management in medical-surgical nurs- 
ing, was completed at the school for 
Graduate X urses, 
IcGin "Cniversity, 
The field ""ork was carried on in a 
400-bed, general hospital with a small 
school of nursing. Two groups of grad- 
uate nurSe students were involved, 20 
students in the diploma program in 
medical-surgical nursing and four stu- 
dents in the final year of the degree 
program in nursing education and ad- 
ministration in hospitals and schools 
of nursing. The second group was 
responsible for the guidance and super- 
yision of the first group. and the work 
of both groups was coordinated by 
members of the university staff. Con- 
siderable assi
tance. also, -was received 
from the director of nursing of the 
hospital and her staff. 
The field work was planned at every 
stage of development with hoth groups 
of students. As they could not all par- 
ticipate in each actiyity. the students 
selected projects in \\"hich they were 
interested. A rotation plan was set 
up so that each student \nmld know 
her activities for the month and the 
time inten"al for each activity. Ap- 
proximately one-half of the student's 

l1iss Allen is assistant professor in 
charge of the 
Ieòical-Surgical Nursing 
program at the School for Graduate 
Nurses, l1cGill Cniversity, 


time was devoted to projects In ward 
management and the other half to 
classroom teaching and clinical instruc- 
tion. The first two days of the fielei 
work experience were sÍ)ent in orienta- 
tion to tIlE' hospital, the nursing service 
and the school of nursing. 

\ V ARD :\1 A r-; AGEMEKT 
During the one-month pcriocl it was 
not practical to expect students to 
administer or assist in the management 
uf a \\'ard; however, it was possible 
to analyze various aspects of ward 
managTment. The methods used should 
he valuahle to the student in stueiying 
her uwn \yard situation at a later date. 
A "Head I\ urse Study" was plan- 
ned and carried uut by all members 
of the diploma group tinder the guid- 
ance of one of the students in the final 
yea r of the degree program. The ob- 
jecti\ es of this study were: 
1. To assess the level of the activities 
of the head nurse and the amount of 
time spent in clctivities at each level. 
2, To determine the acti\ ities of the 
head nurse and the amount of time spent 
in each acti\"ity. 
This was a time studv in which the 
head nurse was ohserverl continuously 
for a period of 16 days. The periods 
of ubservation were from 7 :00 a.m. to 
11 :00 a.m. ;Jnd from 11 :00 a.m. to 
3 :00 p.m. Each student observed th(' 
head nurse for two consecutive pe- 


rioel:.;. one period one day and the 
second on the following day. The areas 
of activitv and the levels of acti,'itv 
har! been- agreed upon prior to the 
study. The reliability of this study was 
probably decreaserl due to the difficulty 
of the 
tudents in judging the level 
of :,ome of the activities of the head 
nurse. As all students observed the 
head nur:,e. another variable was 
added. Its influence on the findings 
was recognized but for the purpose 
of this study the emphasis was on 
Table T shows the level of activity 
performed by the head nurse and th
per cent distrihution of time devoted 
to each level. It may be noted that 
65.91 r ( of the time wãs spent in activ- 
ities considered to he of the head nurse 
level. while 17.0'(- ,,'as devoted to the 
ward clerk level and 12.64
 to the 
unit nursing staff level. 


The P cr Cel/ t Distribution of Head 
Xltrse Time b).' Level of Activity in One 
G('I/eral Hospital ill 1933. 

Level of Activity 

Time in Per Cent 

Head nurse 
Cnit nursing staff 
\Yard clerk 
Other levels 

65.91 % 

Fig'lre I The Per Cent Distribll..ti01
Head Nurse Time by Level of Activity 
in Qlle General Hospital in 1955. 

APRIL, 1956. VoL 52, No.4 

The remaining 4.45 was classified as 
other levels. 
Table II shows the areas of activity 
and the proportion of time given to 
each area. Almost one-half of the head 
nurse's time (49.275-0) was devoted 
to patient care, as compared with 
16.80c(- devoted to ward administra- 
tion and 10.41 C {.. to personnel admin- 
istration. Personal and other time 
amounted to 23.52 0 (". 


The Per Cent Distribution of Head 
-"urse Time b}' Area of Activity in Oue 
Gelleral Hospital in 1955. 

Area of Activity 

Time in 
Per Cent 

Patient care 
\Vard administration 
Personnel administration 




* Inclusive of lunch and coffee time. 

Figure II The Per Cent Distribution of 
H ('ad l\-urse Time by Area of Acth'ity in 
Onl! Gelleral H osþital i1

An "
-\nalysis of Activities at the 
Patient's Bedside" was another study 
planned and carried out by the diploma 
students under the guidance of one 
of the students in the final year of the 



A Comþarison of the Average of Nltrsill.Q Care Recál'Cd per Patielft 'with the Amount 
of Time Available þer Patient from 7:00 A.111. to 3:00 P.M. on a Male and Female Ward 
in One General Hospital in 1955. 

Average Amount of Time in :Minutes 

Ward Nursing Care Received Nursing Care Available 
Per Patient Per Patient* 
Male 62.4 180.5 
Female 66.9 176.7 

* Exclusive of lunch and coffee time. 

degree program. The objectives of this 
study were: 
1. To determine the amount of nurs- 
ing care given a patient at the bedside. 
2. To determine the time spent in the 
performance of each of six different 
areas of nursing care by each staff mem- 
ber at the bedside. 
3. To compare the amount of time 
spent at the bedside with the amount 
of staff time available. 
4. To determine the average length of 
each contact and the number of contacts 
per patient by each category of staff. 
The method used ,vas a spot study 
of ohservation units at fifteen-minute 
intervals, and included all the patients 
in two general medical-surgical wards. 
Areas of nursing care were dassified 
under two headings - physical care 
and verbal interaction. Physical care 
Routine nursing care - bed bath, 
back rub, making bed, arranging unit, 
taking temperature, giving or removing 
food tray, giving and removing bedpan. 
Special nursing procedures or treat- 
ments - enema, catheterization, blood 
pressure, changing dressing, hot com- 
presses, medications, giving injections, 
obser\"ation of postoperative patient. 
Indirect activities - accompanying 
(loctor on rounds, assisting doctor with 
treatments, taking patients to x-ray, 
bringing in mail or flowers to patient, 
taking equipment to or from bedside, 
checking clothing, having patient sign 
admission slip, charting at bedside, read- 
ing with patient. 
Verbal interaction included: 
Procedural -. seeking, receiving, Or 


giving information concerning physical 
care, treatment or test. 
Pers01lal - greetings, joking, discus- 
sion of events in hospital or outside life, 
discussion of own or patient's feelings, 
recreational interests and skills, any 
friendly or personal conversation. 
Teaching - specific information given 
by the nurse related to the patient's 
or his family's general health or specific 
health needs. 
Table III shows a comparison of 
the average amount of nursing care 
received by each patient, male and 
female, with the amount of staff time 
availab!e from 7 :00 a.m. to 3 :00 p.m. 
It is interesting to note that more than 
one-haH of the available staff time is 
spent away from the bedside. 
Table IY shows the analysis of this 
care given by the various categories 
of staff. 
The average number of contacts of 
nursing staff with a patient from 7 :00 
a.m. to 3 :00 p.m. on a male ward was 
32.7, the average duration of each 
contact was 1.9 minutes. The average 
numher of contacts on a female ward 
for the same period was 31.1, the 
duration of each contact was 2.1 
Further projects induded an analy- 
sis of nurses' notes and morning 
report, an analysis of the method of 
recording doctor's orders and a study 
of the procedure for the administration 
of medications. 

Students in the final year of the 



The Distribution of Average JIiuutes of Nursing Care Given by Each Category of Staff at 
the Patimt's Bedside, .Hale alld Female, from 7:00 A..\l. to 3:00 P.M., in a General Hospital 
ill 1955. 

A verage Amount of 
Time in Minutes 

Category of Staff 'hIe Female 
Head X urse 1.0 20 
Registered Nurse 22,0 33.1 
Senior Student 13.9 5.8 
Tunior Student 11.8 13.5 
Nursing Assistant ï.1 10.1 
Maid 3,3 2.4 
Orderly 3.3 - 
Total 62.4 66.9 

degree program supervi
ed the stu- 
dents in clinical instruction in each 
of two medical-surgical units. Each 
supervisor was responsible for three 
graduate nurse students and each of 
these was responsible for one student 
nurse in the clinical instruction pro- 
gram. The activities in clinical instruc- 
tion included: 
1. Determining the objectives of clin- 
ical instruction in the unit. 
2. Planning and carrying out an 
orientation program for new students. 
laking out the student's assign- 
4. Guiding, supen ising and assisting 
students to: 
a) assess the needs of patients and 
to determine the nursing care to 
meet these needs, 
b) make a nursing care plan for 
each patient. 
c) organize the care of their pa- 
d) give nursing care, 

APRIL. 1956 . Vol. 52, No.4 

e) make a plan for patient teaching, 
f) plan and give a nursing care 
g) evaluating the student's progress 
through observation, anecdotal 
notes, progress conferences and 
summary reports. 
Each of the clinical instructors 
taught a class in medical-surgical nurs- 
ing during this period and set test 
questions on the material that she had 
presented. As they were familiar with 
the patients in the wards, the teachers 
were able to take the students on nurs- 
ing rounds to obsen-e patients with 
conditions similar to those which they 
,,'ere studying. Similar projects in 
clinical instruction were carried on bv 
one student in the operating room an
two in the outpatient department. 
In another study the students ana- 
lyzed the learning experiences available 
for student nurses in the two medical- 
surgical units. It was both a quan- 
(Please turn to page 292) 


_ ---
./ l
prepared by your notional offi(e Canadian Nurses' Asso(iotion, Ottowa 

::- .... . 


fJ,I eeting Place 
Ottawa was the centre of acti ,"ity in 
February - nursing activity that i
as your CX A. Executive Committee 
met- for three days. Knowledge of the 
meetings was not confined to nursing 
circles alune, for due to constant press 
coverage, the citizens knew that they 
were hosts to 35 nursing leaders ,,'hose 

ok purpose here was to discuss and 
plan towards better nursing :o.en,ice for 
all Canadians. 

W hat was Decided? 
In the realm of nursing sen'ice itself,